Abstract

It has been hypothesized that brightness judgments require an estimate of the illuminant. Making this estimate is difficult since luminance edges can be the result of changes in either illumination or reflectance. Articulation is the addition of equally spaced incremental and decremental patches within a surround while preserving the surround’s space-average luminance. It is proposed that articulation enhances the inference that the surround’s luminance edge is due to a change in illumination rather than in reflectance. Articulation results in a corresponding shift in brightness judgments for test-patch increments but not for decrements. This finding concurs with Arend and Goldstein’s [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2281 (1987)] reported shifts in brightness as simple center-surround stimuli are transformed into more complex ecologically valid Mondrians.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. K. Shevell, “On neural signals that mediate brightness,” Vision Res. 26, 1195–1208 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Whittle, P. D. C. Challands, “The effect of background luminance on the brightness of flashes,” Vision Res. 9, 1095–1110 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “Brightness contrast from inhomogeneous surrounds,” Vision Res. 36, 1783–1796 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Burzlaff, “Methodologische beitrage zum Problem der Farbenkonstanz,” Z. Psychol. 119, 117–235 (1931).
  5. J. Cataliotti, A. Gilchrist, “Local and global processes in surface lightness perception,” Percept. Psychophys. 57, 125–135 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. E. Arend, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous constancy, lightness, and brightness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2281–2285 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 1. Illuminance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 446–456 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. L. Gilchrist, S. Delman, A. Jacobsen, “The classification and integration of edges as critical to the perception of reflectance and illumination,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 425–436 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 2. Reflectance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 457–468 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “Lightness and brightness judgments of coplanar retinally noncontiguous surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2442–2452 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Whittle, “Brightness, discriminability and the ‘crispening effect’,” Vision Res. 32, 1493–1507 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. Hochberg, A. Silverstein, “A quantitative index of stimulus-similarity proximity vs. differences in brightness,” Am. J. Psychol. 69, 456–458 (1956).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. K. Noguchi, A. Kozaki, “Perceptual scission of surface-lightness and illumination: an examination of the Gelb effect,” Psychol. Res. 47, 19–25 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. A. Schirillo, “Surround articulation. II. Lightness judgments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 804–811 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “An account of brightness in complex scenes based on inferred illumination,” Perception 26, 507–518 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kingdom, “Simultaneous contrast: the legacies of Hering and Helmholtz,” Perception 26, 673–677 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996 (2)

A. F. Rossi, C. D. Rittenhouse, M. A. Paradiso, “The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex,” Science 273, 1104–1107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “Brightness contrast from inhomogeneous surrounds,” Vision Res. 36, 1783–1796 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. Cataliotti, A. Gilchrist, “Local and global processes in surface lightness perception,” Percept. Psychophys. 57, 125–135 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 1. Illuminance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 446–456 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 2. Reflectance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 457–468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “Lightness and brightness judgments of coplanar retinally noncontiguous surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2442–2452 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. Whittle, “Brightness, discriminability and the ‘crispening effect’,” Vision Res. 32, 1493–1507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

C. Chubb, G. Sperling, J. A. Solomon, “Texture interactions determine perceived contrast,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 9631–9635 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

A. L. Gilchrist, “Lightness contrast and failures of constancy: a common explanation,” Percept. Psychophys. 43, 415–424 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

S. K. Shevell, “On neural signals that mediate brightness,” Vision Res. 26, 1195–1208 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

K. Noguchi, A. Kozaki, “Perceptual scission of surface-lightness and illumination: an examination of the Gelb effect,” Psychol. Res. 47, 19–25 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

A. L. Gilchrist, S. Delman, A. Jacobsen, “The classification and integration of edges as critical to the perception of reflectance and illumination,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 425–436 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

P. Whittle, P. D. C. Challands, “The effect of background luminance on the brightness of flashes,” Vision Res. 9, 1095–1110 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

1963 (1)

H. W. Horeman, “Inductive brightness depression as influenced by configurational conditions,” Vision Res. 3, 121–130 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

D. Jameson, L. Hurvich, “Complexities of perceived brightness,” Science 133, 174–179 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1956 (1)

J. Hochberg, A. Silverstein, “A quantitative index of stimulus-similarity proximity vs. differences in brightness,” Am. J. Psychol. 69, 456–458 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1943 (1)

1931 (1)

W. Burzlaff, “Methodologische beitrage zum Problem der Farbenkonstanz,” Z. Psychol. 119, 117–235 (1931).

Arend, L. E.

L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 1. Illuminance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 446–456 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 2. Reflectance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 457–468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous constancy, lightness, and brightness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2281–2285 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burzlaff, W.

W. Burzlaff, “Methodologische beitrage zum Problem der Farbenkonstanz,” Z. Psychol. 119, 117–235 (1931).

Cataliotti, J.

J. Cataliotti, A. Gilchrist, “Local and global processes in surface lightness perception,” Percept. Psychophys. 57, 125–135 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Challands, P. D. C.

P. Whittle, P. D. C. Challands, “The effect of background luminance on the brightness of flashes,” Vision Res. 9, 1095–1110 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chubb, C.

C. Chubb, G. Sperling, J. A. Solomon, “Texture interactions determine perceived contrast,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 9631–9635 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delman, S.

A. L. Gilchrist, S. Delman, A. Jacobsen, “The classification and integration of edges as critical to the perception of reflectance and illumination,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 425–436 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, R.

Gilchrist, A.

J. Cataliotti, A. Gilchrist, “Local and global processes in surface lightness perception,” Percept. Psychophys. 57, 125–135 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilchrist, A. L.

A. L. Gilchrist, “Lightness contrast and failures of constancy: a common explanation,” Percept. Psychophys. 43, 415–424 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gilchrist, S. Delman, A. Jacobsen, “The classification and integration of edges as critical to the perception of reflectance and illumination,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 425–436 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldstein, R.

Helson, H.

Hochberg, J.

J. Hochberg, A. Silverstein, “A quantitative index of stimulus-similarity proximity vs. differences in brightness,” Am. J. Psychol. 69, 456–458 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horeman, H. W.

H. W. Horeman, “Inductive brightness depression as influenced by configurational conditions,” Vision Res. 3, 121–130 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Hurvich, L.

D. Jameson, L. Hurvich, “Complexities of perceived brightness,” Science 133, 174–179 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, A.

A. L. Gilchrist, S. Delman, A. Jacobsen, “The classification and integration of edges as critical to the perception of reflectance and illumination,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 425–436 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jameson, D.

D. Jameson, L. Hurvich, “Complexities of perceived brightness,” Science 133, 174–179 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kingdom, F.

F. Kingdom, “Simultaneous contrast: the legacies of Hering and Helmholtz,” Perception 26, 673–677 (1997).
[PubMed]

Kozaki, A.

K. Noguchi, A. Kozaki, “Perceptual scission of surface-lightness and illumination: an examination of the Gelb effect,” Psychol. Res. 47, 19–25 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noguchi, K.

K. Noguchi, A. Kozaki, “Perceptual scission of surface-lightness and illumination: an examination of the Gelb effect,” Psychol. Res. 47, 19–25 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paradiso, M. A.

A. F. Rossi, C. D. Rittenhouse, M. A. Paradiso, “The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex,” Science 273, 1104–1107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rittenhouse, C. D.

A. F. Rossi, C. D. Rittenhouse, M. A. Paradiso, “The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex,” Science 273, 1104–1107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, A. F.

A. F. Rossi, C. D. Rittenhouse, M. A. Paradiso, “The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex,” Science 273, 1104–1107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schirillo, J. A.

J. A. Schirillo, “Surround articulation. II. Lightness judgments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 804–811 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “An account of brightness in complex scenes based on inferred illumination,” Perception 26, 507–518 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “Brightness contrast from inhomogeneous surrounds,” Vision Res. 36, 1783–1796 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “Lightness and brightness judgments of coplanar retinally noncontiguous surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2442–2452 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shevell, S. K.

J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “An account of brightness in complex scenes based on inferred illumination,” Perception 26, 507–518 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “Brightness contrast from inhomogeneous surrounds,” Vision Res. 36, 1783–1796 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “Lightness and brightness judgments of coplanar retinally noncontiguous surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2442–2452 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Shevell, “On neural signals that mediate brightness,” Vision Res. 26, 1195–1208 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silverstein, A.

J. Hochberg, A. Silverstein, “A quantitative index of stimulus-similarity proximity vs. differences in brightness,” Am. J. Psychol. 69, 456–458 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solomon, J. A.

C. Chubb, G. Sperling, J. A. Solomon, “Texture interactions determine perceived contrast,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 9631–9635 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spehar, B.

L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 2. Reflectance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 457–468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 1. Illuminance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 446–456 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sperling, G.

C. Chubb, G. Sperling, J. A. Solomon, “Texture interactions determine perceived contrast,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 9631–9635 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whittle, P.

P. Whittle, “Brightness, discriminability and the ‘crispening effect’,” Vision Res. 32, 1493–1507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Whittle, P. D. C. Challands, “The effect of background luminance on the brightness of flashes,” Vision Res. 9, 1095–1110 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Whittle, “The psychophysics of contrast brightness,” in Lightness, Brightness, and Transparency, A. L. Gilchrist, ed. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1994), pp. 35–110.

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

J. Hochberg, A. Silverstein, “A quantitative index of stimulus-similarity proximity vs. differences in brightness,” Am. J. Psychol. 69, 456–458 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Percept. Psychophys. (5)

J. Cataliotti, A. Gilchrist, “Local and global processes in surface lightness perception,” Percept. Psychophys. 57, 125–135 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gilchrist, “Lightness contrast and failures of constancy: a common explanation,” Percept. Psychophys. 43, 415–424 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 1. Illuminance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 446–456 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gilchrist, S. Delman, A. Jacobsen, “The classification and integration of edges as critical to the perception of reflectance and illumination,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 425–436 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 2. Reflectance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 457–468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perception (2)

J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “An account of brightness in complex scenes based on inferred illumination,” Perception 26, 507–518 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kingdom, “Simultaneous contrast: the legacies of Hering and Helmholtz,” Perception 26, 673–677 (1997).
[PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

C. Chubb, G. Sperling, J. A. Solomon, “Texture interactions determine perceived contrast,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 9631–9635 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psychol. Res. (1)

K. Noguchi, A. Kozaki, “Perceptual scission of surface-lightness and illumination: an examination of the Gelb effect,” Psychol. Res. 47, 19–25 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

D. Jameson, L. Hurvich, “Complexities of perceived brightness,” Science 133, 174–179 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Rossi, C. D. Rittenhouse, M. A. Paradiso, “The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex,” Science 273, 1104–1107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (5)

P. Whittle, “Brightness, discriminability and the ‘crispening effect’,” Vision Res. 32, 1493–1507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Horeman, “Inductive brightness depression as influenced by configurational conditions,” Vision Res. 3, 121–130 (1963).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Shevell, “On neural signals that mediate brightness,” Vision Res. 26, 1195–1208 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Whittle, P. D. C. Challands, “The effect of background luminance on the brightness of flashes,” Vision Res. 9, 1095–1110 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “Brightness contrast from inhomogeneous surrounds,” Vision Res. 36, 1783–1796 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Psychol. (1)

W. Burzlaff, “Methodologische beitrage zum Problem der Farbenkonstanz,” Z. Psychol. 119, 117–235 (1931).

Other (2)

P. Whittle, “The psychophysics of contrast brightness,” in Lightness, Brightness, and Transparency, A. L. Gilchrist, ed. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1994), pp. 35–110.

H. Helson, Adaptation-Level Theory (Harper & Row, New York, 1964).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Test and comparison patches within two uniform surrounds; (b) four articulation patches accompany test and comparison patches within each of two surrounds. All patch intensities are listed in Table 1, where the test and comparison articulation luminance A is the 11:00 patch; articulation B is at 7:00; articulation C is at 1:00; and articulation D is at 5:00.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Eight dispersed articulation patches accompany test and comparison patches within each of two surrounds; (b) eight continuous articulation patches accompany test and comparison patches within each of two surrounds.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Sixteen articulation patches accompany test and comparison patches within each of two surrounds; (b) twenty articulation patches accompany test and comparison patches within each of two surrounds. This is also called a Mondrian.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Brightness matches for 6:1, 9:1, and 12:1 uniform (open squares, circles, and triangles, respectively) and articulation surrounds (filled squares, circles, and triangles, respectively) for three observers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Decremental brightness matches (replotted from Fig. 4) for 6:1, 9:1, and 12:1 uniform (open squares, circles and triangles, respectively) and articulation surrounds (filled squares, circles, and triangles, respectively) for three observers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Brightness matches for the 9:1 surround ratio with the articulation gray scale varying from 10% (i.e., variation from uniform surround) to 100% for three observers. 0%, filled diamonds; 15%, open squares; 25%, filled circles; 50%, open upward triangles; 75%, dot within circles; and 100%, filled downward triangles. Observer JAS did 75% in place of 15%. Observers JCS and TBO did not do 75%.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Brightness matches for 6:1 and 9:1 all-uniform (open squares and open circles, respectively), all-articulation (filled squares and filled circles, respectively), test-articulation/comparison-uniform (upright triangles), and comparison-articulation/test-uniform (inverted triangles) surrounds for observer JAS.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Brightness matches for 9:1 and 17:1 uniform (open circles), four articulation-patch (filled circles), eight dispersed articulation-patch (upright triangles), eight closed-ring articulation-patch (inverted triangles), sixteen articulation-patch (filled squares) and twenty articulation-patch (i.e., Mondrian) (cross within squares) surrounds for observer JAS.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Luminances (cd/m2) for Articulation Patches on Various Surround Ratios

Metrics