Abstract

Foveal and parafoveal contrast detection thresholds for Gabor and checkerboard targets were measured in white noise by means of a two-interval forced-choice paradigm. Two white-noise conditions were used: fixed and twin. In the fixed noise condition a single noise sample was presented in both intervals of all the trials. In the twin noise condition the same noise sample was used in the two intervals of a trial, but a new sample was generated for each trial. Fixed noise conditions usually resulted in lower thresholds than twin noise. Template learning models are presented that attribute this advantage of fixed over twin noise either to fixed memory templates’ reducing uncertainty by incorporation of the noise or to the introduction, by the learning process itself, of more variability in the twin noise condition. Quantitative predictions of the template learning process show that it contributes to the accelerating nonlinear increase in performance with signal amplitude at low signal-to-noise ratios.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1997

1996

D. M. Levi, S. A. Klein, “Limitations on position coding imposed by undersampling and univariance,” Vision Res. 36, 2111–2120 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. Fahle, S. Edelman, T. Poggio, “Fast perceptual learning in hyperacuity,” Vision Res. 35, 3003–3013 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Beard, D. M. Levi, L. N. Reich, “Perceptual learning in parafoveal vision,” Vision Res. 35, 1679–1690 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. Fahle, “Human pattern recognition: parallel processing and perceptual learning,” Perception 23, 411–427 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Burgess, “Statistically defined backgrounds: performance of a modified nonprewhitening observer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1237–1242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

H. Barrett, “Evaluation of image quality through linear discriminate models,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Disp. 23, 871–873 (1992).

1987

1985

1983

A. B. Watson, H. B. Barlow, J. G. Robson, “What does the eye see best?” Nature (London) 302, 419–422 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980

G. E. Legge, J. M. Foley, “Contrast masking in human vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 70, 1458–1471 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, “An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor,” Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

L. D. Harmon, B. Julesz, “Masking in visual recognition: effects of two-dimensional filtered noise,” Science 180, 1194–1197 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1961

W. P. Tanner, “Physiological implications of psychophysical data,” Ann. (N.Y.) Acad. Sci. 89, 752–765 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1949

C. E. Osgood, “The similarity paradox in human learning: a resolution,” Psychol. Rev. 56, 132–143 (1949).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahumada, A. J.

A. M. Rohaly, A. J. Ahumada, A. B. Watson, “Object detection in natural backgrounds predicted by discrimination performance and models,” Vision Res. 37, 3225–3235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Eckstein, A. B. Watson, A. J. Ahumada, “Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. II. Effects of contrast gain control, background variations, and white noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2406–2419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Ahumada, B. L. Beard, “Image discrimination models predict detection in fixed but not random noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2471–2476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Beard, A. J. Ahumada, “Tuning function changes after practice on a parafoveal vernier acuity task,” invited presentation at the Special Symposium on Hyperacuity at the European Conference on Visual Perception, Teubingen, Germany, September 9–13, 1996.

Barlow, H. B.

A. B. Watson, H. B. Barlow, J. G. Robson, “What does the eye see best?” Nature (London) 302, 419–422 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, H.

H. Barrett, “Evaluation of image quality through linear discriminate models,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Disp. 23, 871–873 (1992).

Beard, B. L.

A. J. Ahumada, B. L. Beard, “Image discrimination models predict detection in fixed but not random noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2471–2476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Beard, D. M. Levi, L. N. Reich, “Perceptual learning in parafoveal vision,” Vision Res. 35, 1679–1690 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Beard, A. J. Ahumada, “Tuning function changes after practice on a parafoveal vernier acuity task,” invited presentation at the Special Symposium on Hyperacuity at the European Conference on Visual Perception, Teubingen, Germany, September 9–13, 1996.

Borthwick, R.

A. B. Watson, R. Borthwick, M. Taylor, “Image quality and entropy masking,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display, B. Rogowitz, ed., Proc. SPIE3016, 2–12 (1997).

Burgess, A.

Daly, S.

S. Daly, “The visible difference predictor: an algorithm for the assessment of image fidelity,” in Digital Images and Human Vision, A. B. Watson, ed. (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1993).

Eckstein, M.

Edelman, S.

M. Fahle, S. Edelman, T. Poggio, “Fast perceptual learning in hyperacuity,” Vision Res. 35, 3003–3013 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fahle, M.

M. Fahle, S. Edelman, T. Poggio, “Fast perceptual learning in hyperacuity,” Vision Res. 35, 3003–3013 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fahle, “Human pattern recognition: parallel processing and perceptual learning,” Perception 23, 411–427 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finney, D. J.

D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis: A Statistical Treatment of the Sigmoid Response Curve, Cambridge U. Press (Cambridge, UK, 1947).

Foley, J. M.

G. E. Legge, J. M. Foley, “Contrast masking in human vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 70, 1458–1471 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Harmon, L. D.

L. D. Harmon, B. Julesz, “Masking in visual recognition: effects of two-dimensional filtered noise,” Science 180, 1194–1197 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heeger, D. J.

P. C. Teo, D. J. Heeger, “Perceptual image distortion,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display, B. Rogowitz, J. Allebach, eds., Proc. SPIE2179, 127–141 (1994).

Jakowatz, C. V.

C. V. Jakowatz, R. L. Shuey, G. M. White, “Adaptive waveform recognition,” presented at the Symposium on Information Theory, Royal Institute, London, August 29–September 2, 1961.

Julesz, B.

L. D. Harmon, B. Julesz, “Masking in visual recognition: effects of two-dimensional filtered noise,” Science 180, 1194–1197 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kersten, D.

Klein, S. A.

D. M. Levi, S. A. Klein, “Limitations on position coding imposed by undersampling and univariance,” Vision Res. 36, 2111–2120 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legge, G. E.

G. E. Legge, D. Kersten, “Contrast discrimination in peripheral vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1594–1597 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Legge, J. M. Foley, “Contrast masking in human vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 70, 1458–1471 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Levi, D. M.

D. M. Levi, S. A. Klein, “Limitations on position coding imposed by undersampling and univariance,” Vision Res. 36, 2111–2120 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Beard, D. M. Levi, L. N. Reich, “Perceptual learning in parafoveal vision,” Vision Res. 35, 1679–1690 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubin, J.

J. Lubin, “The use of psychophysical data and models in the analysis of display system performance,” in Digital Images and Human Vision, A. B. Watson, ed. (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1993).

Osgood, C. E.

C. E. Osgood, “The similarity paradox in human learning: a resolution,” Psychol. Rev. 56, 132–143 (1949).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelli, D. G.

Poggio, T.

M. Fahle, S. Edelman, T. Poggio, “Fast perceptual learning in hyperacuity,” Vision Res. 35, 3003–3013 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reich, L. N.

B. L. Beard, D. M. Levi, L. N. Reich, “Perceptual learning in parafoveal vision,” Vision Res. 35, 1679–1690 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robson, J. G.

A. B. Watson, H. B. Barlow, J. G. Robson, “What does the eye see best?” Nature (London) 302, 419–422 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rohaly, A. M.

A. M. Rohaly, A. J. Ahumada, A. B. Watson, “Object detection in natural backgrounds predicted by discrimination performance and models,” Vision Res. 37, 3225–3235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rovamo, J.

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, “An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor,” Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shuey, R. L.

C. V. Jakowatz, R. L. Shuey, G. M. White, “Adaptive waveform recognition,” presented at the Symposium on Information Theory, Royal Institute, London, August 29–September 2, 1961.

Solomon, J. A.

Tanner, W. P.

W. P. Tanner, “Physiological implications of psychophysical data,” Ann. (N.Y.) Acad. Sci. 89, 752–765 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, M.

A. B. Watson, R. Borthwick, M. Taylor, “Image quality and entropy masking,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display, B. Rogowitz, ed., Proc. SPIE3016, 2–12 (1997).

Teo, P. C.

P. C. Teo, D. J. Heeger, “Perceptual image distortion,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display, B. Rogowitz, J. Allebach, eds., Proc. SPIE2179, 127–141 (1994).

Virsu, V.

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, “An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor,” Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, A. B.

M. Eckstein, A. B. Watson, A. J. Ahumada, “Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. II. Effects of contrast gain control, background variations, and white noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2406–2419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Watson, J. A. Solomon, “Model of visual contrast gain control and pattern masking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2379–2391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rohaly, A. J. Ahumada, A. B. Watson, “Object detection in natural backgrounds predicted by discrimination performance and models,” Vision Res. 37, 3225–3235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Watson, “Estimation of local spatial scale,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1579–1582 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Watson, “Efficiency of a model human image code,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2401–2417 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Watson, H. B. Barlow, J. G. Robson, “What does the eye see best?” Nature (London) 302, 419–422 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Watson, R. Borthwick, M. Taylor, “Image quality and entropy masking,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display, B. Rogowitz, ed., Proc. SPIE3016, 2–12 (1997).

White, G. M.

C. V. Jakowatz, R. L. Shuey, G. M. White, “Adaptive waveform recognition,” presented at the Symposium on Information Theory, Royal Institute, London, August 29–September 2, 1961.

Wilson, H. R.

H. R. Wilson, “Quantitative models for pattern detection and discrimination,” in Vision Models for Target Detection and Recognition, E. Peli, ed. (World Scientific, Teaneck, N.J., 1995).

Ann. (N.Y.) Acad. Sci.

W. P. Tanner, “Physiological implications of psychophysical data,” Ann. (N.Y.) Acad. Sci. 89, 752–765 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Brain Res.

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, “An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor,” Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nature (London)

A. B. Watson, H. B. Barlow, J. G. Robson, “What does the eye see best?” Nature (London) 302, 419–422 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Perception

M. Fahle, “Human pattern recognition: parallel processing and perceptual learning,” Perception 23, 411–427 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Soc. Inf. Disp.

H. Barrett, “Evaluation of image quality through linear discriminate models,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Disp. 23, 871–873 (1992).

Psychol. Rev.

C. E. Osgood, “The similarity paradox in human learning: a resolution,” Psychol. Rev. 56, 132–143 (1949).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

L. D. Harmon, B. Julesz, “Masking in visual recognition: effects of two-dimensional filtered noise,” Science 180, 1194–1197 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res.

M. Fahle, S. Edelman, T. Poggio, “Fast perceptual learning in hyperacuity,” Vision Res. 35, 3003–3013 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Beard, D. M. Levi, L. N. Reich, “Perceptual learning in parafoveal vision,” Vision Res. 35, 1679–1690 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Levi, S. A. Klein, “Limitations on position coding imposed by undersampling and univariance,” Vision Res. 36, 2111–2120 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rohaly, A. J. Ahumada, A. B. Watson, “Object detection in natural backgrounds predicted by discrimination performance and models,” Vision Res. 37, 3225–3235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. B. Watson, R. Borthwick, M. Taylor, “Image quality and entropy masking,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display, B. Rogowitz, ed., Proc. SPIE3016, 2–12 (1997).

D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis: A Statistical Treatment of the Sigmoid Response Curve, Cambridge U. Press (Cambridge, UK, 1947).

S. Daly, “The visible difference predictor: an algorithm for the assessment of image fidelity,” in Digital Images and Human Vision, A. B. Watson, ed. (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1993).

J. Lubin, “The use of psychophysical data and models in the analysis of display system performance,” in Digital Images and Human Vision, A. B. Watson, ed. (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1993).

P. C. Teo, D. J. Heeger, “Perceptual image distortion,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display, B. Rogowitz, J. Allebach, eds., Proc. SPIE2179, 127–141 (1994).

H. R. Wilson, “Quantitative models for pattern detection and discrimination,” in Vision Models for Target Detection and Recognition, E. Peli, ed. (World Scientific, Teaneck, N.J., 1995).

B. L. Beard, A. J. Ahumada, “Tuning function changes after practice on a parafoveal vernier acuity task,” invited presentation at the Special Symposium on Hyperacuity at the European Conference on Visual Perception, Teubingen, Germany, September 9–13, 1996.

C. V. Jakowatz, R. L. Shuey, G. M. White, “Adaptive waveform recognition,” presented at the Symposium on Information Theory, Royal Institute, London, August 29–September 2, 1961.

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