Abstract

We present what we believe is a novel technique based on the moiré effect for fully diagnosing the beam quality of an x-ray laser. Using Fresnel diffraction theory, we investigated the intensity profile of the moiré pattern when a general paraxial beam illuminates a pair of Ronchi gratings in the quasi-far field. Two formulas were derived to determine the beam quality factor M2 and the effective radius of curvature Re from the moiré pattern. On the basis of the results, the far-field divergence, the waist location, and the radius can be calculated further. Finally, we verified the approach by use of numerical simulation.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. E. Siegman, “Defining the effective radius of curvature for a nonideal optical beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-27, 1146–1148 (1991).
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  21. T. Afshar-rad, O. Willi, “A novel technique for x-ray laser beam characterization,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 50, 287–290 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  22. O. Kafri, “Noncoherent method for mapping phase objects,” Opt. Lett. 5, 555–557 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. D. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Optics (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 10.
  24. L. Liu, “Talbot and Lau effects on incident beams of arbitrary wavefront, and their use,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4668–4678 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. M. J. Bastiaans, “Propagation laws for the second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function in first-order optical system,” Optik (Stuttgart) 82, 173–181 (1989).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. X. Deng, H. Guo, Q. Cao, “The invariable integral and statistical equations for a paraxial beam in free space,” Sci. China (Series A) 27, 64–71 (1997) (in Chinese).

1997 (2)

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

X. Deng, H. Guo, Q. Cao, “The invariable integral and statistical equations for a paraxial beam in free space,” Sci. China (Series A) 27, 64–71 (1997) (in Chinese).

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

J. Nilsen, J. C. Moreno, “Nearly monochromatic lasing at 182 Å in neonlike selenium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3376–3379 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. Kodama, D. Neely, Y. Kato, H. Daido, K. Murai, G. Yuan, A. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, “Generation of small-divergence soft x-ray laser by plasma waveguiding with a curved target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3215–3218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (4)

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, Y. Gu, G.-L. Zhou, S. Yu, S. Fu, Y. Ni, J. Wu, Z. Zhou, G. Han, Z. Tao, Z. Lin, S. Wang, W. Chen, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, “Experimental investigation of high-gain Ne-like Ge soft x-ray laser by double-massive-target coupling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 360–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Cart, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

P. A. Bélanger, “Beam propagation and the ABCD ray matrices,” Opt. Lett. 16, 196–198 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Siegman, “Defining the effective radius of curvature for a nonideal optical beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-27, 1146–1148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. Afshar-rad, O. Willi, “A novel technique for x-ray laser beam characterization,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 50, 287–290 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

L. Liu, “Talbot and Lau effects on incident beams of arbitrary wavefront, and their use,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4668–4678 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Bastiaans, “Propagation laws for the second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function in first-order optical system,” Optik (Stuttgart) 82, 173–181 (1989).

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1985 (4)

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Roson, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, A. Wouters, “Divergence measurements of soft x-ray laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004–1007 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. Keren, O. Kafri, “Diffraction effects in moiré deflectometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 111–120 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1980 (2)

F. Gori, “Collett–Wolf sources and multimode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 34, 301–305 (1980).
[CrossRef]

O. Kafri, “Noncoherent method for mapping phase objects,” Opt. Lett. 5, 555–557 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

Afshar-rad, T.

T. Afshar-rad, O. Willi, “A novel technique for x-ray laser beam characterization,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 50, 287–290 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Cart, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bastiaans, M. J.

M. J. Bastiaans, “Propagation laws for the second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function in first-order optical system,” Optik (Stuttgart) 82, 173–181 (1989).

Batson, P. J.

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bélanger, P. A.

Brown, S.

Campbell, E. M.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Roson, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Q.

X. Deng, H. Guo, Q. Cao, “The invariable integral and statistical equations for a paraxial beam in free space,” Sci. China (Series A) 27, 64–71 (1997) (in Chinese).

Carillon, A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cart, M. R.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Cart, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, M. R.

G. M. Shimkaveg, M. R. Carter, R. S. Walling, J. M. Ticehurst, R. A. London, R. E. Stewart, “Oscillator-amplifier experiments in neon-like yttrium,” in Proceedings of the International Colloquium on X-Ray Lasers, Institute of Physics Conference Series 125 (University of Reading, Reading, UK, 1992), pp. 61–66.

Carter, W. H.

Ceglio, N.

Ceglio, N. M.

N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, A. M. Hawryluk, J. E. Trebes, “Multipass amplification of soft-x-rays in a laser cavity,” Opt. Lett. 13, 108–110 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. Z.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

S. Wang, Y. Gu, G.-L. Zhou, S. Yu, S. Fu, Y. Ni, J. Wu, Z. Zhou, G. Han, Z. Tao, Z. Lin, S. Wang, W. Chen, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, “Experimental investigation of high-gain Ne-like Ge soft x-ray laser by double-massive-target coupling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 360–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, L. B.

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Cart, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daido, H.

R. Kodama, D. Neely, Y. Kato, H. Daido, K. Murai, G. Yuan, A. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, “Generation of small-divergence soft x-ray laser by plasma waveguiding with a curved target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3215–3218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danson, C.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Deng, X.

X. Deng, H. Guo, Q. Cao, “The invariable integral and statistical equations for a paraxial beam in free space,” Sci. China (Series A) 27, 64–71 (1997) (in Chinese).

Dhez, P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwivedi, L.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckart, M. J.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eder, D.

Fan, D.

S. Wang, Y. Gu, G.-L. Zhou, S. Yu, S. Fu, Y. Ni, J. Wu, Z. Zhou, G. Han, Z. Tao, Z. Lin, S. Wang, W. Chen, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, “Experimental investigation of high-gain Ne-like Ge soft x-ray laser by double-massive-target coupling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 360–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Cart, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fill, E. E.

Fu, S.

S. Wang, Y. Gu, G.-L. Zhou, S. Yu, S. Fu, Y. Ni, J. Wu, Z. Zhou, G. Han, Z. Tao, Z. Lin, S. Wang, W. Chen, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, “Experimental investigation of high-gain Ne-like Ge soft x-ray laser by double-massive-target coupling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 360–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gaines, D. P.

Gaskill, J. D.

J. D. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Optics (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 10.

Gori, F.

F. Gori, “Collett–Wolf sources and multimode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 34, 301–305 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

Guan, Y.

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

X. Deng, H. Guo, Q. Cao, “The invariable integral and statistical equations for a paraxial beam in free space,” Sci. China (Series A) 27, 64–71 (1997) (in Chinese).

Hagelstein, P. L.

M. D. Roson, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, G.

Hatcher, C. W.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawryluk, A.

Hawryluk, A. M.

N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, A. M. Hawryluk, J. E. Trebes, “Multipass amplification of soft-x-rays in a laser cavity,” Opt. Lett. 13, 108–110 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hazi, A. U.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Roson, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

He, X.

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jacoby, J.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaegle, P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamelot, G.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafri, O.

Karny, Z.

Kato, Y.

R. Kodama, D. Neely, Y. Kato, H. Daido, K. Murai, G. Yuan, A. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, “Generation of small-divergence soft x-ray laser by plasma waveguiding with a curved target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3215–3218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufman, R. L.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keane, C.

Keren, E.

Key, M. H.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kidd, A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, A. Wouters, “Divergence measurements of soft x-ray laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004–1007 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Klisnick, A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, J. A.

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Cart, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kodama, R.

R. Kodama, D. Neely, Y. Kato, H. Daido, K. Murai, G. Yuan, A. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, “Generation of small-divergence soft x-ray laser by plasma waveguiding with a curved target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3215–3218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnan, J.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavi, S.

Lee, R. W.

M. D. Roson, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, C. L. S.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, Y. Kato, H. Daido, K. Murai, G. Yuan, A. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, “Generation of small-divergence soft x-ray laser by plasma waveguiding with a curved target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3215–3218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Lin, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

S. Wang, Y. Gu, G.-L. Zhou, S. Yu, S. Fu, Y. Ni, J. Wu, Z. Zhou, G. Han, Z. Tao, Z. Lin, S. Wang, W. Chen, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, “Experimental investigation of high-gain Ne-like Ge soft x-ray laser by double-massive-target coupling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 360–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

London, R.

London, R. A.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Cart, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
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G. M. Shimkaveg, M. R. Carter, R. S. Walling, J. M. Ticehurst, R. A. London, R. E. Stewart, “Oscillator-amplifier experiments in neon-like yttrium,” in Proceedings of the International Colloquium on X-Ray Lasers, Institute of Physics Conference Series 125 (University of Reading, Reading, UK, 1992), pp. 61–66.

Lu, P.

MacGowan, B.

D. Matthews, M. Rosen, S. Brown, N. Ceglio, D. Eder, A. Hawryluk, C. Keane, R. London, B. MacGowan, S. Maxon, D. Nilson, J. Scofield, J. Trebes, “X-ray laser research at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Nova laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 575–587 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Roson, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

MacGowan, B. J.

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Cart, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacPhee, A.

R. Kodama, D. Neely, Y. Kato, H. Daido, K. Murai, G. Yuan, A. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, “Generation of small-divergence soft x-ray laser by plasma waveguiding with a curved target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3215–3218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacPhee, A. G.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Matthews, D.

Matthews, D. L.

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Cart, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Roson, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Maxon, S.

Medecki, H.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, J. C.

Mrowka, S.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Cart, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murai, K.

R. Kodama, D. Neely, Y. Kato, H. Daido, K. Murai, G. Yuan, A. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, “Generation of small-divergence soft x-ray laser by plasma waveguiding with a curved target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3215–3218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neely, D.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, Y. Kato, H. Daido, K. Murai, G. Yuan, A. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, “Generation of small-divergence soft x-ray laser by plasma waveguiding with a curved target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3215–3218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ni, Y.

S. Wang, Y. Gu, G.-L. Zhou, S. Yu, S. Fu, Y. Ni, J. Wu, Z. Zhou, G. Han, Z. Tao, Z. Lin, S. Wang, W. Chen, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, “Experimental investigation of high-gain Ne-like Ge soft x-ray laser by double-massive-target coupling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 360–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nilsen, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. C. Moreno, J. Nilsen, Y. Li, P. Lu, E. E. Fill, “Two-dimensional near-field images of the neonlike germanium soft x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 866–868 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, J. C. Moreno, “Nearly monochromatic lasing at 182 Å in neonlike selenium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3376–3379 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilson, D.

Norreys, P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nugent, K. A.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Cart, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Neill, D.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, H.

S. Wang, Y. Gu, G.-L. Zhou, S. Yu, S. Fu, Y. Ni, J. Wu, Z. Zhou, G. Han, Z. Tao, Z. Lin, S. Wang, W. Chen, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, “Experimental investigation of high-gain Ne-like Ge soft x-ray laser by double-massive-target coupling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 360–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pert, G. J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pleasance, L. D.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rambach, G.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramsden, S. A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raucourt, J. P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, M.

Rosen, M. D.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Rosen, “Future directions of laboratory XRL research,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generations and Applications, P. H. Bucksbaun, N. M. Ceglio, eds., Vol. 11 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 73–76.

Roson, M. D.

M. D. Roson, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Scofield, J.

Scofield, J. H.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, Y.

S. Wang, Y. Gu, G.-L. Zhou, S. Yu, S. Fu, Y. Ni, J. Wu, Z. Zhou, G. Han, Z. Tao, Z. Lin, S. Wang, W. Chen, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, “Experimental investigation of high-gain Ne-like Ge soft x-ray laser by double-massive-target coupling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 360–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, J.

S. Wang, Y. Gu, G.-L. Zhou, S. Yu, S. Fu, Y. Ni, J. Wu, Z. Zhou, G. Han, Z. Tao, Z. Lin, S. Wang, W. Chen, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, “Experimental investigation of high-gain Ne-like Ge soft x-ray laser by double-massive-target coupling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 360–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shimkaveg, G. M.

G. M. Shimkaveg, M. R. Carter, R. S. Walling, J. M. Ticehurst, R. A. London, R. E. Stewart, “Oscillator-amplifier experiments in neon-like yttrium,” in Proceedings of the International Colloquium on X-Ray Lasers, Institute of Physics Conference Series 125 (University of Reading, Reading, UK, 1992), pp. 61–66.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, “Defining the effective radius of curvature for a nonideal optical beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-27, 1146–1148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, “New development in laser resonators,” in Optical Resonators, D. A. Holmes, ed., Proc. SPIE1224, 2–14 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, C. H.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, A. Wouters, “Divergence measurements of soft x-ray laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004–1007 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Starikov, A.

Stearns, D. G.

Stewart, R. E.

G. M. Shimkaveg, M. R. Carter, R. S. Walling, J. M. Ticehurst, R. A. London, R. E. Stewart, “Oscillator-amplifier experiments in neon-like yttrium,” in Proceedings of the International Colloquium on X-Ray Lasers, Institute of Physics Conference Series 125 (University of Reading, Reading, UK, 1992), pp. 61–66.

Stone, G.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, G. F.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Cart, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suckewer, S.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, A. Wouters, “Divergence measurements of soft x-ray laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004–1007 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Tallents, G. J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Z.

S. Wang, Y. Gu, G.-L. Zhou, S. Yu, S. Fu, Y. Ni, J. Wu, Z. Zhou, G. Han, Z. Tao, Z. Lin, S. Wang, W. Chen, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, “Experimental investigation of high-gain Ne-like Ge soft x-ray laser by double-massive-target coupling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 360–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ticehurst, J. M.

G. M. Shimkaveg, M. R. Carter, R. S. Walling, J. M. Ticehurst, R. A. London, R. E. Stewart, “Oscillator-amplifier experiments in neon-like yttrium,” in Proceedings of the International Colloquium on X-Ray Lasers, Institute of Physics Conference Series 125 (University of Reading, Reading, UK, 1992), pp. 61–66.

Trebes, J.

Trebes, J. E.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Cart, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, A. M. Hawryluk, J. E. Trebes, “Multipass amplification of soft-x-rays in a laser cavity,” Opt. Lett. 13, 108–110 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, R. E.

M. D. Roson, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Uhomoibhi, J.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Underwood, J. H.

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valeo, E.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, A. Wouters, “Divergence measurements of soft x-ray laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004–1007 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Voorhees, D.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, A. Wouters, “Divergence measurements of soft x-ray laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004–1007 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Walling, R. S.

G. M. Shimkaveg, M. R. Carter, R. S. Walling, J. M. Ticehurst, R. A. London, R. E. Stewart, “Oscillator-amplifier experiments in neon-like yttrium,” in Proceedings of the International Colloquium on X-Ray Lasers, Institute of Physics Conference Series 125 (University of Reading, Reading, UK, 1992), pp. 61–66.

Wang, S.

Wark, J. S.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Weaver, T. A.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitten, B. L.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Roson, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Willi, O.

T. Afshar-rad, O. Willi, “A novel technique for x-ray laser beam characterization,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 50, 287–290 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

Wolfrum, E.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Wouters, A.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, A. Wouters, “Divergence measurements of soft x-ray laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004–1007 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Yang, M.

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

S. Wang, Y. Gu, G.-L. Zhou, S. Yu, S. Fu, Y. Ni, J. Wu, Z. Zhou, G. Han, Z. Tao, Z. Lin, S. Wang, W. Chen, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, “Experimental investigation of high-gain Ne-like Ge soft x-ray laser by double-massive-target coupling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 360–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, G.

R. Kodama, D. Neely, Y. Kato, H. Daido, K. Murai, G. Yuan, A. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, “Generation of small-divergence soft x-ray laser by plasma waveguiding with a curved target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3215–3218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

S. Wang, Y. Gu, G.-L. Zhou, S. Yu, S. Fu, Y. Ni, J. Wu, Z. Zhou, G. Han, Z. Tao, Z. Lin, S. Wang, W. Chen, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, “Experimental investigation of high-gain Ne-like Ge soft x-ray laser by double-massive-target coupling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 360–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Jie

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

S. Wang, Y. Gu, G.-L. Zhou, S. Yu, S. Fu, Y. Ni, J. Wu, Z. Zhou, G. Han, Z. Tao, Z. Lin, S. Wang, W. Chen, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, “Experimental investigation of high-gain Ne-like Ge soft x-ray laser by double-massive-target coupling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 360–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G.-L.

S. Wang, Y. Gu, G.-L. Zhou, S. Yu, S. Fu, Y. Ni, J. Wu, Z. Zhou, G. Han, Z. Tao, Z. Lin, S. Wang, W. Chen, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, “Experimental investigation of high-gain Ne-like Ge soft x-ray laser by double-massive-target coupling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 360–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. (1)

T. Afshar-rad, O. Willi, “A novel technique for x-ray laser beam characterization,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 50, 287–290 (1990).
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Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Wang, Y. Guan, G.-L. Zhou, Y. Ni, S. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Tao, W. Chen, Z. Lin, D. Fan, G. Zhang, J. Sheng, M. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Shao, H. Peng, X. He, M. Yu, “Experimental research on saturated-gain for a soft x-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 8, 618–621 (1991).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. E. Siegman, “Defining the effective radius of curvature for a nonideal optical beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-27, 1146–1148 (1991).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Cart, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, A. Wouters, “Divergence measurements of soft x-ray laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004–1007 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, Jie Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, Y. Kato, H. Daido, K. Murai, G. Yuan, A. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, “Generation of small-divergence soft x-ray laser by plasma waveguiding with a curved target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3215–3218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kaufman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Roson, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, J. C. Moreno, “Nearly monochromatic lasing at 182 Å in neonlike selenium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3376–3379 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sci. China (Series A) (1)

X. Deng, H. Guo, Q. Cao, “The invariable integral and statistical equations for a paraxial beam in free space,” Sci. China (Series A) 27, 64–71 (1997) (in Chinese).

Science (1)

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

G. M. Shimkaveg, M. R. Carter, R. S. Walling, J. M. Ticehurst, R. A. London, R. E. Stewart, “Oscillator-amplifier experiments in neon-like yttrium,” in Proceedings of the International Colloquium on X-Ray Lasers, Institute of Physics Conference Series 125 (University of Reading, Reading, UK, 1992), pp. 61–66.

M. D. Rosen, “Future directions of laboratory XRL research,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generations and Applications, P. H. Bucksbaun, N. M. Ceglio, eds., Vol. 11 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 73–76.

A. E. Siegman, “New development in laser resonators,” in Optical Resonators, D. A. Holmes, ed., Proc. SPIE1224, 2–14 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Optics (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 10.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the optical arrangement for observing the moiré fringe pattern of an XRL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerical simulation of the moiré pattern illuminated by a GSM beam in the quasi-far field with σI0=40 µm, σc0=2.5 µm, λ=10 nm, and dp2/λ. (a) 2-D intensity profile of the fringes, (b) the corresponding 1-D intensity profile, along the direction perpendicular to the fringe orientation of the fringes (solid curve) and the GSM beam (dotted curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as in Fig. 2 but with σI0=40 µm, σc0=4.0 µm, λ=10 nm, and d=p2/λ.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Calculated Values of the Beam Quality Parameters in Four Cases

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Table 2 Actual Values of the Beam Quality Parameters

Equations (58)

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g1(x, y)=n=-+cn expj 2πnp(x-yθ/2),
g2(x, y)=n=-+cn expj 2πnp(x+yθ/2),
cn=12(n=0)(-1)m(2m+1)π(n=2m+1, m=-+).
d=l(p2/λ),
E1(x, y)=exp(jkd)jkd×E0(x, y)g1(x, y)**qx, y; 1λd,
E1(x, y)=ncnE0(x-nlp, y)×exp(-jπpn2)expj 2πnp(x-yθ/2),
E0(x, y)=exp(jkd)jkdE0(x, y)**qx, y; 1λd.
E0(x, y)=ψ(x, y)expjγ0+j k2x2Rex+y2Rey,
E0(x, y)=AψxRexd+Rex, yReyd+Reyexpj(γ0+kd)+j k2x2Rex+d+y2Rey+d,
A=RexRey(Rex+d)(Rey+d)1/2.
E1(x, y)=AncnψxRexd+Rex-nlp, yReyd+Rey×expj(γ0+kd)+j k2x2Rex+d+y2Rey+dexpj 2πnpxRexd+Rex-yθRey2(d+Rey)exp(jϕn),
ϕn=-2π2n2kp2dRex(d+Rex).
I1=A2nmbnbm*×expj 2πp(n-m)xRexd+Rex-yθRey2(d+Rey),
bn=cnψxRexd+Rex-nlp, yReyd+Reyexp(jϕn).
I(x, y, θ)=1px-p/2x+p/2I1(x, y)g2(x, y)dx.
I=A22c0n=-+cn2ψxRexd+Rex, yReyd+Rey×ψxRexd+Rex-nlp, yReyd+Rey×cos2πnpxdd+Rex+yθ(Rey+d/2)d+Rey-ϕn+c0n0|bn|2-|b0|2.
c0n0|bn|2-|b0|2
c0ψ2xRexd+Rex, yReyd+Reyn0cn2-c02=0.
I=2A2c0n=-+cn2ψxRexd+Rex, yReyd+Rey×ψxRexd+Rex-nlp, yReyd+Rey×cos2πnpxdd+Rex+yθ(Rey+d/2)d+Rey-ϕn.
ψxRexd+Rex, yReyd+ReyψxRexd+Rex-nlp, yReyd+Rey
=ψ2xRexd+Rex, yReyd+Reyμ(nlp),
I=2A2c0ψ2xRexd+Rex, yReyd+ReyI˜(α)*n=-+cn2 cos2πnpxdd+Rex+yθ(Rey+d/2)d+Rey-ϕn,
I˜(α)=-+μ(λfd)exp(-j2πfdα)df,
α=θdxd(d+Rex)θ+y(Rey+d/2)d+Rey.
1R+1d=λlp2,l=1, 2.
I=2A2c0ψ2xRexd+Rex, yReyd+ReyI˜(α)*n=-+(-1)nlcn2×cos2πnpxdd+Rex+yθ(Rey+d/2)d+Rey,
l=1, 2.
tan γ=dydx=-(d+Rey)dθ(d/2+Rey)(d+Rex)-dθRex.
δy=dδαθ(1+tan2 γ)1/2,
Δα=-+ exp(-2α2/αdiv2)dα=π2αdiv,
αdiv=M2λπW,
Δα=2p/d(1+c¯).
c¯=iIiciiIi,
M2=8πpWdλ11+c¯.
W2=4-+x2Idx-+Idx,
W2αf2-W2Re2=λπM22,
αf=M2λπW0,
W2(z)=W02(z0)1+z-z0zR2,
Re(z)=(z-z0)1+zR(z-z0)2,
zR=πW02/λM2.
Γ(ρ1, ρ2)=A0 exp-ρ12+ρ224σI02-(ρ1-ρ2)22σc02.
M2=1+4σI02σc021/2
zR=4πσI02/λM2.
E(x, z)=ψ(x, z)expjkz+x22R(z),
W(z2)W(z1)Re(z2)Re(z1),
Re(z2)-Re(z1)z2-z11.
z7zR.
Re=-+x2ψ2(x, z)dx-+x2Rψ2(x, z)dx=R.
E(x, z)=ψ(x, z)expjkz+x22Re(z)=mcmϕm(x, z)exp[jkLm(x, z)],
ϕm(x, z)=2π2mm!σ(z)1/2Hm2xσ(z)exp-x2σ2(z),
Lm=z+x22Re-m+12 1ktan-12zkσ02,
E1(x, z+d)=mcmϕm(x, z+d)×exp[jkLm(x, z+d)].
E1(x, z+d)=ReRe+d1/2ψxReRe+d×expjkz+d+x22[Re(z)+d].
M12=M22=2-+x2ψ2dx-+ψx2dx1/2.
dp2λ
d=p2λ
dp2λ
d=p2λ

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