Abstract

Saturation of two sets of stimuli was scaled by 21 color-normal observers (ten younger and 11 older observers, mean ages: 30 and 73 years). Circular fields, 1.2° in diameter, were presented in Maxwellian view as 1.5-s flashes with 3-s interstimulus intervals. Stimuli were mixtures of broadband light [CIE(x, y)=(0.35, 0.39), 200 trolands (td)] and monochromatic light (420–700 nm, 50 td). Monochromatic lights were equated by the 1978 2° fundamental observer’s luminosity function in one set of stimuli [J. J. Vos, Color Res. Appl. 3, 125 (1978)] and by each observer’s heterochromatic flicker photometry function in the other set of stimuli. Comparing the two age groups reveals no sizable differences in saturation for either set of stimuli, neither supporting nor refuting neural compensation for age-related increases in ocular media density (OMD). Examining short-wavelength saturation as a continuous function of estimated OMD reveals a more complicated pattern of results, however, suggesting substantial compensation over a certain range of OMD values but incomplete compensation for observers with the highest OMD values.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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1999

1998

1996

J. S. Werner, “Visual problems of the retina during ageing: compensation mechanisms and colour constancy across the life span,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 15, 621–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Kraft, M. L. Bieber, “Intrinsic whiteness relates two perceptual aspects of spectral saturation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 35, 2165 (1994).

J. M. Kraft, J. S. Werner, “Spectral efficiency across the life span: flicker photometry and brightness matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1213–1221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. S. Werner, B. E. Schefrin, “Loci of achromatic points throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1509–1516 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in the color appearance of broadband surfaces,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 380–389 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

K. Fuld, “The contribution of chromatic and achromatic valence to spectral saturation,” Vision Res. 31, 237–246 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, “Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122–2130 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. (London) 395, 577–638 (1988).

1987

1984

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

1978

J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976

1967

G. H. Jacobs, “Saturation estimates and chromatic adaptation,” Percept. Psychophys. 2, 271–274 (1967).
[CrossRef]

T. Indow, “Saturation scales for red,” Vision Res. 7, 481–495 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966

D. W. Panek, S. S. Stevens, “Saturation of red: a prothetic continuum,” Percept. Psychophys. 1, 59–66 (1966).
[CrossRef]

T. Indow, S. S. Stevens, “Scaling of saturation and hue,” Percept. Psychophys. 1, 253–271 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963

1959

1938

1933

1926

Abramov, I.

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bieber, M. L.

J. M. Kraft, M. L. Bieber, “Intrinsic whiteness relates two perceptual aspects of spectral saturation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 35, 2165 (1994).

Bodinger, D. M.

Brainard, D. H.

Brickwedde, F. G.

Chan, H.

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comerford, J. P.

Dainoff, M. J.

deMosasterio, M.

Fuld, K.

T. D. Kulp, K. Fuld, “The prediction of hue and saturation for non-spectral lights,” Vision Res. 35, 2967–2983 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fuld, “The contribution of chromatic and achromatic valence to spectral saturation,” Vision Res. 31, 237–246 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, J.

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higgens, K. E.

Hurvich, L.

Hynes, R.

Indow, T.

T. Indow, “Saturation scales for red,” Vision Res. 7, 481–495 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Indow, S. S. Stevens, “Scaling of saturation and hue,” Percept. Psychophys. 1, 253–271 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, G. H.

G. H. Jacobs, “Saturation estimates and chromatic adaptation,” Percept. Psychophys. 2, 271–274 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Jameson, D.

Jones, L. A.

Judd, C. M.

C. M. Judd, G. H. McClelland, Data Analysis: A Model-Comparison Approach (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, San Diego, Calif., 1989).

Judd, D. B.

Kaiser, P. K.

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kaiser, J. P. Comerford, D. M. Bodinger, “Saturation of spectral lights,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 818–826 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Klingberg, C. L.

Knoblauch, K.

Kraft, J. M.

Kulp, T. D.

T. D. Kulp, K. Fuld, “The prediction of hue and saturation for non-spectral lights,” Vision Res. 35, 2967–2983 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kusuda, M.

Lowry, E. M.

Lutze, M.

McClelland, G. H.

C. M. Judd, G. H. McClelland, Data Analysis: A Model-Comparison Approach (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, San Diego, Calif., 1989).

Onley, J. W.

Panek, D. W.

D. W. Panek, S. S. Stevens, “Saturation of red: a prothetic continuum,” Percept. Psychophys. 1, 59–66 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Podgor, M.

Pokorny, J.

Priest, I. G.

Richardson, L. F.

L. F. Richardson, “Measurability of sensations of hue, brightness, or saturation,” in Sources of Color Science, D. L. MacAdam, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1984).

Rollman, G. B.

Saunders, F.

Schefrin, B. E.

Shinomori, K.

Smith, V. C.

Steele, V. G.

Stevens, S. S.

D. W. Panek, S. S. Stevens, “Saturation of red: a prothetic continuum,” Percept. Psychophys. 1, 59–66 (1966).
[CrossRef]

T. Indow, S. S. Stevens, “Scaling of saturation and hue,” Percept. Psychophys. 1, 253–271 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Uchikawa, H.

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Uchikawa, K.

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Verriest, G.

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. (London) 395, 577–638 (1988).

Werner, J. S.

Appl. Opt.

Color Res. Appl.

B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in the color appearance of broadband surfaces,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 380–389 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl.

J. M. Kraft, M. L. Bieber, “Intrinsic whiteness relates two perceptual aspects of spectral saturation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 35, 2165 (1994).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Physiol. (London)

R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. (London) 395, 577–638 (1988).

Percept. Psychophys.

G. H. Jacobs, “Saturation estimates and chromatic adaptation,” Percept. Psychophys. 2, 271–274 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Panek, S. S. Stevens, “Saturation of red: a prothetic continuum,” Percept. Psychophys. 1, 59–66 (1966).
[CrossRef]

T. Indow, S. S. Stevens, “Scaling of saturation and hue,” Percept. Psychophys. 1, 253–271 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Retin. Eye Res.

J. S. Werner, “Visual problems of the retina during ageing: compensation mechanisms and colour constancy across the life span,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 15, 621–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res.

T. Indow, “Saturation scales for red,” Vision Res. 7, 481–495 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Kulp, K. Fuld, “The prediction of hue and saturation for non-spectral lights,” Vision Res. 35, 2967–2983 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fuld, “The contribution of chromatic and achromatic valence to spectral saturation,” Vision Res. 31, 237–246 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. M. Judd, G. H. McClelland, Data Analysis: A Model-Comparison Approach (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, San Diego, Calif., 1989).

L. F. Richardson, “Measurability of sensations of hue, brightness, or saturation,” in Sources of Color Science, D. L. MacAdam, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1984).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Retinally (squares) and corneally (diamonds) equated saturation functions for lights of colorimetric purity Pc=0.20 are shown for the youngest and oldest observers in each age group. Data in this figure were not normalized.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mean saturation functions for retinally and corneally equated lights of Pc=0.20 are shown for younger (circles) and older (triangles) observers. Individual functions were normalized at long wavelengths before standard errors of the mean (error bars) were computed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Each plotted point represents the difference between mean logit-transformed saturation at short wavelengths (420, 440, and 460 nm) and mean logit-transformed saturation at long wavelengths (640–700 nm) for younger (filled symbols) and older (open symbols) observers. The best-fitting bilinear functions are shown as solid curves (described in the text).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean saturation functions for retinally and corneally equated lights of Pc=0.20 are shown for low-OMD (bold curve), mid-OMD (triangles), and high-OMD (squares) subgroups of observers. For details see the text and Table 1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Number of Observers, Mean Estimated Ocular Media Densities at 420 nm, and Mean Ages of Low-, Mid-, and High-Density Subgroups

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T=log[P/(100-P)],
P=100/(1+10-T).

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