Abstract

Zero-order diffraction efficiencies, in reflection, of short-pitch (pitch less than the incident wavelength), narrow-linewidth, photoresist gratings exhibit significant variations with angle of incidence. The intent of our effort was to explain these variations, which are characterized as resonance anomalies. At resonance we also have observed enhanced diffuse scattering. Modal analysis was applied to characterize the fields within the grating structure. A separate numerical method that combines effective-medium theory and waveguide mode computation was used to determine the lossy, guided-wave modes of the layered grating structure. We show that enhanced diffuse scattering is directly correlated with enhanced surface fields (order m=-1) that are associated with coupling of the incident field into guided-wave modes in the presence of the grating. Under certain conditions anti-guided-wave behavior in the grating is evident. Applications to scatterometry and surface characterization are suggested.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. W. Wood, Philos. Mag. 4, 396–398 (1902).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. W. S. Rayleigh, “Note on the remarkable case of diffraction spectra described by Prof. Wood,” Philos. Mag. 14, 60–65 (1907).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Garcia, A. A. Maradudin, “Exact calculations of the diffraction of S-polarized electromagnetic radiation from large-amplitude dielectric gratings,” Opt. Commun. 45, 301–306 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Hessel, A. A. Oliner, “A new theory of Wood’s anomalies on optical gratings,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1275–1297 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  5. U. Fano, “The theory of anomalous diffraction gratings and of quasi-stationary waves on metallic surfaces (Sommerfield’s waves),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 213–222 (1941).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. L. Hope, “Theory of optical grating couplers,” Opt. Commun. 5, 179–182 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Maystre, R. Petit, “Brewster incidence for metallic gratings,” Opt. Commun. 17, 196–200 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. C. Hutley, D. Maystre, “The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating,” Opt. Commun. 19, 431–435 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. H. Zaidi, M. Yousaf, S. R. J. Brueck, “Grating coupling to surface plasma waves. I. First order coupling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 770–779 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Mashev, E. Popov, “Diffraction efficiency anomalies of multi-coated dielectric gratings,” Opt. Commun. 51, 131–136 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Nevière, R. Petit, M. Cadilhac, “About the theory of optical grating coupler-waveguide systems,” Opt. Commun. 8, 113–117 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Shah, T. Tamir, “Brewster phenomena in lossy structures,” Opt. Commun. 23, 113–117 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. L. Chuang, J. A. Kong, “Wave scattering and guidance by dielectric waveguides with periodic surfaces: addendum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1823–1824 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. C. Hutley, V. M. Bird, “A detailed experimental study of the anomalies of a sinusoidal diffraction grating,” Opt. Acta 20, 771–782 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. F. DeSandre, J. M. Elson, “Extinction-theorem analysis of diffraction anomalies in overcoated gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 763–777 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. M. Norton, G. M. Morris, T. Erdogan, “Experimental investigation of resonant-grating filter lineshapes in comparison with theoretical models,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 464–472 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, Z. R. Hatab, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Developed photoresist metrology using scatterometry,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VIII, M. H. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2196, 47–59 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. Chen, Z. Zhang, S. R. J. Brueck, R. Carpio, J. S. Petersen, “Process development for 180-nm structures using interferometric lithography and I-line photoresist,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 309–318 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. B. Buckman, Guided-Wave Photonics (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Orlando, Fla., 1992).
  20. D. L. Lee, Electromagnetic Principles of Integrated Optics (Wiley, New York, 1986).
  21. C. A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics (Wiley, New York, 1989).
  22. D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, “Resonant leaky-wave coupling in linear arrays of antiguides,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1328–1330 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. F. Nabiev, A. I. Onishchenko, “Laterally coupled periodic semiconductor laser structures: Bloch function analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2024–2032 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. A. Zmudzinski, D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, “Simple description of laterally resonant, distributed feedback-like modes of arrays of antiguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1049–1051 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A.-S. Chu, “Silicon quantum walls: fabrication and optical analysis,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M., 1996).
  26. P. Sheng, R. S. Stepleman, P. N. Sanda, “Exact eigenfunctions for square-wave gratings: application to diffraction and surface-plasmon calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 2907–2916 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of planar grating diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 811–818 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, “Diffraction analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1383–1392 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of grating diffraction—E mode polarization and losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 451–455 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1068–1076 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  31. K. P. Bishop, S. M. Gaspar, L. M. Milner, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Grating line shape characterization using scatterometry,” in International Conference on the Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, J. M. Lerner, W. R. McKinney, eds., Proc. SPIE1545, 64–73 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  32. K. P. Bishop, “Use of rigorous diffraction analysis for the characterization of latent-image gratings in photoresist,” M.S. thesis (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992).
  33. S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, R. H. Krukar, K. P. Bishop, “Scatterometry and the simulation of diffraction-based metrology,” Microlithogr. World 2, 5–16 (1993).
  34. S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, R. H. Krukar, Z. R. Hatab, “Grating parameter estimation using scatterometry,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. SPIE1992, 170–180 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Scatterometry for 0.24 μm–0.70 μm developed photoresist metrology,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control IX, M. H. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2439, 427–436 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  36. M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Subwavelength photoresist grating metrology using scatterometry,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, T. Jannson, N. C. Gallagher, eds., Proc. SPIE2532, 251–261 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. R. Murnane, “The characterization of sub-half-micron periodic structures using scatterometry,” M.S. thesis (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M., 1995).
  38. C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Metrology of subwavelength photoresist gratings using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1484–1495 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  39. C. J. Raymond, J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, “Scatterometry for CD measurements of etched structures,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 720–728 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  40. C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, J. W. Hosch, “Multi-parameter grating metrology using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 361–368 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  41. C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Resist and etched line profile characterization using scatterometry,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XI, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE3050, 476–486 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  42. S. A. Coulombe, B. K. Minhas, C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Scatterometry measurement of sub-0.1 μm linewidth gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 80–87 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  43. H. H. Figueroa, “Course notes, computational wave electromagnetics: MESH, SUSI, FEM” (State University of Campinas, Brazil, 1998).
  44. E. N. Glytsis, T. K. Gaylord, “Antireflection surface structure: dielectric layer(s) over a high spatial-frequency surface-relief grating on a lossy substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 27, 4288–4304 (1988).
  45. T. K. Gaylord, W. E. Baird, M. G. Moharam, “Zero-reflectivity high spatial-frequency rectangular-groove dielectric surface-relief gratings,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4562–4567 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. C. W. Haggans, L. Li, R. K. Kostuk, “Effective-medium theory of zeroth-order lamellar gratings in conical mountings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2217–2225 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  47. S. A. Coulombe, “Analysis of dielectric grating anomalies for improving scatterometer linewidth measurement sensitivity,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M., 1999).
  48. J. C. Stover, “Optical scatter: careful measurement of optical scatter provides a keen diagnostic tool for laser applications,” Lasers Optron., 61–69 (August1988).
  49. A. Arsenieva, S. Feng, “Correspondence between correlation functions and enhanced backscattering peak for scattering from smooth random surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13047–13050 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  50. K. A. O’Donnell, R. Torre, C. S. West, “Observations of backscattering effects in second-harmonic generation from a weakly rough metal surface,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1738–1740 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. M. Leyva-Lucero, E. R. Mendez, T. A. Leskova, A. A. Maradudin, J. Q. Lu, “Multiple-scattering effects in the second-harmonic generation of light in reflection from a randomly rough metal surface,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1809–1811 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. P. K. Tien, “Light waves in thin films and integrated optics,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2395–2413 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

S. M. Norton, G. M. Morris, T. Erdogan, “Experimental investigation of resonant-grating filter lineshapes in comparison with theoretical models,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 464–472 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Coulombe, B. K. Minhas, C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Scatterometry measurement of sub-0.1 μm linewidth gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 80–87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, J. W. Hosch, “Multi-parameter grating metrology using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 361–368 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1995 (2)

M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1068–1076 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Metrology of subwavelength photoresist gratings using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1484–1495 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, R. H. Krukar, K. P. Bishop, “Scatterometry and the simulation of diffraction-based metrology,” Microlithogr. World 2, 5–16 (1993).

A. Arsenieva, S. Feng, “Correspondence between correlation functions and enhanced backscattering peak for scattering from smooth random surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13047–13050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Haggans, L. Li, R. K. Kostuk, “Effective-medium theory of zeroth-order lamellar gratings in conical mountings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2217–2225 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

R. F. Nabiev, A. I. Onishchenko, “Laterally coupled periodic semiconductor laser structures: Bloch function analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2024–2032 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Zmudzinski, D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, “Simple description of laterally resonant, distributed feedback-like modes of arrays of antiguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1049–1051 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

1988 (3)

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, “Resonant leaky-wave coupling in linear arrays of antiguides,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1328–1330 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Stover, “Optical scatter: careful measurement of optical scatter provides a keen diagnostic tool for laser applications,” Lasers Optron., 61–69 (August1988).

E. N. Glytsis, T. K. Gaylord, “Antireflection surface structure: dielectric layer(s) over a high spatial-frequency surface-relief grating on a lossy substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 27, 4288–4304 (1988).

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

L. Mashev, E. Popov, “Diffraction efficiency anomalies of multi-coated dielectric gratings,” Opt. Commun. 51, 131–136 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (3)

1982 (2)

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, “Diffraction analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1383–1392 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Sheng, R. S. Stepleman, P. N. Sanda, “Exact eigenfunctions for square-wave gratings: application to diffraction and surface-plasmon calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 2907–2916 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1977 (1)

V. Shah, T. Tamir, “Brewster phenomena in lossy structures,” Opt. Commun. 23, 113–117 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

D. Maystre, R. Petit, “Brewster incidence for metallic gratings,” Opt. Commun. 17, 196–200 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hutley, D. Maystre, “The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating,” Opt. Commun. 19, 431–435 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

M. Nevière, R. Petit, M. Cadilhac, “About the theory of optical grating coupler-waveguide systems,” Opt. Commun. 8, 113–117 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hutley, V. M. Bird, “A detailed experimental study of the anomalies of a sinusoidal diffraction grating,” Opt. Acta 20, 771–782 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

L. L. Hope, “Theory of optical grating couplers,” Opt. Commun. 5, 179–182 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1965 (1)

1941 (1)

1907 (1)

J. W. S. Rayleigh, “Note on the remarkable case of diffraction spectra described by Prof. Wood,” Philos. Mag. 14, 60–65 (1907).
[CrossRef]

1902 (1)

R. W. Wood, Philos. Mag. 4, 396–398 (1902).
[CrossRef]

Arsenieva, A.

A. Arsenieva, S. Feng, “Correspondence between correlation functions and enhanced backscattering peak for scattering from smooth random surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13047–13050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baird, W. E.

Balanis, C. A.

C. A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics (Wiley, New York, 1989).

Bird, V. M.

M. C. Hutley, V. M. Bird, “A detailed experimental study of the anomalies of a sinusoidal diffraction grating,” Opt. Acta 20, 771–782 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, K. P.

S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, R. H. Krukar, K. P. Bishop, “Scatterometry and the simulation of diffraction-based metrology,” Microlithogr. World 2, 5–16 (1993).

K. P. Bishop, S. M. Gaspar, L. M. Milner, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Grating line shape characterization using scatterometry,” in International Conference on the Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, J. M. Lerner, W. R. McKinney, eds., Proc. SPIE1545, 64–73 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Bishop, “Use of rigorous diffraction analysis for the characterization of latent-image gratings in photoresist,” M.S. thesis (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992).

Botez, D.

C. A. Zmudzinski, D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, “Simple description of laterally resonant, distributed feedback-like modes of arrays of antiguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1049–1051 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, “Resonant leaky-wave coupling in linear arrays of antiguides,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1328–1330 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. H. Zaidi, M. Yousaf, S. R. J. Brueck, “Grating coupling to surface plasma waves. I. First order coupling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 770–779 (1991).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, Z. Zhang, S. R. J. Brueck, R. Carpio, J. S. Petersen, “Process development for 180-nm structures using interferometric lithography and I-line photoresist,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 309–318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Buckman, A. B.

A. B. Buckman, Guided-Wave Photonics (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Orlando, Fla., 1992).

Cadilhac, M.

M. Nevière, R. Petit, M. Cadilhac, “About the theory of optical grating coupler-waveguide systems,” Opt. Commun. 8, 113–117 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Carpio, R.

X. Chen, Z. Zhang, S. R. J. Brueck, R. Carpio, J. S. Petersen, “Process development for 180-nm structures using interferometric lithography and I-line photoresist,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 309–318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, Z. Zhang, S. R. J. Brueck, R. Carpio, J. S. Petersen, “Process development for 180-nm structures using interferometric lithography and I-line photoresist,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 309–318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chu, A.-S.

A.-S. Chu, “Silicon quantum walls: fabrication and optical analysis,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M., 1996).

Chuang, S. L.

Coulombe, S. A.

S. A. Coulombe, B. K. Minhas, C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Scatterometry measurement of sub-0.1 μm linewidth gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 80–87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Coulombe, “Analysis of dielectric grating anomalies for improving scatterometer linewidth measurement sensitivity,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M., 1999).

DeSandre, L. F.

Elson, J. M.

Erdogan, T.

Fano, U.

Feng, S.

A. Arsenieva, S. Feng, “Correspondence between correlation functions and enhanced backscattering peak for scattering from smooth random surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13047–13050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Figueroa, H. H.

H. H. Figueroa, “Course notes, computational wave electromagnetics: MESH, SUSI, FEM” (State University of Campinas, Brazil, 1998).

Garcia, N.

N. Garcia, A. A. Maradudin, “Exact calculations of the diffraction of S-polarized electromagnetic radiation from large-amplitude dielectric gratings,” Opt. Commun. 45, 301–306 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gaspar, S. M.

K. P. Bishop, S. M. Gaspar, L. M. Milner, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Grating line shape characterization using scatterometry,” in International Conference on the Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, J. M. Lerner, W. R. McKinney, eds., Proc. SPIE1545, 64–73 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Glytsis, E. N.

E. N. Glytsis, T. K. Gaylord, “Antireflection surface structure: dielectric layer(s) over a high spatial-frequency surface-relief grating on a lossy substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 27, 4288–4304 (1988).

Grann, E. B.

Haggans, C. W.

Hatab, Z. R.

S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, R. H. Krukar, Z. R. Hatab, “Grating parameter estimation using scatterometry,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. SPIE1992, 170–180 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, Z. R. Hatab, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Developed photoresist metrology using scatterometry,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VIII, M. H. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2196, 47–59 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hessel, A.

Hope, L. L.

L. L. Hope, “Theory of optical grating couplers,” Opt. Commun. 5, 179–182 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hosch, J. W.

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, J. W. Hosch, “Multi-parameter grating metrology using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 361–368 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hutley, M. C.

M. C. Hutley, D. Maystre, “The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating,” Opt. Commun. 19, 431–435 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hutley, V. M. Bird, “A detailed experimental study of the anomalies of a sinusoidal diffraction grating,” Opt. Acta 20, 771–782 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

Kostuk, R. K.

Krukar, R. H.

S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, R. H. Krukar, K. P. Bishop, “Scatterometry and the simulation of diffraction-based metrology,” Microlithogr. World 2, 5–16 (1993).

S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, R. H. Krukar, Z. R. Hatab, “Grating parameter estimation using scatterometry,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. SPIE1992, 170–180 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. L.

D. L. Lee, Electromagnetic Principles of Integrated Optics (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Leskova, T. A.

Leyva-Lucero, M.

Li, L.

Lu, J. Q.

Maradudin, A. A.

M. Leyva-Lucero, E. R. Mendez, T. A. Leskova, A. A. Maradudin, J. Q. Lu, “Multiple-scattering effects in the second-harmonic generation of light in reflection from a randomly rough metal surface,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1809–1811 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Garcia, A. A. Maradudin, “Exact calculations of the diffraction of S-polarized electromagnetic radiation from large-amplitude dielectric gratings,” Opt. Commun. 45, 301–306 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mashev, L.

L. Mashev, E. Popov, “Diffraction efficiency anomalies of multi-coated dielectric gratings,” Opt. Commun. 51, 131–136 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mawst, L. J.

C. A. Zmudzinski, D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, “Simple description of laterally resonant, distributed feedback-like modes of arrays of antiguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1049–1051 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, “Resonant leaky-wave coupling in linear arrays of antiguides,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1328–1330 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Maystre, D.

M. C. Hutley, D. Maystre, “The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating,” Opt. Commun. 19, 431–435 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. Maystre, R. Petit, “Brewster incidence for metallic gratings,” Opt. Commun. 17, 196–200 (1976).
[CrossRef]

McNeil, J. R.

S. A. Coulombe, B. K. Minhas, C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Scatterometry measurement of sub-0.1 μm linewidth gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 80–87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, J. W. Hosch, “Multi-parameter grating metrology using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 361–368 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Metrology of subwavelength photoresist gratings using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1484–1495 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, R. H. Krukar, K. P. Bishop, “Scatterometry and the simulation of diffraction-based metrology,” Microlithogr. World 2, 5–16 (1993).

K. P. Bishop, S. M. Gaspar, L. M. Milner, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Grating line shape characterization using scatterometry,” in International Conference on the Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, J. M. Lerner, W. R. McKinney, eds., Proc. SPIE1545, 64–73 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, R. H. Krukar, Z. R. Hatab, “Grating parameter estimation using scatterometry,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. SPIE1992, 170–180 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Scatterometry for 0.24 μm–0.70 μm developed photoresist metrology,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control IX, M. H. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2439, 427–436 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Subwavelength photoresist grating metrology using scatterometry,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, T. Jannson, N. C. Gallagher, eds., Proc. SPIE2532, 251–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Raymond, J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, “Scatterometry for CD measurements of etched structures,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 720–728 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Resist and etched line profile characterization using scatterometry,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XI, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE3050, 476–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, Z. R. Hatab, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Developed photoresist metrology using scatterometry,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VIII, M. H. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2196, 47–59 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mendez, E. R.

Milner, L. M.

K. P. Bishop, S. M. Gaspar, L. M. Milner, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Grating line shape characterization using scatterometry,” in International Conference on the Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, J. M. Lerner, W. R. McKinney, eds., Proc. SPIE1545, 64–73 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Minhas, B. K.

S. A. Coulombe, B. K. Minhas, C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Scatterometry measurement of sub-0.1 μm linewidth gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 80–87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Morris, G. M.

Murnane, M. R.

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, J. W. Hosch, “Multi-parameter grating metrology using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 361–368 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Metrology of subwavelength photoresist gratings using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1484–1495 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Murnane, “The characterization of sub-half-micron periodic structures using scatterometry,” M.S. thesis (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M., 1995).

M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Subwavelength photoresist grating metrology using scatterometry,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, T. Jannson, N. C. Gallagher, eds., Proc. SPIE2532, 251–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Scatterometry for 0.24 μm–0.70 μm developed photoresist metrology,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control IX, M. H. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2439, 427–436 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, Z. R. Hatab, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Developed photoresist metrology using scatterometry,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VIII, M. H. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2196, 47–59 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nabiev, R. F.

R. F. Nabiev, A. I. Onishchenko, “Laterally coupled periodic semiconductor laser structures: Bloch function analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2024–2032 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Naqvi, S. S. H.

S. A. Coulombe, B. K. Minhas, C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Scatterometry measurement of sub-0.1 μm linewidth gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 80–87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, J. W. Hosch, “Multi-parameter grating metrology using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 361–368 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Metrology of subwavelength photoresist gratings using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1484–1495 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, R. H. Krukar, K. P. Bishop, “Scatterometry and the simulation of diffraction-based metrology,” Microlithogr. World 2, 5–16 (1993).

K. P. Bishop, S. M. Gaspar, L. M. Milner, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Grating line shape characterization using scatterometry,” in International Conference on the Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, J. M. Lerner, W. R. McKinney, eds., Proc. SPIE1545, 64–73 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, Z. R. Hatab, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Developed photoresist metrology using scatterometry,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VIII, M. H. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2196, 47–59 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Raymond, J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, “Scatterometry for CD measurements of etched structures,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 720–728 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Resist and etched line profile characterization using scatterometry,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XI, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE3050, 476–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, R. H. Krukar, Z. R. Hatab, “Grating parameter estimation using scatterometry,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. SPIE1992, 170–180 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Scatterometry for 0.24 μm–0.70 μm developed photoresist metrology,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control IX, M. H. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2439, 427–436 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Subwavelength photoresist grating metrology using scatterometry,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, T. Jannson, N. C. Gallagher, eds., Proc. SPIE2532, 251–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nevière, M.

M. Nevière, R. Petit, M. Cadilhac, “About the theory of optical grating coupler-waveguide systems,” Opt. Commun. 8, 113–117 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Norton, S. M.

O’Donnell, K. A.

Oliner, A. A.

Onishchenko, A. I.

R. F. Nabiev, A. I. Onishchenko, “Laterally coupled periodic semiconductor laser structures: Bloch function analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2024–2032 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, J. S.

X. Chen, Z. Zhang, S. R. J. Brueck, R. Carpio, J. S. Petersen, “Process development for 180-nm structures using interferometric lithography and I-line photoresist,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 309–318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, G. L.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, “Resonant leaky-wave coupling in linear arrays of antiguides,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1328–1330 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Petit, R.

D. Maystre, R. Petit, “Brewster incidence for metallic gratings,” Opt. Commun. 17, 196–200 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Nevière, R. Petit, M. Cadilhac, “About the theory of optical grating coupler-waveguide systems,” Opt. Commun. 8, 113–117 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Pommet, D. A.

Popov, E.

L. Mashev, E. Popov, “Diffraction efficiency anomalies of multi-coated dielectric gratings,” Opt. Commun. 51, 131–136 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Prins, S. L.

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, J. W. Hosch, “Multi-parameter grating metrology using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 361–368 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Scatterometry for 0.24 μm–0.70 μm developed photoresist metrology,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control IX, M. H. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2439, 427–436 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rayleigh, J. W. S.

J. W. S. Rayleigh, “Note on the remarkable case of diffraction spectra described by Prof. Wood,” Philos. Mag. 14, 60–65 (1907).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, C. J.

S. A. Coulombe, B. K. Minhas, C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Scatterometry measurement of sub-0.1 μm linewidth gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 80–87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, J. W. Hosch, “Multi-parameter grating metrology using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 361–368 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Metrology of subwavelength photoresist gratings using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1484–1495 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Subwavelength photoresist grating metrology using scatterometry,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, T. Jannson, N. C. Gallagher, eds., Proc. SPIE2532, 251–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Scatterometry for 0.24 μm–0.70 μm developed photoresist metrology,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control IX, M. H. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2439, 427–436 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Raymond, J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, “Scatterometry for CD measurements of etched structures,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 720–728 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Resist and etched line profile characterization using scatterometry,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XI, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE3050, 476–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, Z. R. Hatab, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Developed photoresist metrology using scatterometry,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VIII, M. H. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2196, 47–59 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sanda, P. N.

P. Sheng, R. S. Stepleman, P. N. Sanda, “Exact eigenfunctions for square-wave gratings: application to diffraction and surface-plasmon calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 2907–2916 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shah, V.

V. Shah, T. Tamir, “Brewster phenomena in lossy structures,” Opt. Commun. 23, 113–117 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

P. Sheng, R. S. Stepleman, P. N. Sanda, “Exact eigenfunctions for square-wave gratings: application to diffraction and surface-plasmon calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 2907–2916 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stepleman, R. S.

P. Sheng, R. S. Stepleman, P. N. Sanda, “Exact eigenfunctions for square-wave gratings: application to diffraction and surface-plasmon calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 2907–2916 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stover, J. C.

J. C. Stover, “Optical scatter: careful measurement of optical scatter provides a keen diagnostic tool for laser applications,” Lasers Optron., 61–69 (August1988).

Tamir, T.

V. Shah, T. Tamir, “Brewster phenomena in lossy structures,” Opt. Commun. 23, 113–117 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

Torre, R.

West, C. S.

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Philos. Mag. 4, 396–398 (1902).
[CrossRef]

Yousaf, M.

Zaidi, S. H.

Zhang, Z.

X. Chen, Z. Zhang, S. R. J. Brueck, R. Carpio, J. S. Petersen, “Process development for 180-nm structures using interferometric lithography and I-line photoresist,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 309–318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zmudzinski, C. A.

C. A. Zmudzinski, D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, “Simple description of laterally resonant, distributed feedback-like modes of arrays of antiguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1049–1051 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. A. Zmudzinski, D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, “Simple description of laterally resonant, distributed feedback-like modes of arrays of antiguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1049–1051 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, “Resonant leaky-wave coupling in linear arrays of antiguides,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1328–1330 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. F. Nabiev, A. I. Onishchenko, “Laterally coupled periodic semiconductor laser structures: Bloch function analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2024–2032 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. N. Glytsis, T. K. Gaylord, “Antireflection surface structure: dielectric layer(s) over a high spatial-frequency surface-relief grating on a lossy substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 27, 4288–4304 (1988).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (3)

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Metrology of subwavelength photoresist gratings using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1484–1495 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, J. W. Hosch, “Multi-parameter grating metrology using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 361–368 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Coulombe, B. K. Minhas, C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Scatterometry measurement of sub-0.1 μm linewidth gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 80–87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Optron. (1)

J. C. Stover, “Optical scatter: careful measurement of optical scatter provides a keen diagnostic tool for laser applications,” Lasers Optron., 61–69 (August1988).

Microlithogr. World (1)

S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, R. H. Krukar, K. P. Bishop, “Scatterometry and the simulation of diffraction-based metrology,” Microlithogr. World 2, 5–16 (1993).

Opt. Acta (1)

M. C. Hutley, V. M. Bird, “A detailed experimental study of the anomalies of a sinusoidal diffraction grating,” Opt. Acta 20, 771–782 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (7)

L. Mashev, E. Popov, “Diffraction efficiency anomalies of multi-coated dielectric gratings,” Opt. Commun. 51, 131–136 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Nevière, R. Petit, M. Cadilhac, “About the theory of optical grating coupler-waveguide systems,” Opt. Commun. 8, 113–117 (1973).
[CrossRef]

V. Shah, T. Tamir, “Brewster phenomena in lossy structures,” Opt. Commun. 23, 113–117 (1977).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Hope, “Theory of optical grating couplers,” Opt. Commun. 5, 179–182 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. Maystre, R. Petit, “Brewster incidence for metallic gratings,” Opt. Commun. 17, 196–200 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hutley, D. Maystre, “The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating,” Opt. Commun. 19, 431–435 (1976).
[CrossRef]

N. Garcia, A. A. Maradudin, “Exact calculations of the diffraction of S-polarized electromagnetic radiation from large-amplitude dielectric gratings,” Opt. Commun. 45, 301–306 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Philos. Mag. (2)

R. W. Wood, Philos. Mag. 4, 396–398 (1902).
[CrossRef]

J. W. S. Rayleigh, “Note on the remarkable case of diffraction spectra described by Prof. Wood,” Philos. Mag. 14, 60–65 (1907).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. Sheng, R. S. Stepleman, P. N. Sanda, “Exact eigenfunctions for square-wave gratings: application to diffraction and surface-plasmon calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 2907–2916 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Arsenieva, S. Feng, “Correspondence between correlation functions and enhanced backscattering peak for scattering from smooth random surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13047–13050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

S. A. Coulombe, “Analysis of dielectric grating anomalies for improving scatterometer linewidth measurement sensitivity,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M., 1999).

H. H. Figueroa, “Course notes, computational wave electromagnetics: MESH, SUSI, FEM” (State University of Campinas, Brazil, 1998).

C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Resist and etched line profile characterization using scatterometry,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XI, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE3050, 476–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Raymond, J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, “Scatterometry for CD measurements of etched structures,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 720–728 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, R. H. Krukar, Z. R. Hatab, “Grating parameter estimation using scatterometry,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. SPIE1992, 170–180 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Scatterometry for 0.24 μm–0.70 μm developed photoresist metrology,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control IX, M. H. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2439, 427–436 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Subwavelength photoresist grating metrology using scatterometry,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, T. Jannson, N. C. Gallagher, eds., Proc. SPIE2532, 251–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Murnane, “The characterization of sub-half-micron periodic structures using scatterometry,” M.S. thesis (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M., 1995).

K. P. Bishop, S. M. Gaspar, L. M. Milner, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Grating line shape characterization using scatterometry,” in International Conference on the Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, J. M. Lerner, W. R. McKinney, eds., Proc. SPIE1545, 64–73 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Bishop, “Use of rigorous diffraction analysis for the characterization of latent-image gratings in photoresist,” M.S. thesis (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992).

A.-S. Chu, “Silicon quantum walls: fabrication and optical analysis,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M., 1996).

M. R. Murnane, C. J. Raymond, Z. R. Hatab, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Developed photoresist metrology using scatterometry,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VIII, M. H. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2196, 47–59 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, Z. Zhang, S. R. J. Brueck, R. Carpio, J. S. Petersen, “Process development for 180-nm structures using interferometric lithography and I-line photoresist,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 309–318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Buckman, Guided-Wave Photonics (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Orlando, Fla., 1992).

D. L. Lee, Electromagnetic Principles of Integrated Optics (Wiley, New York, 1986).

C. A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics (Wiley, New York, 1989).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental TE conventional grating diffraction efficiencies for m=0 and m=-1 with nominal parameters: Λ=360 nm, w=126 nm, photoresist thickness=540 nm, ARC thickness=160 nm, on Si substrate; θi is angle of incidence and m is diffraction order.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized (to incident intensity) diffuse scatter intensity for (a) forward direction, in plane of incidence 18° left of the specular direction (facing detector), as a function of θi, and (b) antispecular direction, for θi=43°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Geometry and coordinate system used for modal analyses of a dielectric grating on ARC film on Si; the xz plane is the plane of incidence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanning electron microscope photograph of developed photoresist grating at 20,000× magnification; dimensions from Fig. 1 apply (photo courtesy of Xiaolan Chen, Center for High Technology Materials (CHTM), Albuquerque, N. Mex.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electric field intensity at resonance, in the incident region near the grating surface for m=-1; width shown of grating surface is 360 nm, and length shown of incident region is 600 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Electric field amplitude contours for the incident region at and within 600 nm of the grating surface, for θi=(a) 46.0°, (b) 49.0°, and (c) 49.3°; for each plot a single 360-nm grating period is shown, and the grating surface is located at the bottom.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Electric field intensity within the grating region for r=0.35 and θi=43.0° (at resonance).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of normalized diffuse, forward-scatter intensity with normalized m=-1 surface field intensity; Gaussian curve is shown for comparison with a symmetric profile.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Guided-wave mode profiles (TE0, TE1, TE2) for photoresist grating on ARC on Si; air/grating interface located at z=6.00 μm, grating/ARC interface located at z=6.54 μm, and ARC/substrate interface located at z=6.70 μm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Reflected diffracted fields at the surface of the grating for the parameters: Λ=360 nm, r=0.65, photoresist thickness = 960 nm, and ARC thickness = 10 nm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Field intensity profiles from modal analysis for grating with Λ=360 nm, photoresist thickness = 960 nm, ARC thickness = 10 nm, r=0.65 and for (a) TE0 mode at θi=20.7°, (b) TE1 mode at θi=27.4°, and (c) TE2 mode at θi=41.9°.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Normalized Propagation Constants kx and kxm Determined from EMT/WG Mode Computations and by Modal Analysis, Respectively, for Photoresist Gratings with Linewidth/Pitch Variations of r=0.35, r=0.65, and r=0.80

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Normalized Propagation Constants kx and kxm Determined from EMT/WG Mode Computations and by Modal Analysis, Respectively, for a Photoresist Grating Thickness of 720 nm, Three ARC Thicknesses, and r=0.65

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of Normalized Propagation Constants kx and kxm Determined from EMT/WG Mode Computations and by Modal Analysis, Respectively, for a Photoresist Grating Thickness of 960 nm, ARC Thickness of 10 nm, and r=0.65

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

sin θr-sin θi=mλ0Λ,
kxm=k0 sin θi+m 2πΛ,
ΨI=exp{ik0[(sin θi)x-(cos θi)z]}+m=-Rm exp[ik0(γmx+1-γm2z)],
γm=sin θi+m λ0Λ,
ΨII=l=0Xl(x)[Al exp(iΛlz)+Bl exp(-iΛlz)],
neff=(1-r)n0+rnPR.

Metrics