Abstract

Soft contact lenses with different levels of third-order spherical aberration were tested in two samples of subjects aged between 20 and 45 years: 18 emmetropes and 19 myopes. Contrast sensitivity was measured at 12 cycles/degree to determine the optimal lens spherical aberration required by each individual. The optimal third-order coefficient was found to be negative on average in both refractive error groups. Myopic subjects required contact lenses with more negative spherical aberration than did emmetropes. The optimal aberration was also found to become increasingly negative with aging. The rate of this age-related change was faster in the myopic group. In comparison with aberration-free soft contact lenses, an improvement in contrast detection threshold of more than 25% was observed with optimal spherical aberration in half of the myopic subjects.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, F. Bouchard, S. Guidollet, “Contrast sensitivity with soft contact lenses compensated for spherical aberration in high ametropia,” Optom. Vision Sci. 75, 37–43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Glasser, M. C. W. Campbell, “Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age,” Vision Res. 38, 209–229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (4)

1996 (2)

N. Chateau, J. de Brabander, F. Bouchard, H. Molenaar, “Infrared pupillometry in presbyopes fitted with soft contact lenses,” Optom. Vision Sci. 73, 733–741 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Risse, P. Saint Blancat, M. Boissonnot, L. Grillot, “La sensibilité au contraste spatial chez le fort myope,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 17, 271–277 (1996).

1995 (6)

D. A. Atchison, “Aberrations associated with rigid contact lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2267–2273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Atchison, M. J. Collins, C. F. Wildsoet, J. Christensen, M. D. Waterworth, “Measurement of monochromatic ocular aberrations of human eyes as a function of accommodation by the Howland aberroscope technique,” Vision Res. 35, 313–323 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Walsh, M. J. Cox, “A new computerized video-aberroscope for the determination of the aberration of the human eye,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15, 403–408 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Collins, C. F. Wildsoet, D. A. Atchison, “Monochromatic aberrations and myopia,” Vision Res. 35, 1157–1163 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, I. Iglesias, N. Lopez-Gil, D. G. Green, “Double-pass measurements of the retinal-image quality with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes and the reversibility of the eye’s optical system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2358–2366 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Atchison “Accommodation and presbyopia,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15, 255–272 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. M. Hammer, B. A. Holden, “Spherical aberration of aspheric contact lenses on eye,” Optom. Vision Sci. 71, 522–528 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (2)

W. N. Charman, “Wavefront aberration of the eye: a review,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 574–583 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, X. Zhang, “Effect of ocular chromatic aberration on monocular visual performance,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 599–607 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

I. Cox, “Theoretical calculation of the longitudinal spherical aberration of rigid and soft contact lenses,” Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 277–282 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. Cox, B. A. Holden, “Soft contact lens-induced longitudinal spherical aberration and its effect on contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 679–683 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. P. Comerford, F. Thorn, T. R. Corwin, “Effect of luminance level on contrast sensitivity in myopia,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64, 810–814 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

J. G. Sivak, R. O. Kreuzer, “Spherical aberration of the crystalline lens,” Vision Res. 23, 59–70 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

C. E. Campbell, “The effect of spherical aberrations of contact lenses to the wearer,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 58, 212–217 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

1979 (2)

G. T. Bauer, H. B. Lechner, “Measurement of longitudinal spherical aberration of soft contact lenses,” Opt. Lett. 4, 224–226 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Corwin, R. T. Kintz, W. J. Beaty, “Computer-aided estimation of psychophysical thresholds by Wetherill tracking,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 11, 526–528 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

W. N. Charman, J. A. M. Jennings, “The optical quality of the monochromatic retinal image as a function of focus,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 31, 119–134 (1976).
[PubMed]

1963 (1)

T. C. A. Jenkins, “Aberrations of the eye and their effects on vision. Part 1,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 20, 59–91 (1963).

1961 (1)

G. Westheimer, “Aberrations of contact lenses,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 38, 445–448 (1961).
[PubMed]

1958 (1)

H. Shober, H. Munker, F. Zolleis, “Die Aberration des menschlichen Auges und ihre Messung,” Opt. Acta 15, 45–47 (1958).

1951 (1)

M. Françon, “Aberration sphérique, chromatisme et pouvoir séparateur de l’œil,” Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 30, 71–80 (1951).

1949 (1)

Applegate, R. A.

Artal, P.

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, C. Gonzalez, E. Geraghtly, S. Norrby, P. Artal, “Average optical modulation transfer function of the human eye as a function of age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S1014 (1997).

P. Artal, I. Iglesias, N. Lopez-Gil, D. G. Green, “Double-pass measurements of the retinal-image quality with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes and the reversibility of the eye’s optical system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2358–2366 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Atchison, D. A.

M. J. Collins, C. F. Wildsoet, D. A. Atchison, “Monochromatic aberrations and myopia,” Vision Res. 35, 1157–1163 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Atchison, “Aberrations associated with rigid contact lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2267–2273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Atchison, M. J. Collins, C. F. Wildsoet, J. Christensen, M. D. Waterworth, “Measurement of monochromatic ocular aberrations of human eyes as a function of accommodation by the Howland aberroscope technique,” Vision Res. 35, 313–323 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Atchison “Accommodation and presbyopia,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15, 255–272 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballentine, C.

Baude, D.

D. Baude, “Caractérisation, optimisation et réalisation de composants optiques multifocaux diffractifs et réfractifs,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Paris-Sud, Orsay, France, 1990).

Bauer, G. T.

Beaty, W. J.

T. R. Corwin, R. T. Kintz, W. J. Beaty, “Computer-aided estimation of psychophysical thresholds by Wetherill tracking,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 11, 526–528 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Boissonnot, M.

J. F. Risse, P. Saint Blancat, M. Boissonnot, L. Grillot, “La sensibilité au contraste spatial chez le fort myope,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 17, 271–277 (1996).

Bouchard, F.

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, F. Bouchard, S. Guidollet, “Contrast sensitivity with soft contact lenses compensated for spherical aberration in high ametropia,” Optom. Vision Sci. 75, 37–43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Chateau, J. de Brabander, F. Bouchard, H. Molenaar, “Infrared pupillometry in presbyopes fitted with soft contact lenses,” Optom. Vision Sci. 73, 733–741 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, A.

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, X. Zhang, “Effect of ocular chromatic aberration on monocular visual performance,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 599–607 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, C. E.

C. E. Campbell, “The effect of spherical aberrations of contact lenses to the wearer,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 58, 212–217 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, M. C. W.

A. Glasser, M. C. W. Campbell, “Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age,” Vision Res. 38, 209–229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. W. Campbell, W. N. Charman, L. Voisin, C. Cui, “Psychophysical measurement of the optical quality of varifocal contact lenses,” in Ophthalmic and Visual Optics and Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 12–15.

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman, “Wavefront aberration of the eye: a review,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 574–583 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Charman, J. A. M. Jennings, “The optical quality of the monochromatic retinal image as a function of focus,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 31, 119–134 (1976).
[PubMed]

M. C. W. Campbell, W. N. Charman, L. Voisin, C. Cui, “Psychophysical measurement of the optical quality of varifocal contact lenses,” in Ophthalmic and Visual Optics and Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 12–15.

Chateau, N.

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, F. Bouchard, S. Guidollet, “Contrast sensitivity with soft contact lenses compensated for spherical aberration in high ametropia,” Optom. Vision Sci. 75, 37–43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Chateau, J. de Brabander, F. Bouchard, H. Molenaar, “Infrared pupillometry in presbyopes fitted with soft contact lenses,” Optom. Vision Sci. 73, 733–741 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, J.

D. A. Atchison, M. J. Collins, C. F. Wildsoet, J. Christensen, M. D. Waterworth, “Measurement of monochromatic ocular aberrations of human eyes as a function of accommodation by the Howland aberroscope technique,” Vision Res. 35, 313–323 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, M. J.

D. A. Atchison, M. J. Collins, C. F. Wildsoet, J. Christensen, M. D. Waterworth, “Measurement of monochromatic ocular aberrations of human eyes as a function of accommodation by the Howland aberroscope technique,” Vision Res. 35, 313–323 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Collins, C. F. Wildsoet, D. A. Atchison, “Monochromatic aberrations and myopia,” Vision Res. 35, 1157–1163 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comerford, J. P.

J. P. Comerford, F. Thorn, T. R. Corwin, “Effect of luminance level on contrast sensitivity in myopia,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64, 810–814 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Com-Nougué, C.

A. Laplanche, C. Com-Nougué, R. Flamant, “Comparaison de deux traitements.Risque d’erreur, puissance, nombre de sujets nécessaire,” in Méthodes Statistiques Appliquées à la Recherche Clinique, A. Laplanche, C. Com-Nougué, R. Flamant, eds. (Flammarion, Paris, 1996), pp. 45–57.

Corwin, T. R.

J. P. Comerford, F. Thorn, T. R. Corwin, “Effect of luminance level on contrast sensitivity in myopia,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64, 810–814 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Corwin, R. T. Kintz, W. J. Beaty, “Computer-aided estimation of psychophysical thresholds by Wetherill tracking,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 11, 526–528 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Cox, I.

I. Cox, B. A. Holden, “Soft contact lens-induced longitudinal spherical aberration and its effect on contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 679–683 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. Cox, “Theoretical calculation of the longitudinal spherical aberration of rigid and soft contact lenses,” Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 277–282 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cox, M. J.

G. Walsh, M. J. Cox, “A new computerized video-aberroscope for the determination of the aberration of the human eye,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15, 403–408 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, C.

M. C. W. Campbell, W. N. Charman, L. Voisin, C. Cui, “Psychophysical measurement of the optical quality of varifocal contact lenses,” in Ophthalmic and Visual Optics and Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 12–15.

de Brabander, J.

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, F. Bouchard, S. Guidollet, “Contrast sensitivity with soft contact lenses compensated for spherical aberration in high ametropia,” Optom. Vision Sci. 75, 37–43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Chateau, J. de Brabander, F. Bouchard, H. Molenaar, “Infrared pupillometry in presbyopes fitted with soft contact lenses,” Optom. Vision Sci. 73, 733–741 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, R.

A. Laplanche, C. Com-Nougué, R. Flamant, “Comparaison de deux traitements.Risque d’erreur, puissance, nombre de sujets nécessaire,” in Méthodes Statistiques Appliquées à la Recherche Clinique, A. Laplanche, C. Com-Nougué, R. Flamant, eds. (Flammarion, Paris, 1996), pp. 45–57.

Françon, M.

M. Françon, “Aberration sphérique, chromatisme et pouvoir séparateur de l’œil,” Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 30, 71–80 (1951).

Geraghtly, E.

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, C. Gonzalez, E. Geraghtly, S. Norrby, P. Artal, “Average optical modulation transfer function of the human eye as a function of age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S1014 (1997).

Glasser, A.

A. Glasser, M. C. W. Campbell, “Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age,” Vision Res. 38, 209–229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, C.

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, C. Gonzalez, E. Geraghtly, S. Norrby, P. Artal, “Average optical modulation transfer function of the human eye as a function of age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S1014 (1997).

Green, D. G.

Grillot, L.

J. F. Risse, P. Saint Blancat, M. Boissonnot, L. Grillot, “La sensibilité au contraste spatial chez le fort myope,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 17, 271–277 (1996).

Guidollet, S.

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, F. Bouchard, S. Guidollet, “Contrast sensitivity with soft contact lenses compensated for spherical aberration in high ametropia,” Optom. Vision Sci. 75, 37–43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guillon, M.

M. Guillon, “Basic contact lens fitting,” in Contact Lens Practice, M. Ruben, M. Guillon, eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1994), pp. 587–622.

Guirao, A.

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, C. Gonzalez, E. Geraghtly, S. Norrby, P. Artal, “Average optical modulation transfer function of the human eye as a function of age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S1014 (1997).

Hammer, R. M.

R. M. Hammer, B. A. Holden, “Spherical aberration of aspheric contact lenses on eye,” Optom. Vision Sci. 71, 522–528 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, J. M.

Holden, B. A.

R. M. Hammer, B. A. Holden, “Spherical aberration of aspheric contact lenses on eye,” Optom. Vision Sci. 71, 522–528 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Cox, B. A. Holden, “Soft contact lens-induced longitudinal spherical aberration and its effect on contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 679–683 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Howland, B.

Howland, H. C.

Iglesias, I.

Ivanoff, A.

A. Ivanoff, Les Aberrations de l’Oeil (Editions de la Revue d’Optique Théorique et Instrumentale, Paris, 1953).

Jenkins, T. C. A.

T. C. A. Jenkins, “Aberrations of the eye and their effects on vision. Part 1,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 20, 59–91 (1963).

Jennings, J. A. M.

W. N. Charman, J. A. M. Jennings, “The optical quality of the monochromatic retinal image as a function of focus,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 31, 119–134 (1976).
[PubMed]

Kintz, R. T.

T. R. Corwin, R. T. Kintz, W. J. Beaty, “Computer-aided estimation of psychophysical thresholds by Wetherill tracking,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 11, 526–528 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Koomen, M.

Kreuzer, R. O.

J. G. Sivak, R. O. Kreuzer, “Spherical aberration of the crystalline lens,” Vision Res. 23, 59–70 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Laplanche, A.

A. Laplanche, C. Com-Nougué, R. Flamant, “Comparaison de deux traitements.Risque d’erreur, puissance, nombre de sujets nécessaire,” in Méthodes Statistiques Appliquées à la Recherche Clinique, A. Laplanche, C. Com-Nougué, R. Flamant, eds. (Flammarion, Paris, 1996), pp. 45–57.

Lechner, H. B.

Liang, J.

Lopez-Gil, N.

Miller, D. T.

Molenaar, H.

N. Chateau, J. de Brabander, F. Bouchard, H. Molenaar, “Infrared pupillometry in presbyopes fitted with soft contact lenses,” Optom. Vision Sci. 73, 733–741 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Munker, H.

H. Shober, H. Munker, F. Zolleis, “Die Aberration des menschlichen Auges und ihre Messung,” Opt. Acta 15, 45–47 (1958).

Norrby, S.

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, C. Gonzalez, E. Geraghtly, S. Norrby, P. Artal, “Average optical modulation transfer function of the human eye as a function of age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S1014 (1997).

Owsley, C.

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Redondo, M.

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, C. Gonzalez, E. Geraghtly, S. Norrby, P. Artal, “Average optical modulation transfer function of the human eye as a function of age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S1014 (1997).

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Collins, C. F. Wildsoet, D. A. Atchison, “Monochromatic aberrations and myopia,” Vision Res. 35, 1157–1163 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Sivak, R. O. Kreuzer, “Spherical aberration of the crystalline lens,” Vision Res. 23, 59–70 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Glasser, M. C. W. Campbell, “Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age,” Vision Res. 38, 209–229 (1998).
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M. Guillon, “Basic contact lens fitting,” in Contact Lens Practice, M. Ruben, M. Guillon, eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1994), pp. 587–622.

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D. Baude, “Caractérisation, optimisation et réalisation de composants optiques multifocaux diffractifs et réfractifs,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Paris-Sud, Orsay, France, 1990).

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M. C. W. Campbell, W. N. Charman, L. Voisin, C. Cui, “Psychophysical measurement of the optical quality of varifocal contact lenses,” in Ophthalmic and Visual Optics and Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 12–15.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Distribution of spherical refractive error in the subjects.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Distributions of age in the two refractive error groups.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average CS results represented as a function of the third-order spherical aberration coefficient in the two refractive error groups. Sensitivities of 1.0 and 2.0 log units correspond to contrast detection thresholds of 10% and 1%, respectively. The bars represent ±1 standard deviation; the boxes, ±1 standard error.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Responses of four myopic subjects to varying SA. The dots represent experimental data, and the curves show the results of parabolic fitting to these data. Subjects’ ages, optimal aberration coefficients, and parabolic fit correlation coefficients are reported on the graphs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Distributions of ΔCS in the two refractive error groups. ΔCS is the increase in CS obtained with optimal SA, compared with that found with an aberration-free contact lens.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Representation of the optimal SA coefficient as a function of age in the two refractive error groups. The results of linear regression are represented by solid lines; 95% confidence limits, by dashed curves.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Characteristic Values of the Clinical Protocol Used in Sample Size and Power Analysis Calculationsa

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Table 2 Parameters and Test Conditions for CS Measurements

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Table 3 Spherical Aberration Coefficients A and Paraxial Powers P0 of the Prototype SCL’sa

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Table 4 Descriptive Statistics of the Results in Myopic and Emmetropic Samples

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Table 5 Results of Correlation Analysis between Age and Variables CSMAX, CS(0), ΔCS, and AOPT

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P(r)=P0+A×r2,
CS(A)=CSMAX-S×(A-AOPT)2,
ΔCS=CS(AOPT)-CS(0)=S×AOPT2.
AOPT=0.097-0.0047×Age,
AOPT=0.13-0.0085×Age,

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