Abstract

We measured retinal image quality in astigmatic eyes, using the double-pass technique. We analyzed the influence of the amount of astigmatism and changes in axis of astigmatism on the eye’s optical performance. Different amounts of astigmatism were obtained by variation of the cylindrical power of a lens situated in front of the eye, between 0.25-diopter (D) overcorrection and 1-D undercorrection at intervals of 0.25 D. Changes in the axis of astigmatism were obtained by rotation of the lens, which neutralizes the astigmatism in an angle of ±10° at 5° intervals. The results show the decrease in retinal image quality and the increase in the degree of image astigmatism obtained when the amount of astigmatism increases or the angle between the lens and the eye axis is other than zero. In general, the largest variations correspond to when the astigmatism changes from 0 to 0.25 D or when the axis changes from 0° to ±5°. The reduction in optical performance is smaller in living eyes than in an eye model or in an artificial eye. The aberrations present in the living eye reduce the relative loss of retinal image quality introduced by astigmatism.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  37. P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, R. Navarro, “Effects of aging in retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1656–1662 (1993).
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  38. P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, I. Miranda, M. Ferro, “Through focus image quality of eyes implanted with monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” Opt. Eng. 34, 772–779 (1995).
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  39. R. Navarro, P. Artal, D. R. Williams, “Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 201–212 (1993).
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    [CrossRef]
  41. J. Gispets, M. Arjona, J. Pujol, “Influence of progressive lenses in the retinal image quality,” Perception Suppl. 26, 61 (1997).
  42. J. Pujol, A. Torrents, J. Gispets, “Objective evaluation of the quality of the retinal image in contact lens wearers,” in Proceedings of Lasers in Ophthalmology III, R. Birngruber, A. F. Fercher, eds., Proc. SPIE2632, 36–47 (1996).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of pupil centration and diameter on ocular performance,” Vision Res. 28, 659–665 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. R. Navarro, J. Santamarı́a, J. Bescós, “Accommodation-dependent model of the human eye with aspherics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1273–1281 (1985).
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1997 (3)

A. Torrents, J. Gispets, J. Pujol, “Double-pass measurements of retinal image quality in monofocal contact lens wearers,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 357–366 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gispets, M. Arjona, J. Pujol, “Influence of progressive lenses in the retinal image quality,” Perception Suppl. 26, 61 (1997).

N. Lopez-Gil, P. Artal, “Comparison of double-pass estimates of the retinal-image quality obtained with green and near-infrared light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 961–971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

P. Artal, S. Marcos, I. Iglesias, D. Green, “Optical modulation transfer and contrast sensitivity with decentered small pupils in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 3575–3586 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, S. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. McKendirck, N. A. Brennan, “Distribution of astigmatism in the adult population,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 206–214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

1994 (1)

1993 (4)

R. Navarro, P. Artal, D. R. Williams, “Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 201–212 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, R. Navarro, “Effects of aging in retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1656–1662 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. N. Charman, L. Voisin, “Optical aspects of tolerances to uncorrected ocular astigmatism,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 111–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Charman, L. Voisin, “Astigmatism, accommodation, the oblique effect and meridional amblyopia,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 73–81 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

A. Bradley, T. Thomas, M. Kalaher, M. Hoerres, “Effects of spherical and astigmatism defocus on acuity and contrast sensitivity: a comparison of three clinical charts,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 418–426 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Ukai, Y. Ichihashi, “Changes in ocular astigmatism over the whole range of accommodation,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 813–818 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

F. Thorn, F. Schwartz, “Effects of dioptric blur on Snellen and grating acuity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 3–7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Smith, R. J. Jacobs, C. D. C. Chan, “Effect of defocus on visual acuity as measured by source and observer methods,” Optom. Vision Sci. 66, 430–435 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

H. Saunders, “Changes in the axis of astigmatism,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 8, 37–42 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of pupil centration and diameter on ocular performance,” Vision Res. 28, 659–665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Harris, “Algebra of sphero-cylinders and refractive errors, and their means, variance, and standard deviation,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 794–802 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

C. D. Kay, J. D. Morrison, “A quantitative investigation into the effect of pupil diameter and defocus on contrast sensitivity for an extended range of spatial frequencies in natural and homatropinized eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 21–30 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Santamarı́a, P. Artal, J. Bescos, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical–digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (4)

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, T. Raasch, B. Crawford, R. W. Nygaard, “Refractive changes induced by intraocular lens tilt and longitudinal displacement,” Arch. Opththalmol. 104, 90–92 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Saunders, “Changes in the orientation of the axis of astigmatism associated with age,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 6, 343–344 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Kragha, “Corneal power and astigmatism,” Ann. Ophthalmol. 18, 35–37 (1986).
[PubMed]

T. L. Simpson, R. Barbeito, H. E. Bedell, “The effect of optical blur on visual acuity for targets of different luminances,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 6, 279–281 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

M. Millodot, C. Thibault, “Variation of astigmatism with accommodation and its relationship with dark focus,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 5, 297–301 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Navarro, J. Santamarı́a, J. Bescós, “Accommodation-dependent model of the human eye with aspherics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1273–1281 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

H. C. Howland, N. Sayles, “Photorefractive measurements of astigmatism in infants and young children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 93–102 (1984).

J. Gwiazda, M. Schelman, I. Mohindra, R. Held, “Astigmatism in children: changes in axis and amount from birth to six years,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 88–92 (1984).

1983 (1)

R. Goel, J. Crewdson, A. H. Chinnell, “Astigmatism following retinal detachment surgery,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 67, 327–329 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

W. R. Baldwin, D. Mills, “A longitudinal study of corneal astigmatism and total astigmatism,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 58, 206–211 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

J. Atkinson, O. Braddick, J. French, “Infant astigmatism: its disappearance with age,” Vision Res. 20, 891–893 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

M. P. Keating, J. P. Carroll, “Blurred imagery and the cylinder sine-squared law,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 53, 66–69 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

J. Anstice, “Astigmatism: its components and their change with age,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 48, 1001–1006 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

M. D. Sarver, “A study of residual astigmatism,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 46, 578–582 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (2)

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

F. W. Campbell, R. W. Gubisch, “Optical image quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

1955 (1)

M. F. Flamant, “Etude de la repartition de lumière dans l’image rétinienne d’une fente,” Rev. Opt. 34, 433–459 (1955).

Anstice, J.

J. Anstice, “Astigmatism: its components and their change with age,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 48, 1001–1006 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Arjona, M.

J. Gispets, M. Arjona, J. Pujol, “Influence of progressive lenses in the retinal image quality,” Perception Suppl. 26, 61 (1997).

Artal, P.

N. Lopez-Gil, P. Artal, “Comparison of double-pass estimates of the retinal-image quality obtained with green and near-infrared light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 961–971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, S. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, S. Marcos, I. Iglesias, D. Green, “Optical modulation transfer and contrast sensitivity with decentered small pupils in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 3575–3586 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, I. Miranda, M. Ferro, “Through focus image quality of eyes implanted with monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” Opt. Eng. 34, 772–779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, D. R. Williams, “Odd aberrations and double-pass measurements of retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 195–201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, I. Iglesias, N. Lopez-Gil, D. G. Green, “Double-pass measurements of the retinal image quality with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes and the reversibility of the eye’s optical systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2358–2368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, R. Navarro, “Monochromatic modulation transfer function of the human eye for different pupil diameters: an analytical expression,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 246–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, R. Navarro, “Effects of aging in retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1656–1662 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Navarro, P. Artal, D. R. Williams, “Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 201–212 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, R. Navarro, “Simultaneous measurement of two point-spread functions at different locations across the human fovea,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3646–3656 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Santamarı́a, P. Artal, J. Bescos, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical–digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, J.

J. Atkinson, O. Braddick, J. French, “Infant astigmatism: its disappearance with age,” Vision Res. 20, 891–893 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldwin, W. R.

W. R. Baldwin, D. Mills, “A longitudinal study of corneal astigmatism and total astigmatism,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 58, 206–211 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbeito, R.

T. L. Simpson, R. Barbeito, H. E. Bedell, “The effect of optical blur on visual acuity for targets of different luminances,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 6, 279–281 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bedell, H. E.

T. L. Simpson, R. Barbeito, H. E. Bedell, “The effect of optical blur on visual acuity for targets of different luminances,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 6, 279–281 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, A. G.

A. G. Bennett, R. B. Rabbets, Clinical Visual Optics, 2nd ed. (Butterworth-Henemann, Oxford, 1989).

Bescos, J.

Bescós, J.

Borish, I. M.

I. M. Borish, Clinical Refraction, 3rd ed. (Fairchild, New York, 1970).

Braddick, O.

J. Atkinson, O. Braddick, J. French, “Infant astigmatism: its disappearance with age,” Vision Res. 20, 891–893 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, A.

A. Bradley, T. Thomas, M. Kalaher, M. Hoerres, “Effects of spherical and astigmatism defocus on acuity and contrast sensitivity: a comparison of three clinical charts,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 418–426 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brainard, D. H.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, S. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brennan, N. A.

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

F. W. Campbell, R. W. Gubisch, “Optical image quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

Carroll, J. P.

M. P. Keating, J. P. Carroll, “Blurred imagery and the cylinder sine-squared law,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 53, 66–69 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, C. D. C.

G. Smith, R. J. Jacobs, C. D. C. Chan, “Effect of defocus on visual acuity as measured by source and observer methods,” Optom. Vision Sci. 66, 430–435 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman, L. Voisin, “Optical aspects of tolerances to uncorrected ocular astigmatism,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 111–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Charman, L. Voisin, “Astigmatism, accommodation, the oblique effect and meridional amblyopia,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 73–81 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of pupil centration and diameter on ocular performance,” Vision Res. 28, 659–665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chinnell, A. H.

R. Goel, J. Crewdson, A. H. Chinnell, “Astigmatism following retinal detachment surgery,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 67, 327–329 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, B.

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, T. Raasch, B. Crawford, R. W. Nygaard, “Refractive changes induced by intraocular lens tilt and longitudinal displacement,” Arch. Opththalmol. 104, 90–92 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Crewdson, J.

R. Goel, J. Crewdson, A. H. Chinnell, “Astigmatism following retinal detachment surgery,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 67, 327–329 (1983).
[CrossRef]

El Hage, S. G.

Y. Le Grand, S. G. El Hage, Physiological Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

Enoch, J. M.

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, T. Raasch, B. Crawford, R. W. Nygaard, “Refractive changes induced by intraocular lens tilt and longitudinal displacement,” Arch. Opththalmol. 104, 90–92 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ferro, M.

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, I. Miranda, M. Ferro, “Through focus image quality of eyes implanted with monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” Opt. Eng. 34, 772–779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, R. Navarro, “Effects of aging in retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1656–1662 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flamant, M. F.

M. F. Flamant, “Etude de la repartition de lumière dans l’image rétinienne d’une fente,” Rev. Opt. 34, 433–459 (1955).

French, J.

J. Atkinson, O. Braddick, J. French, “Infant astigmatism: its disappearance with age,” Vision Res. 20, 891–893 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gispets, J.

J. Gispets, M. Arjona, J. Pujol, “Influence of progressive lenses in the retinal image quality,” Perception Suppl. 26, 61 (1997).

A. Torrents, J. Gispets, J. Pujol, “Double-pass measurements of retinal image quality in monofocal contact lens wearers,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 357–366 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pujol, A. Torrents, J. Gispets, “Objective evaluation of the quality of the retinal image in contact lens wearers,” in Proceedings of Lasers in Ophthalmology III, R. Birngruber, A. F. Fercher, eds., Proc. SPIE2632, 36–47 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goel, R.

R. Goel, J. Crewdson, A. H. Chinnell, “Astigmatism following retinal detachment surgery,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 67, 327–329 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Green, D.

P. Artal, S. Marcos, I. Iglesias, D. Green, “Optical modulation transfer and contrast sensitivity with decentered small pupils in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 3575–3586 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, D. G.

Gubisch, R. W.

F. W. Campbell, R. W. Gubisch, “Optical image quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

Gwiazda, J.

J. Gwiazda, M. Schelman, I. Mohindra, R. Held, “Astigmatism in children: changes in axis and amount from birth to six years,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 88–92 (1984).

Harris, W. F.

W. F. Harris, “Algebra of sphero-cylinders and refractive errors, and their means, variance, and standard deviation,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 794–802 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Held, R.

J. Gwiazda, M. Schelman, I. Mohindra, R. Held, “Astigmatism in children: changes in axis and amount from birth to six years,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 88–92 (1984).

Hoerres, M.

A. Bradley, T. Thomas, M. Kalaher, M. Hoerres, “Effects of spherical and astigmatism defocus on acuity and contrast sensitivity: a comparison of three clinical charts,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 418–426 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Howland, H. C.

H. C. Howland, N. Sayles, “Photorefractive measurements of astigmatism in infants and young children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 93–102 (1984).

Ichihashi, Y.

K. Ukai, Y. Ichihashi, “Changes in ocular astigmatism over the whole range of accommodation,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 813–818 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Iglesias, I.

P. Artal, S. Marcos, I. Iglesias, D. Green, “Optical modulation transfer and contrast sensitivity with decentered small pupils in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 3575–3586 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, I. Iglesias, N. Lopez-Gil, D. G. Green, “Double-pass measurements of the retinal image quality with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes and the reversibility of the eye’s optical systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2358–2368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, R. J.

G. Smith, R. J. Jacobs, C. D. C. Chan, “Effect of defocus on visual acuity as measured by source and observer methods,” Optom. Vision Sci. 66, 430–435 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jaffe, N. S.

N. S. Jaffe, Cataract Surgery and Its Complications (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo.1976).

Jalie, M.

M. Jalie, The Principles of Ophthalmic Lenses (Association of Dispensing Opticians, London, 1988).

Kalaher, M.

A. Bradley, T. Thomas, M. Kalaher, M. Hoerres, “Effects of spherical and astigmatism defocus on acuity and contrast sensitivity: a comparison of three clinical charts,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 418–426 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kay, C. D.

C. D. Kay, J. D. Morrison, “A quantitative investigation into the effect of pupil diameter and defocus on contrast sensitivity for an extended range of spatial frequencies in natural and homatropinized eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 21–30 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Keating, M. P.

M. P. Keating, J. P. Carroll, “Blurred imagery and the cylinder sine-squared law,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 53, 66–69 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kragha, I. K.

I. K. Kragha, “Corneal power and astigmatism,” Ann. Ophthalmol. 18, 35–37 (1986).
[PubMed]

Lakshminarayanan, V.

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, T. Raasch, B. Crawford, R. W. Nygaard, “Refractive changes induced by intraocular lens tilt and longitudinal displacement,” Arch. Opththalmol. 104, 90–92 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Le Grand, Y.

Y. Le Grand, S. G. El Hage, Physiological Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

Lopez-Gil, N.

Losada, M. A.

Marcos, S.

P. Artal, S. Marcos, I. Iglesias, D. Green, “Optical modulation transfer and contrast sensitivity with decentered small pupils in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 3575–3586 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, I. Miranda, M. Ferro, “Through focus image quality of eyes implanted with monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” Opt. Eng. 34, 772–779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, D. R. Williams, “Odd aberrations and double-pass measurements of retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 195–201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McKendirck, A. M.

McMahon, M. J.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, S. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millodot, M.

M. Millodot, C. Thibault, “Variation of astigmatism with accommodation and its relationship with dark focus,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 5, 297–301 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mills, D.

W. R. Baldwin, D. Mills, “A longitudinal study of corneal astigmatism and total astigmatism,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 58, 206–211 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miranda, I.

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, I. Miranda, M. Ferro, “Through focus image quality of eyes implanted with monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” Opt. Eng. 34, 772–779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, R. Navarro, “Effects of aging in retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1656–1662 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohindra, I.

J. Gwiazda, M. Schelman, I. Mohindra, R. Held, “Astigmatism in children: changes in axis and amount from birth to six years,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 88–92 (1984).

Morrison, J. D.

C. D. Kay, J. D. Morrison, “A quantitative investigation into the effect of pupil diameter and defocus on contrast sensitivity for an extended range of spatial frequencies in natural and homatropinized eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 21–30 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Navarro, R.

Navarro, S.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, S. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nygaard, R. W.

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, T. Raasch, B. Crawford, R. W. Nygaard, “Refractive changes induced by intraocular lens tilt and longitudinal displacement,” Arch. Opththalmol. 104, 90–92 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pujol, J.

J. Gispets, M. Arjona, J. Pujol, “Influence of progressive lenses in the retinal image quality,” Perception Suppl. 26, 61 (1997).

A. Torrents, J. Gispets, J. Pujol, “Double-pass measurements of retinal image quality in monofocal contact lens wearers,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 357–366 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pujol, A. Torrents, J. Gispets, “Objective evaluation of the quality of the retinal image in contact lens wearers,” in Proceedings of Lasers in Ophthalmology III, R. Birngruber, A. F. Fercher, eds., Proc. SPIE2632, 36–47 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Raasch, T.

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, T. Raasch, B. Crawford, R. W. Nygaard, “Refractive changes induced by intraocular lens tilt and longitudinal displacement,” Arch. Opththalmol. 104, 90–92 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rabbets, R. B.

A. G. Bennett, R. B. Rabbets, Clinical Visual Optics, 2nd ed. (Butterworth-Henemann, Oxford, 1989).

Santamari´a, J.

Sarver, M. D.

M. D. Sarver, “A study of residual astigmatism,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 46, 578–582 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, H.

H. Saunders, “Changes in the axis of astigmatism,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 8, 37–42 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Saunders, “Changes in the orientation of the axis of astigmatism associated with age,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 6, 343–344 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayles, N.

H. C. Howland, N. Sayles, “Photorefractive measurements of astigmatism in infants and young children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 93–102 (1984).

Schelman, M.

J. Gwiazda, M. Schelman, I. Mohindra, R. Held, “Astigmatism in children: changes in axis and amount from birth to six years,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 88–92 (1984).

Schwartz, F.

F. Thorn, F. Schwartz, “Effects of dioptric blur on Snellen and grating acuity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 3–7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, T. L.

T. L. Simpson, R. Barbeito, H. E. Bedell, “The effect of optical blur on visual acuity for targets of different luminances,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 6, 279–281 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sliney, D.

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980).

Smith, G.

G. Smith, R. J. Jacobs, C. D. C. Chan, “Effect of defocus on visual acuity as measured by source and observer methods,” Optom. Vision Sci. 66, 430–435 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, C.

M. Millodot, C. Thibault, “Variation of astigmatism with accommodation and its relationship with dark focus,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 5, 297–301 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, T.

A. Bradley, T. Thomas, M. Kalaher, M. Hoerres, “Effects of spherical and astigmatism defocus on acuity and contrast sensitivity: a comparison of three clinical charts,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 418–426 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thorn, F.

F. Thorn, F. Schwartz, “Effects of dioptric blur on Snellen and grating acuity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 3–7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Torrents, A.

A. Torrents, J. Gispets, J. Pujol, “Double-pass measurements of retinal image quality in monofocal contact lens wearers,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 357–366 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pujol, A. Torrents, J. Gispets, “Objective evaluation of the quality of the retinal image in contact lens wearers,” in Proceedings of Lasers in Ophthalmology III, R. Birngruber, A. F. Fercher, eds., Proc. SPIE2632, 36–47 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ukai, K.

K. Ukai, Y. Ichihashi, “Changes in ocular astigmatism over the whole range of accommodation,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 813–818 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Voisin, L.

W. N. Charman, L. Voisin, “Astigmatism, accommodation, the oblique effect and meridional amblyopia,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 73–81 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. N. Charman, L. Voisin, “Optical aspects of tolerances to uncorrected ocular astigmatism,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 111–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, G.

G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of pupil centration and diameter on ocular performance,” Vision Res. 28, 659–665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

Wolbarsht, M.

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980).

Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. (1)

M. D. Sarver, “A study of residual astigmatism,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 46, 578–582 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (4)

J. Anstice, “Astigmatism: its components and their change with age,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 48, 1001–1006 (1971).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Baldwin, D. Mills, “A longitudinal study of corneal astigmatism and total astigmatism,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 58, 206–211 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Keating, J. P. Carroll, “Blurred imagery and the cylinder sine-squared law,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 53, 66–69 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Harris, “Algebra of sphero-cylinders and refractive errors, and their means, variance, and standard deviation,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 794–802 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Ophthalmol. (1)

I. K. Kragha, “Corneal power and astigmatism,” Ann. Ophthalmol. 18, 35–37 (1986).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Opththalmol. (1)

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, T. Raasch, B. Crawford, R. W. Nygaard, “Refractive changes induced by intraocular lens tilt and longitudinal displacement,” Arch. Opththalmol. 104, 90–92 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Ophthamol. (1)

R. Goel, J. Crewdson, A. H. Chinnell, “Astigmatism following retinal detachment surgery,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 67, 327–329 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (2)

H. C. Howland, N. Sayles, “Photorefractive measurements of astigmatism in infants and young children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 93–102 (1984).

J. Gwiazda, M. Schelman, I. Mohindra, R. Held, “Astigmatism in children: changes in axis and amount from birth to six years,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 88–92 (1984).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (10)

R. Navarro, J. Santamarı́a, J. Bescós, “Accommodation-dependent model of the human eye with aspherics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1273–1281 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Santamarı́a, P. Artal, J. Bescos, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical–digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, R. Navarro, “Monochromatic modulation transfer function of the human eye for different pupil diameters: an analytical expression,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 246–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Lopez-Gil, P. Artal, “Comparison of double-pass estimates of the retinal-image quality obtained with green and near-infrared light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 961–971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Navarro, P. Artal, D. R. Williams, “Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 201–212 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, R. Navarro, “Effects of aging in retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1656–1662 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. McKendirck, N. A. Brennan, “Distribution of astigmatism in the adult population,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 206–214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, D. R. Williams, “Odd aberrations and double-pass measurements of retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 195–201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, I. Iglesias, N. Lopez-Gil, D. G. Green, “Double-pass measurements of the retinal image quality with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes and the reversibility of the eye’s optical systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2358–2368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Navarro, M. A. Losada, “Phase transfer and point spread function of human eye determined by a new asymmetric double-pass method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2385–2392 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Physiol. (London) (2)

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

F. W. Campbell, R. W. Gubisch, “Optical image quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (7)

T. L. Simpson, R. Barbeito, H. E. Bedell, “The effect of optical blur on visual acuity for targets of different luminances,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 6, 279–281 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Kay, J. D. Morrison, “A quantitative investigation into the effect of pupil diameter and defocus on contrast sensitivity for an extended range of spatial frequencies in natural and homatropinized eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 21–30 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Torrents, J. Gispets, J. Pujol, “Double-pass measurements of retinal image quality in monofocal contact lens wearers,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 357–366 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. N. Charman, L. Voisin, “Astigmatism, accommodation, the oblique effect and meridional amblyopia,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 73–81 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Millodot, C. Thibault, “Variation of astigmatism with accommodation and its relationship with dark focus,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 5, 297–301 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Saunders, “Changes in the axis of astigmatism,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 8, 37–42 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Saunders, “Changes in the orientation of the axis of astigmatism associated with age,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 6, 343–344 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, I. Miranda, M. Ferro, “Through focus image quality of eyes implanted with monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” Opt. Eng. 34, 772–779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vision Sci. (5)

A. Bradley, T. Thomas, M. Kalaher, M. Hoerres, “Effects of spherical and astigmatism defocus on acuity and contrast sensitivity: a comparison of three clinical charts,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 418–426 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Charman, L. Voisin, “Optical aspects of tolerances to uncorrected ocular astigmatism,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 111–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Ukai, Y. Ichihashi, “Changes in ocular astigmatism over the whole range of accommodation,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 813–818 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Thorn, F. Schwartz, “Effects of dioptric blur on Snellen and grating acuity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 3–7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Smith, R. J. Jacobs, C. D. C. Chan, “Effect of defocus on visual acuity as measured by source and observer methods,” Optom. Vision Sci. 66, 430–435 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Perception Suppl. (1)

J. Gispets, M. Arjona, J. Pujol, “Influence of progressive lenses in the retinal image quality,” Perception Suppl. 26, 61 (1997).

Rev. Opt. (1)

M. F. Flamant, “Etude de la repartition de lumière dans l’image rétinienne d’une fente,” Rev. Opt. 34, 433–459 (1955).

Vision Res. (4)

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, S. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, S. Marcos, I. Iglesias, D. Green, “Optical modulation transfer and contrast sensitivity with decentered small pupils in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 3575–3586 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of pupil centration and diameter on ocular performance,” Vision Res. 28, 659–665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Atkinson, O. Braddick, J. French, “Infant astigmatism: its disappearance with age,” Vision Res. 20, 891–893 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

N. S. Jaffe, Cataract Surgery and Its Complications (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo.1976).

M. Jalie, The Principles of Ophthalmic Lenses (Association of Dispensing Opticians, London, 1988).

J. Pujol, A. Torrents, J. Gispets, “Objective evaluation of the quality of the retinal image in contact lens wearers,” in Proceedings of Lasers in Ophthalmology III, R. Birngruber, A. F. Fercher, eds., Proc. SPIE2632, 36–47 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Le Grand, S. G. El Hage, Physiological Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980).

I. M. Borish, Clinical Refraction, 3rd ed. (Fairchild, New York, 1970).

A. G. Bennett, R. B. Rabbets, Clinical Visual Optics, 2nd ed. (Butterworth-Henemann, Oxford, 1989).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Double-pass images (a) numerically simulated in an eye model, (b) measured in an artificial eye, and (c) measured in a living eye (subject JG) for different amounts of astigmatism. Negative values of astigmatism mean overcorrection, and positive values mean undercorrection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Normalized maximum divided by the mean irradiance of double-pass images, and (b) quotient of the areas of the MTF profiles corresponding to the 0° and 90° directions obtained in an artificial eye and by numerical simulation, as a function of astigmatism.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized maximum divided by the mean irradiance of retinal images as a function of astigmatism for the three subjects analyzed (JG, VB, and JP) and for a simulated eye.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MTF profiles in the direction of the low-power (solid curve) and the high-power (dotted curve) principal meridians, for the three subjects considered and for astigmatism of 0 and 1 D.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Area under the MTF profile corresponding to the direction of the high-power principal meridian divided by that corresponding to the direction of the low-power principal meridian, for the three subjects considered and for a simulated eye, as a function of the astigmatism.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

MTF average profiles for the three subjects studied and astigmatism amounts of 0, 0.25, and 1 D.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

MTF average profiles for a simulated eye (solid curve), an artificial eye (dashed curve), and a living eye (subject JG, dotted curve) at 0 and 1 D values of astigmatism.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized maximum divided by the mean irradiance of the retinal images, as a function of the angle between the lens and the astigmatic eye axis, for the three subjects analyzed.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Quotient between the areas under the MTF profiles corresponding to the directions of maximum and minimum elongation of aerial images for the three subjects considered, as a function of the angles formed by the lens and the astigmatic eye axis. (For the 0° case, the directions considered are those corresponding to the lowest- and highest-power principal meridians).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Refractive State of the Three Subjects Studied

Tables Icon

Table 2 Residual Spherical–Cylindrical Power Obtained When the Axis of a Lens Correcting the Astigmatism of an Eye Formed Different Angles with the Axis of the Astigmatic Eyea

Metrics