Abstract

We examined the relationship between the ambient illuminant chromaticity and changes in the sensitivity balance of the visual system, using illuminants of various chromaticities. The sensitivity of observers was measured in a room with a variable-chromaticity illuminant. The observer’s state of chromatic adaptation was measured with unique-white settings. Our results showed that the change in visual sensitivity has a nonlinear correlation with the change in illuminant chromaticity; chromatic adaptation was nearly complete for desaturated illuminants, but the degree of chromatic adaptation became worse as the illuminant became more saturated. We defined a new index, relative cone weights, which represents this relationship well. To measure the role of chromatic induction from the immediate-surround area of the matching stimulus, we performed additional experiments by presenting the test inside a colored or black immediate surround. The results showed that the unique-white settings were not disturbed by the change in immediate-surround color. Our results imply that the room illuminant chromaticity was the primary factor in changing the observer’s state of chromatic adaptation.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. Kuriki, K. Uchikawa, “Limitations of surface-color and apparent-color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1622–1635 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. E. Arend, A. Reeves, “Simultaneous color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1743–1751 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. E. Arend, A. Reeves, J. Schirillo, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous color constancy: papers with diverse Munsell values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 661–672 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. W. Cornelissen, E. Brenner, “Simultaneous color constancy revisited,” Vision Res. 35, 2431–2448 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. M. Boynton, K. F. Purl, “Categorical colour perception under low-pressure sodium lighting with small amounts of added incandescent illumination,” Lighting Res. Technol. 21, 23–27 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. D. Fairchild, P. Lennie, “Chromatic adaptation to natural and incandescent illuminants,” Vision Res. 32, 2077–2085 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. Kuriki, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Chromatic adaptation aftereffects on luminance and chromatic channels,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), pp. 73–82.
  8. J. von Kries, “Die Gesichtsempfindungen,” in Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen, W. Nagel, ed. (1905), pp. 109–282 (available from the authors).
  9. L. E. Arend, “How much does illuminant color affect unattributed colors?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2134–2147 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Speigle, D. H. Brainard, “Luminosity thresholds: effects of test chromaticity and ambient illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 436–451 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. H. Brainard, W. A. Brunt, J. M. Speigle, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. I. Asymmetric matches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2091–2110 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. H. Brainard, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. II. Achromatic loci,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 307–325 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Helson, “Fundamental problems in color vision. I. The principle governing changes in hue, saturation and lightness of non-selective samples in chromatic illumination” J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439–477 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Helson, V. B. Jeffers, “Fundamental problems in color vision. II. Hue, lightness and saturation of selective samples in chromatic illumination,” J. Exp. Psychol. 26, 1–27 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. B. Cowan, “An inexpensive scheme for calibration of a colour monitor in terms of CIE standard coordinates,” Comput. Graph. 17, 315–321 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. B. Judd, “Hue, saturation and lightness of surface colors with chromatic illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 21–32 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Helson, W. C. Michels, “The effect of chromatic adaptation on achromaticity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1025–1032 (1948).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. S. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 929–943 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Partial color constancy of isolated surface colors examined by a color-naming method,” Perception 18, 83–91 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. R. W. G. Hunt, “A model of colour vision for predicting colour appearance in various viewing conditions,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 297–314 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Nayatani, K. Takahama, H. Sobagaki, “Prediction of color appearance of object colors in a complex visual field,” J. Light Visual Environ. 19, 5–14 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. D. Fairchild, “Formulation and testing of an incomplete-chromatic-adaptation model,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 243–250 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. H. Land, J. J. McCann, “Lightness and retinex theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1–11 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. E. H. Land, “Recent advantages in retinex theory,” Vision Res. 26, 7–21 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Ikeda, K. Motonaga, N. Matsuzawa, T. Ishida, “Threshold determination for unnatural color appearance with local illumination,” Kogaku 22, 289–298 (1993).
  28. M. Ikeda, H. Shinoda, T. Uchida, “Shift of a test patch appearance into the recognized visual space of illumination,” J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 81, 1004–1009 (1997).

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

D. H. Brainard, W. A. Brunt, J. M. Speigle, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. I. Asymmetric matches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2091–2110 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ikeda, H. Shinoda, T. Uchida, “Shift of a test patch appearance into the recognized visual space of illumination,” J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 81, 1004–1009 (1997).

1996 (2)

1995 (2)

Y. Nayatani, K. Takahama, H. Sobagaki, “Prediction of color appearance of object colors in a complex visual field,” J. Light Visual Environ. 19, 5–14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Cornelissen, E. Brenner, “Simultaneous color constancy revisited,” Vision Res. 35, 2431–2448 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

M. Ikeda, K. Motonaga, N. Matsuzawa, T. Ishida, “Threshold determination for unnatural color appearance with local illumination,” Kogaku 22, 289–298 (1993).

L. E. Arend, “How much does illuminant color affect unattributed colors?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2134–2147 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. D. Fairchild, P. Lennie, “Chromatic adaptation to natural and incandescent illuminants,” Vision Res. 32, 2077–2085 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

M. D. Fairchild, “Formulation and testing of an incomplete-chromatic-adaptation model,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 243–250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Arend, A. Reeves, J. Schirillo, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous color constancy: papers with diverse Munsell values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 661–672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (3)

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Partial color constancy of isolated surface colors examined by a color-naming method,” Perception 18, 83–91 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, K. F. Purl, “Categorical colour perception under low-pressure sodium lighting with small amounts of added incandescent illumination,” Lighting Res. Technol. 21, 23–27 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. W. G. Hunt, “A model of colour vision for predicting colour appearance in various viewing conditions,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 297–314 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

E. H. Land, “Recent advantages in retinex theory,” Vision Res. 26, 7–21 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Arend, A. Reeves, “Simultaneous color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1743–1751 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

W. B. Cowan, “An inexpensive scheme for calibration of a colour monitor in terms of CIE standard coordinates,” Comput. Graph. 17, 315–321 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. S. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 929–943 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

1948 (1)

1940 (2)

D. B. Judd, “Hue, saturation and lightness of surface colors with chromatic illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 21–32 (1940).
[CrossRef]

H. Helson, V. B. Jeffers, “Fundamental problems in color vision. II. Hue, lightness and saturation of selective samples in chromatic illumination,” J. Exp. Psychol. 26, 1–27 (1940).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

H. Helson, “Fundamental problems in color vision. I. The principle governing changes in hue, saturation and lightness of non-selective samples in chromatic illumination” J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439–477 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Arend, L. E.

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, K. F. Purl, “Categorical colour perception under low-pressure sodium lighting with small amounts of added incandescent illumination,” Lighting Res. Technol. 21, 23–27 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Partial color constancy of isolated surface colors examined by a color-naming method,” Perception 18, 83–91 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brainard, D. H.

Brenner, E.

F. W. Cornelissen, E. Brenner, “Simultaneous color constancy revisited,” Vision Res. 35, 2431–2448 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunt, W. A.

Cornelissen, F. W.

F. W. Cornelissen, E. Brenner, “Simultaneous color constancy revisited,” Vision Res. 35, 2431–2448 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cowan, W. B.

W. B. Cowan, “An inexpensive scheme for calibration of a colour monitor in terms of CIE standard coordinates,” Comput. Graph. 17, 315–321 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fairchild, M. D.

M. D. Fairchild, P. Lennie, “Chromatic adaptation to natural and incandescent illuminants,” Vision Res. 32, 2077–2085 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Fairchild, “Formulation and testing of an incomplete-chromatic-adaptation model,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 243–250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, R.

Helson, H.

H. Helson, W. C. Michels, “The effect of chromatic adaptation on achromaticity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1025–1032 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Helson, V. B. Jeffers, “Fundamental problems in color vision. II. Hue, lightness and saturation of selective samples in chromatic illumination,” J. Exp. Psychol. 26, 1–27 (1940).
[CrossRef]

H. Helson, “Fundamental problems in color vision. I. The principle governing changes in hue, saturation and lightness of non-selective samples in chromatic illumination” J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439–477 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, R. W. G.

R. W. G. Hunt, “A model of colour vision for predicting colour appearance in various viewing conditions,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 297–314 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

M. Ikeda, H. Shinoda, T. Uchida, “Shift of a test patch appearance into the recognized visual space of illumination,” J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 81, 1004–1009 (1997).

M. Ikeda, K. Motonaga, N. Matsuzawa, T. Ishida, “Threshold determination for unnatural color appearance with local illumination,” Kogaku 22, 289–298 (1993).

Ishida, T.

M. Ikeda, K. Motonaga, N. Matsuzawa, T. Ishida, “Threshold determination for unnatural color appearance with local illumination,” Kogaku 22, 289–298 (1993).

Jeffers, V. B.

H. Helson, V. B. Jeffers, “Fundamental problems in color vision. II. Hue, lightness and saturation of selective samples in chromatic illumination,” J. Exp. Psychol. 26, 1–27 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, “Hue, saturation and lightness of surface colors with chromatic illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 21–32 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Kuriki, I.

I. Kuriki, K. Uchikawa, “Limitations of surface-color and apparent-color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1622–1635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. Kuriki, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Chromatic adaptation aftereffects on luminance and chromatic channels,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), pp. 73–82.

Land, E. H.

E. H. Land, “Recent advantages in retinex theory,” Vision Res. 26, 7–21 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Land, J. J. McCann, “Lightness and retinex theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1–11 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lennie, P.

M. D. Fairchild, P. Lennie, “Chromatic adaptation to natural and incandescent illuminants,” Vision Res. 32, 2077–2085 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

I. Kuriki, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Chromatic adaptation aftereffects on luminance and chromatic channels,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), pp. 73–82.

Matsuzawa, N.

M. Ikeda, K. Motonaga, N. Matsuzawa, T. Ishida, “Threshold determination for unnatural color appearance with local illumination,” Kogaku 22, 289–298 (1993).

McCann, J. J.

Michels, W. C.

Motonaga, K.

M. Ikeda, K. Motonaga, N. Matsuzawa, T. Ishida, “Threshold determination for unnatural color appearance with local illumination,” Kogaku 22, 289–298 (1993).

Nayatani, Y.

Y. Nayatani, K. Takahama, H. Sobagaki, “Prediction of color appearance of object colors in a complex visual field,” J. Light Visual Environ. 19, 5–14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purl, K. F.

R. M. Boynton, K. F. Purl, “Categorical colour perception under low-pressure sodium lighting with small amounts of added incandescent illumination,” Lighting Res. Technol. 21, 23–27 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, A.

Schirillo, J.

Shinoda, H.

M. Ikeda, H. Shinoda, T. Uchida, “Shift of a test patch appearance into the recognized visual space of illumination,” J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 81, 1004–1009 (1997).

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sobagaki, H.

Y. Nayatani, K. Takahama, H. Sobagaki, “Prediction of color appearance of object colors in a complex visual field,” J. Light Visual Environ. 19, 5–14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Speigle, J. M.

Takahama, K.

Y. Nayatani, K. Takahama, H. Sobagaki, “Prediction of color appearance of object colors in a complex visual field,” J. Light Visual Environ. 19, 5–14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

M. Ikeda, H. Shinoda, T. Uchida, “Shift of a test patch appearance into the recognized visual space of illumination,” J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 81, 1004–1009 (1997).

Uchikawa, H.

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Partial color constancy of isolated surface colors examined by a color-naming method,” Perception 18, 83–91 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchikawa, K.

I. Kuriki, K. Uchikawa, “Limitations of surface-color and apparent-color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1622–1635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Partial color constancy of isolated surface colors examined by a color-naming method,” Perception 18, 83–91 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Kries, J.

J. von Kries, “Die Gesichtsempfindungen,” in Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen, W. Nagel, ed. (1905), pp. 109–282 (available from the authors).

Walraven, J.

J. S. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 929–943 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

J. S. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 929–943 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl. (2)

R. W. G. Hunt, “A model of colour vision for predicting colour appearance in various viewing conditions,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 297–314 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Fairchild, “Formulation and testing of an incomplete-chromatic-adaptation model,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 243–250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Graph. (1)

W. B. Cowan, “An inexpensive scheme for calibration of a colour monitor in terms of CIE standard coordinates,” Comput. Graph. 17, 315–321 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Psychol. (2)

H. Helson, “Fundamental problems in color vision. I. The principle governing changes in hue, saturation and lightness of non-selective samples in chromatic illumination” J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439–477 (1938).
[CrossRef]

H. Helson, V. B. Jeffers, “Fundamental problems in color vision. II. Hue, lightness and saturation of selective samples in chromatic illumination,” J. Exp. Psychol. 26, 1–27 (1940).
[CrossRef]

J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. (1)

M. Ikeda, H. Shinoda, T. Uchida, “Shift of a test patch appearance into the recognized visual space of illumination,” J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 81, 1004–1009 (1997).

J. Light Visual Environ. (1)

Y. Nayatani, K. Takahama, H. Sobagaki, “Prediction of color appearance of object colors in a complex visual field,” J. Light Visual Environ. 19, 5–14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (7)

Kogaku (1)

M. Ikeda, K. Motonaga, N. Matsuzawa, T. Ishida, “Threshold determination for unnatural color appearance with local illumination,” Kogaku 22, 289–298 (1993).

Lighting Res. Technol. (1)

R. M. Boynton, K. F. Purl, “Categorical colour perception under low-pressure sodium lighting with small amounts of added incandescent illumination,” Lighting Res. Technol. 21, 23–27 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Perception (1)

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Partial color constancy of isolated surface colors examined by a color-naming method,” Perception 18, 83–91 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (6)

F. W. Cornelissen, E. Brenner, “Simultaneous color constancy revisited,” Vision Res. 35, 2431–2448 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 929–943 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Land, “Recent advantages in retinex theory,” Vision Res. 26, 7–21 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Fairchild, P. Lennie, “Chromatic adaptation to natural and incandescent illuminants,” Vision Res. 32, 2077–2085 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

I. Kuriki, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Chromatic adaptation aftereffects on luminance and chromatic channels,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), pp. 73–82.

J. von Kries, “Die Gesichtsempfindungen,” in Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen, W. Nagel, ed. (1905), pp. 109–282 (available from the authors).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the apparatus setup. (a) A small room (2.0 m×1.5 m×1.2 m) was equipped with a special illuminant on the ceiling. The illuminant was able to change its chromaticity in the way depicted in Fig. 2. Walls were painted with approximate N 5/ gray. An aperture was made on the front wall so that the CRT screen could be seen through it. The observer sat on the chair and manipulated a keyboard on the desk. (b) Arrangement CRT screen. The screen was set at ∼20 cm behind the wall in an otherwise dark room.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic view of the variable-illuminant system. (a) The illuminant consists of five D65-simulating fluorescent lamps (TOSHIBA FLR40S-D-EDL-D65/M), a filter array, and a mask. (b) The filter array was a 5×10 matrix of color and ND filters (each 10 cm×10 cm), arranged in alternating positions in a checkerboard pattern. The mask consisted of an array of opaque plastic boards and empty areas both (10 cm×10 cm). (b) When the filter array was slid against the mask, the relative amount of light coming through the color filter and the ND filter changed continuously.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy spectra of the illuminants. (a) D65-simulating fluorescent lamp measured through a ND filter. (b) through (e) represent the spectral energy components of the transmittance of blue, orange, green, and purple filters, respectively. Each plot represents the result of measurement by a spectrophotometer (SR-1, TOPKON) for the maximally saturated condition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of the apparent-match criterion plotted on the CIE uv chromaticity diagram for observers IK, KS, and KU. KU conducted blue and orange filter conditions only. Filled symbols, illuminant chromaticity; open symbols, observers’ matches; white cross, each observer’s neutral unique-white. The distributions of the observers’ matches are smaller than those of the illuminant chromaticity. The magnitudes of the SD’s were smaller than or the same as the size of the symbols.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of the surface-match criterion plotted on the CIE uv chromaticity diagram, for observers IK and KS. Symbols are the same as those in Fig. 4. Error bars represent ±1 SD. The distributions the matched results (open symbols) cover a larger area than in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Distance analysis. Horizontal and vertical axes represent uv distance from neutral unique-white to the illuminant color and the matched color, respectively. Open and filled symbols represent results under surface-color and apparent-color settings, respectively. Different symbol shapes represent results in different filter-set conditions. The results for observers IK and KS are for all eight conditions. The results for observer KU’s unique-white settings are for blue and orange illuminant conditions only.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative cone weights with respect to alpha and gamma for three observers: (a), (b) IK; (c), (d) KS; (e), (f) KU. Horizontal and vertical axes represent alpha and gamma derived from illuminant chromaticity (measured at an area adjacent to the test stimulus) and those derived from matched results, respectively. Filled circles and squares represent results under illuminant changes in the D65-blue and D65-orange directions, respectively. Open circles and squares represent results under illuminant changes in D65-green and D65-purple directions, respectively. Both the alpha and the gamma plots show a shallow S-shaped curve. This nonlinearity was common to all three observers.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Alpha and gamma plots for a naı̈ve observer (KM). The axes and the symbols are the same as for Fig. 7. The luminance ratio between the wall and the test stimulus was fixed, but the shallow S-shaped curve still remains.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Unique-white settings (apparent-color settings) of observers IK and KS with color-surround stimulus under D65 illuminant. Filled symbols represent chromaticities of blue, orange, green, and purple surround under D65 illuminant. Open symbols represent chromaticities of the matched results under the corresponding color-surround stimulus. Error bars represent SD of the average across 25 settings under each illuminant condition.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Unique-white settings with black-surround stimulus under various colors of illuminant for observers IK and KS. Filled symbols represent chromaticities of illuminants in the blue, orange, green, and purple directions. Open symbols represent chromaticities of the matched results under the corresponding illuminant color. Error bars represent the SD of the average across 25 settings under each illuminant condition.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Distance-analysis results under the black-surround-condition, for comparison with those under the normal condition (Fig. 4) for observers IK and KS. The results showed no significant statistical difference (p>0.05) for either observer.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Intensities and uv Chromaticities of the Adapting Fielda

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Lnw=Mnw=Snw.
α=Mw/Lw,β=Mw/Mw=1.0,γ=Mw/Sw.

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