Abstract

The reverse proton-exchange (RPE) process performed in different HxLi1-xNbO3 crystalline phases of proton-exchanged and annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides leads to remarkable optical and compositional modifications. Analysis of ordinary and extraordinary index profiles, correlated with concentration depth profiles in RPE samples subjected to different exchange and postexchange treatments, shows how buried-index optical waveguides in LiNbO3 with symmetric mode and reduced fiber–waveguide coupling losses can be realized.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. A. Ganshin, V. Sh. Ivanov, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Some features of ion exchange in lithium niobate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 31, 705–709 (1986).
  3. V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Reverse ion exchange in H:LiNbO3 lightguides,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 33, 686–687 (1988).
  4. V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Specific features of ion exchange in H:LiNbO3 lightguides,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 35, 1095–1097 (1990).
  5. J. L. Jackel, J. J. Johnson, “Reverse exchange method for burying proton exchanged wave-guides,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1360–1361 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Olivares, J. M. Cabrera, “Guided modes with ordinary refractive-index in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 wave-guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2468–2470 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Olivares, J. M. Cabrera, “Modification of proton-exchanged LiNbO3 layers for guiding modes with ordinary polarisation,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 12, 277–285 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Rams, J. Olivares, J. M. Cabrera, “SHG-capabilities of reverse PE-LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 33, 322–323 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, S. V. Katin, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Reverse proton exchange in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 for buried optical waveguides,” in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M. N. Armenise, K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE2401, 149–163 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, S. V. Katin, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Reverse exchange in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 structures for buried waveguides,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’95), L. Shi, L. H. Spiekman, eds. (X. J. M. Leijtens, Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 395–398.
  11. Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, “Structural and optical characterization of annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 5, 175–185 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. El Hadi, P. Baldi, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Ordinary and extraordinary waveguides realized by reverse proton exchange on LiTaO3,” Opt. Commun. 140, 23–26 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. A. Fedorov, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Relationships between crystal lattice parameters and optical properties of proton-exchanged lithium niobate waveguides,” in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M. N. Armenise, K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE2401, 216–226 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, M. P. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, A. Leycuras, “Relationships between structural and optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides on Z-cut lithium niobate,” Appl. Opt. 35, 7056–7060 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. P. De Micheli, D. N. Ostrowsky, Yu. N. Korkishko, P. Bassi, “Proton exchange waveguides in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3: structural and optical properties,” in Insulating Materials for Optoelectronics, F. Agullo-Lopez, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 329–366.
  16. Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, “Structural phase diagram of HxLi1-xNbO3 waveguides: the correlation between structural and optical properties,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 187–196 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Gonella, F. Caccavale, A. Quaranta, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry applied to the study of ion-exchanged glass waveguides with a few modes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 3, 359–363 (1994).
  18. V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Deformation, stresses and birefringence in proton exchanged lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. Commun. 13, 2–7 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. M. White, P. F. Heidrich, “Optical waveguide refractive index profiles determined from measurement of mode indices: a simple analysis,” Appl. Opt. 15, 151–155 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. M. Dikaev, Yu. A. Kopylov, I. M. Kotelyanskii, “Simple method to determine the index profiles in graded waveguides,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 8, 378–381 (1981).
  21. K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 385–391 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  22. V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Kinetic model of proton–lithium exchange in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals: the role of cationic vacancies,” Solid State Ionics 58, 23–32 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. De Micheli, J. Boteneau, S. Neveu, P. Sibillot, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Characterization of titanium indiffused proton-exchanged (TIPE) waveguides in lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 42, 101–103 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Some features of proton exchange in LiNbO3,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 30, 1313–1315 (1985).
  25. J. Olivares, M. A. Dı́az-Garcı́a, J. M. Cabrera, “Direct measurement of ordinary refractive index of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 92, 40–44 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. Rams, J. Olivares, J. M. Cabrera, “SHG-capabilities of reverse PE-LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 33, 322–323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. El Hadi, P. Baldi, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Ordinary and extraordinary waveguides realized by reverse proton exchange on LiTaO3,” Opt. Commun. 140, 23–26 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, “Structural phase diagram of HxLi1-xNbO3 waveguides: the correlation between structural and optical properties,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 187–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, “Structural and optical characterization of annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 5, 175–185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, M. P. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, A. Leycuras, “Relationships between structural and optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides on Z-cut lithium niobate,” Appl. Opt. 35, 7056–7060 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

F. Gonella, F. Caccavale, A. Quaranta, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry applied to the study of ion-exchanged glass waveguides with a few modes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 3, 359–363 (1994).

1993 (2)

J. Olivares, J. M. Cabrera, “Guided modes with ordinary refractive-index in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 wave-guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2468–2470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, J. M. Cabrera, “Modification of proton-exchanged LiNbO3 layers for guiding modes with ordinary polarisation,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 12, 277–285 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Deformation, stresses and birefringence in proton exchanged lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. Commun. 13, 2–7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Kinetic model of proton–lithium exchange in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals: the role of cationic vacancies,” Solid State Ionics 58, 23–32 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, M. A. Dı́az-Garcı́a, J. M. Cabrera, “Direct measurement of ordinary refractive index of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 92, 40–44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. L. Jackel, J. J. Johnson, “Reverse exchange method for burying proton exchanged wave-guides,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1360–1361 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Specific features of ion exchange in H:LiNbO3 lightguides,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 35, 1095–1097 (1990).

1988 (1)

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Reverse ion exchange in H:LiNbO3 lightguides,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 33, 686–687 (1988).

1986 (1)

V. A. Ganshin, V. Sh. Ivanov, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Some features of ion exchange in lithium niobate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 31, 705–709 (1986).

1985 (2)

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 385–391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Some features of proton exchange in LiNbO3,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 30, 1313–1315 (1985).

1982 (2)

M. De Micheli, J. Boteneau, S. Neveu, P. Sibillot, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Characterization of titanium indiffused proton-exchanged (TIPE) waveguides in lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 42, 101–103 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Y. M. Dikaev, Yu. A. Kopylov, I. M. Kotelyanskii, “Simple method to determine the index profiles in graded waveguides,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 8, 378–381 (1981).

1976 (1)

Baldi, P.

K. El Hadi, P. Baldi, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Ordinary and extraordinary waveguides realized by reverse proton exchange on LiTaO3,” Opt. Commun. 140, 23–26 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, M. P. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, A. Leycuras, “Relationships between structural and optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides on Z-cut lithium niobate,” Appl. Opt. 35, 7056–7060 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bassi, P.

M. P. De Micheli, D. N. Ostrowsky, Yu. N. Korkishko, P. Bassi, “Proton exchange waveguides in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3: structural and optical properties,” in Insulating Materials for Optoelectronics, F. Agullo-Lopez, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 329–366.

Boteneau, J.

M. De Micheli, J. Boteneau, S. Neveu, P. Sibillot, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Characterization of titanium indiffused proton-exchanged (TIPE) waveguides in lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 42, 101–103 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cabrera, J. M.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, J. M. Cabrera, “SHG-capabilities of reverse PE-LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 33, 322–323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, J. M. Cabrera, “Modification of proton-exchanged LiNbO3 layers for guiding modes with ordinary polarisation,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 12, 277–285 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, J. M. Cabrera, “Guided modes with ordinary refractive-index in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 wave-guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2468–2470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, M. A. Dı́az-Garcı́a, J. M. Cabrera, “Direct measurement of ordinary refractive index of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 92, 40–44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Caccavale, F.

F. Gonella, F. Caccavale, A. Quaranta, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry applied to the study of ion-exchanged glass waveguides with a few modes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 3, 359–363 (1994).

Chiang, K. S.

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 385–391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

De Micheli, M.

M. De Micheli, J. Boteneau, S. Neveu, P. Sibillot, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Characterization of titanium indiffused proton-exchanged (TIPE) waveguides in lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 42, 101–103 (1982).
[CrossRef]

De Micheli, M. P.

K. El Hadi, P. Baldi, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Ordinary and extraordinary waveguides realized by reverse proton exchange on LiTaO3,” Opt. Commun. 140, 23–26 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, M. P. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, A. Leycuras, “Relationships between structural and optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides on Z-cut lithium niobate,” Appl. Opt. 35, 7056–7060 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. De Micheli, D. N. Ostrowsky, Yu. N. Korkishko, P. Bassi, “Proton exchange waveguides in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3: structural and optical properties,” in Insulating Materials for Optoelectronics, F. Agullo-Lopez, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 329–366.

Di´az-Garci´a, M. A.

J. Olivares, M. A. Dı́az-Garcı́a, J. M. Cabrera, “Direct measurement of ordinary refractive index of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 92, 40–44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dikaev, Y. M.

Y. M. Dikaev, Yu. A. Kopylov, I. M. Kotelyanskii, “Simple method to determine the index profiles in graded waveguides,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 8, 378–381 (1981).

El Hadi, K.

K. El Hadi, P. Baldi, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Ordinary and extraordinary waveguides realized by reverse proton exchange on LiTaO3,” Opt. Commun. 140, 23–26 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, M. P. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, A. Leycuras, “Relationships between structural and optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides on Z-cut lithium niobate,” Appl. Opt. 35, 7056–7060 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedorov, V. A.

K. El Hadi, P. Baldi, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Ordinary and extraordinary waveguides realized by reverse proton exchange on LiTaO3,” Opt. Commun. 140, 23–26 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, M. P. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, A. Leycuras, “Relationships between structural and optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides on Z-cut lithium niobate,” Appl. Opt. 35, 7056–7060 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, “Structural phase diagram of HxLi1-xNbO3 waveguides: the correlation between structural and optical properties,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 187–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, “Structural and optical characterization of annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 5, 175–185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, S. V. Katin, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Reverse proton exchange in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 for buried optical waveguides,” in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M. N. Armenise, K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE2401, 149–163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedorov, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Relationships between crystal lattice parameters and optical properties of proton-exchanged lithium niobate waveguides,” in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M. N. Armenise, K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE2401, 216–226 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, S. V. Katin, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Reverse exchange in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 structures for buried waveguides,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’95), L. Shi, L. H. Spiekman, eds. (X. J. M. Leijtens, Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 395–398.

Ganshin, V. A.

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Deformation, stresses and birefringence in proton exchanged lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. Commun. 13, 2–7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Kinetic model of proton–lithium exchange in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals: the role of cationic vacancies,” Solid State Ionics 58, 23–32 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Specific features of ion exchange in H:LiNbO3 lightguides,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 35, 1095–1097 (1990).

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Reverse ion exchange in H:LiNbO3 lightguides,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 33, 686–687 (1988).

V. A. Ganshin, V. Sh. Ivanov, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Some features of ion exchange in lithium niobate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 31, 705–709 (1986).

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Some features of proton exchange in LiNbO3,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 30, 1313–1315 (1985).

Gonella, F.

F. Gonella, F. Caccavale, A. Quaranta, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry applied to the study of ion-exchanged glass waveguides with a few modes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 3, 359–363 (1994).

Heidrich, P. F.

Ivanov, V. Sh.

V. A. Ganshin, V. Sh. Ivanov, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Some features of ion exchange in lithium niobate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 31, 705–709 (1986).

Jackel, J. L.

J. L. Jackel, J. J. Johnson, “Reverse exchange method for burying proton exchanged wave-guides,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1360–1361 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. J.

J. L. Jackel, J. J. Johnson, “Reverse exchange method for burying proton exchanged wave-guides,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1360–1361 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Katin, S. V.

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, S. V. Katin, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Reverse proton exchange in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 for buried optical waveguides,” in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M. N. Armenise, K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE2401, 149–163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, S. V. Katin, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Reverse exchange in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 structures for buried waveguides,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’95), L. Shi, L. H. Spiekman, eds. (X. J. M. Leijtens, Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 395–398.

Kondrat’ev, A. V.

K. El Hadi, P. Baldi, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Ordinary and extraordinary waveguides realized by reverse proton exchange on LiTaO3,” Opt. Commun. 140, 23–26 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, S. V. Katin, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Reverse exchange in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 structures for buried waveguides,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’95), L. Shi, L. H. Spiekman, eds. (X. J. M. Leijtens, Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 395–398.

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, S. V. Katin, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Reverse proton exchange in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 for buried optical waveguides,” in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M. N. Armenise, K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE2401, 149–163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kopylov, Yu. A.

Y. M. Dikaev, Yu. A. Kopylov, I. M. Kotelyanskii, “Simple method to determine the index profiles in graded waveguides,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 8, 378–381 (1981).

Korkishko, Yu. N.

K. El Hadi, P. Baldi, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Ordinary and extraordinary waveguides realized by reverse proton exchange on LiTaO3,” Opt. Commun. 140, 23–26 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, M. P. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, A. Leycuras, “Relationships between structural and optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides on Z-cut lithium niobate,” Appl. Opt. 35, 7056–7060 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, “Structural phase diagram of HxLi1-xNbO3 waveguides: the correlation between structural and optical properties,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 187–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, “Structural and optical characterization of annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 5, 175–185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Deformation, stresses and birefringence in proton exchanged lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. Commun. 13, 2–7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Kinetic model of proton–lithium exchange in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals: the role of cationic vacancies,” Solid State Ionics 58, 23–32 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Specific features of ion exchange in H:LiNbO3 lightguides,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 35, 1095–1097 (1990).

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Reverse ion exchange in H:LiNbO3 lightguides,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 33, 686–687 (1988).

V. A. Ganshin, V. Sh. Ivanov, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Some features of ion exchange in lithium niobate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 31, 705–709 (1986).

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Some features of proton exchange in LiNbO3,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 30, 1313–1315 (1985).

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, S. V. Katin, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Reverse exchange in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 structures for buried waveguides,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’95), L. Shi, L. H. Spiekman, eds. (X. J. M. Leijtens, Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 395–398.

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, S. V. Katin, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Reverse proton exchange in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 for buried optical waveguides,” in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M. N. Armenise, K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE2401, 149–163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedorov, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Relationships between crystal lattice parameters and optical properties of proton-exchanged lithium niobate waveguides,” in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M. N. Armenise, K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE2401, 216–226 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. P. De Micheli, D. N. Ostrowsky, Yu. N. Korkishko, P. Bassi, “Proton exchange waveguides in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3: structural and optical properties,” in Insulating Materials for Optoelectronics, F. Agullo-Lopez, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 329–366.

Kotelyanskii, I. M.

Y. M. Dikaev, Yu. A. Kopylov, I. M. Kotelyanskii, “Simple method to determine the index profiles in graded waveguides,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 8, 378–381 (1981).

Leycuras, A.

Neveu, S.

M. De Micheli, J. Boteneau, S. Neveu, P. Sibillot, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Characterization of titanium indiffused proton-exchanged (TIPE) waveguides in lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 42, 101–103 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Olivares, J.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, J. M. Cabrera, “SHG-capabilities of reverse PE-LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 33, 322–323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, J. M. Cabrera, “Guided modes with ordinary refractive-index in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 wave-guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2468–2470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, J. M. Cabrera, “Modification of proton-exchanged LiNbO3 layers for guiding modes with ordinary polarisation,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 12, 277–285 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, M. A. Dı́az-Garcı́a, J. M. Cabrera, “Direct measurement of ordinary refractive index of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 92, 40–44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

K. El Hadi, P. Baldi, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Ordinary and extraordinary waveguides realized by reverse proton exchange on LiTaO3,” Opt. Commun. 140, 23–26 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. De Micheli, J. Boteneau, S. Neveu, P. Sibillot, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Characterization of titanium indiffused proton-exchanged (TIPE) waveguides in lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 42, 101–103 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, D. N.

M. P. De Micheli, D. N. Ostrowsky, Yu. N. Korkishko, P. Bassi, “Proton exchange waveguides in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3: structural and optical properties,” in Insulating Materials for Optoelectronics, F. Agullo-Lopez, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 329–366.

Petrova, V. Z.

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Reverse ion exchange in H:LiNbO3 lightguides,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 33, 686–687 (1988).

V. A. Ganshin, V. Sh. Ivanov, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Some features of ion exchange in lithium niobate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 31, 705–709 (1986).

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Some features of proton exchange in LiNbO3,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 30, 1313–1315 (1985).

Quaranta, A.

F. Gonella, F. Caccavale, A. Quaranta, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry applied to the study of ion-exchanged glass waveguides with a few modes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 3, 359–363 (1994).

Rams, J.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, J. M. Cabrera, “SHG-capabilities of reverse PE-LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 33, 322–323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rice, C. E.

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sibillot, P.

M. De Micheli, J. Boteneau, S. Neveu, P. Sibillot, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Characterization of titanium indiffused proton-exchanged (TIPE) waveguides in lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 42, 101–103 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Veselka, J. J.

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

White, J. M.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, J. M. Cabrera, “Guided modes with ordinary refractive-index in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 wave-guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2468–2470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. Rams, J. Olivares, J. M. Cabrera, “SHG-capabilities of reverse PE-LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 33, 322–323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackel, J. J. Johnson, “Reverse exchange method for burying proton exchanged wave-guides,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1360–1361 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

J. Olivares, J. M. Cabrera, “Modification of proton-exchanged LiNbO3 layers for guiding modes with ordinary polarisation,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 12, 277–285 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Optoelectron. (1)

F. Gonella, F. Caccavale, A. Quaranta, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry applied to the study of ion-exchanged glass waveguides with a few modes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 3, 359–363 (1994).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 385–391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Deformation, stresses and birefringence in proton exchanged lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. Commun. 13, 2–7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, “Structural phase diagram of HxLi1-xNbO3 waveguides: the correlation between structural and optical properties,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 187–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) (1)

Y. M. Dikaev, Yu. A. Kopylov, I. M. Kotelyanskii, “Simple method to determine the index profiles in graded waveguides,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 8, 378–381 (1981).

Opt. Commun. (3)

K. El Hadi, P. Baldi, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Ordinary and extraordinary waveguides realized by reverse proton exchange on LiTaO3,” Opt. Commun. 140, 23–26 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, M. A. Dı́az-Garcı́a, J. M. Cabrera, “Direct measurement of ordinary refractive index of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 92, 40–44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. De Micheli, J. Boteneau, S. Neveu, P. Sibillot, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Characterization of titanium indiffused proton-exchanged (TIPE) waveguides in lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 42, 101–103 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, “Structural and optical characterization of annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 5, 175–185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Ionics (1)

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Kinetic model of proton–lithium exchange in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals: the role of cationic vacancies,” Solid State Ionics 58, 23–32 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. (4)

V. A. Ganshin, V. Sh. Ivanov, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Some features of ion exchange in lithium niobate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 31, 705–709 (1986).

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Reverse ion exchange in H:LiNbO3 lightguides,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 33, 686–687 (1988).

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Specific features of ion exchange in H:LiNbO3 lightguides,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 35, 1095–1097 (1990).

V. A. Ganshin, Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Z. Petrova, “Some features of proton exchange in LiNbO3,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 30, 1313–1315 (1985).

Other (4)

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, S. V. Katin, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Reverse proton exchange in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 for buried optical waveguides,” in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M. N. Armenise, K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE2401, 149–163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, S. V. Katin, A. V. Kondrat’ev, “Reverse exchange in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 structures for buried waveguides,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’95), L. Shi, L. H. Spiekman, eds. (X. J. M. Leijtens, Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 395–398.

V. A. Fedorov, Yu. N. Korkishko, “Relationships between crystal lattice parameters and optical properties of proton-exchanged lithium niobate waveguides,” in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M. N. Armenise, K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE2401, 216–226 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. P. De Micheli, D. N. Ostrowsky, Yu. N. Korkishko, P. Bassi, “Proton exchange waveguides in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3: structural and optical properties,” in Insulating Materials for Optoelectronics, F. Agullo-Lopez, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 329–366.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical transformation of the index profiles of initial β2 and β4 HxLi1-xNbO3 PE waveguides (solid curves), and after RPE (dashed curves).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ordinary index profiles of RPE LiNbO3 waveguides. Z-cut LiNbO3 exchanged in ammonium dihydrophosphate melt at 270 °C for 5 h with postexchange annealing at 330 °C for 3 h, RPE in LiNO3 melt. Solid curves represent RPE at 270 °C: 1, 85 h; 2, 125 h. Dashed curves represent RPE at 315 °C: 3, 22 h; 4, 41 h.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SIMS depth profiles of Z-cut PE LiNbO3 samples, as-exchanged in a solution of KHSO4 in glycerine (a) at 220 °C for 62 h (β1-phase waveguide) and (b) after reverse exchange at 320 °C for 2 h.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time evolution of the ordinary index profile in an X-cut REAPE LiNbO3 waveguide with reverse exchange in LiNO3KNO3NaNO3 melt at 320 °C. The PE LiNbO3 waveguide was prepared in a solution of KHSO4 in glycerine (2g/l) at 225 °C for 50 h and annealed at 330 °C for 80 h.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SIMS concentration profiles in Z-cut PE LiNbO3 samples, exchanged in a solution of KHSO4 in glycerine at 230 °C for 18 h (β1-phase waveguide), then annealed at 325 °C for 30 h, and then reverse exchanged at 320 °C for 4 h.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ordinary (1) and extraordinary (2) refractive-index profiles in RPE waveguides on Z-cut LiNbO3 prepared under the following conditions: (a) PE in ammonium dihydrophosphate melt at the TPE=220 °C, tPE=14 h, postexchanged annealing: TAPE=330 °C, tAPE=110 h; RPE in LiNO3 melt: TRPE=300 °C, tRPE=100 h. (b) PE in solution of KHSO4 in glycerine (C=1g/l) TPE=240 °C, tPE=50 h, RPE in LiNO3 melt: TRPE=300 °C, tRPE=50 h. Dashed lines show extraordinary refractive index profiles in “reference” sample.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SIMS concentration profiles in reverse exchanged (dotted curve) and annealed (solid curve) Z-cut PE LiNbO3 samples, prepared under identical time and temperature conditions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relationship between extraordinary and ordinary refractive-index changes (compared with those of pure LiNbO3) for different phases in PE LiNbO3 waveguides. The arrows show the directions in which proton concentration increases.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental distribution of optical guided radiation (near-field) in a straight REAPE waveguide formed in LiNO3KNO3NaNO3 melt.

Equations (1)

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Δno(z)=Δno0 exp-z2Dta;

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