Abstract

The maximal area of complete scotopic spatial summation (Ricco’s area) was determined for 50 subjects ranging in age from 19 to 87 yr. Increment thresholds were measured for 10-ms, 520-nm circular test lights of varying diameters that were superimposed and concentric with a 10°, 640-nm circular background. The test lights were imaged in Maxwellian view along the horizontal meridian, 6° nasal from a foveal fixation point. The results demonstrate a statistically significant enlargement of Ricco’s area with age. The average angular subtenses of Ricco’s areas for the ten youngest (mean=26 yr) and ten oldest (mean=75 yr) observers were approximately 48 and 69 arc min, respectively. Model simulations based on a series of optical transfer functions of the eye and varying degrees of intraocular light scatter for younger and older observers show that preneural factors cannot account for these results. Therefore changes in neural mechanisms must be invoked to explain the enlargement in the size of Ricco’s area under scotopic conditions.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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J. F. Sturr, L. Zhang, H. A. Taub, D. J. Hannon, M. M. Jackowski, “Psychophysical evidence for losses in rod sensitivity in the aging visual system,” Vision Res. 37, 475–481 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Gruenert, “Anatomical evidence for rod input to the parvocellular pathway in the visual system of the primate,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 9, 617–621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, “Long-range interactions in visual perception,” TINS 19, 428–434 (1996).
[PubMed]

P. Artal, S. Marcos, I. Iglesias, D. G. Green, “Optical modulation transfer and contrast sensitivity with decentered small pupils in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 3575–3586 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

1994

P. Lennie, M. D. Fairchild, “Ganglion cell pathways for rod vision,” Vision Res. 34, 477–482 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1992

B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, M. Plach, N. Utlaut, E. Switkes, “Sites of age-related sensitivity loss in a short-wave cone pathway,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 355–363 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gao, J. G. Hollyfield, “Aging of the human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 1–17 (1992).

C. D. Gilbert, T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive field dynamics in adult primary visual cortex,” Nature (London) 356, 150–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

A. T. Liem, J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Rod densitometry in the aging human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32, 2676–2682 (1991).

K. D. Davila, W. S. Geisler, “The relative contributions of pre-neural and neural factors to areal summation in the fovea,” Vision Res. 31, 1369–1380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

E. Pulos, “Changes in rod sensitivity through adulthood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 30, 1738–1742 (1989).

1988

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

J. J. Plantner, H. L. Barbour, E. L. Kean, “The rhodopsin content of the human eye,” Current Eye Res. 7, 1125–1129 (1988).
[PubMed]

R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. (London) 395, 577–587 (1988).

G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of pupil centration and diameter on ocular performance,” Vision Res. 28, 659–665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spillmann, A. Ransom-Hogg, R. Oehler, “A comparison of perceptive and receptive fields in man and monkey,” Hum. Neurobiol. 6, 51–62 (1987).
[PubMed]

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

M. D’Zmura, P. Lennie, “Shared pathways for rod and cone vision,” Vision Res. 26, 1273–1280 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Hess, “Spatial and temporal limits of vision in the achromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 371, 365–385 (1986).

R. F. Hess, “Spatial and temporal properties of human rod vision in the achromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 371, 387–406 (1986).

1985

J. D. Morrison, C. McGrath, “Assessment of the optical contributions to age-related deterioration in vision,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 70, 249–269 (1985).

1983

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

1981

1980

A. Ransom-Hogg, L. Spillmann, “Perceptive field size in fovea and periphery of the light- and dark-adapted retina,” Vision Res. 20, 221–228 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Lie, “Visual detection and resolution as a function of retinal locus,” Vision Res. 20, 967–974 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

J. Marshall, J. Grindle, P. L. Ansell, B. Borwein, “Convolution in human rods: an ageing process,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 63, 181–187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. M. W. Scholtes, M. A. Bouman, “Psychophysical experiments on spatial summation at threshold level of the human peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 17, 867–873 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

D. V. Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

B. Fischer, “Overlap of receptive field centers and representation of the visual field in the cat’s optic tract,” Vision Res. 13, 2113–2120 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971

B. Sakitt, “Configurational dependence of scotopic spatial summation,” J. Physiol. (London) 216, 513–529 (1971).

1970

M. E. Wilson, “Invariant features of spatial summation with changing locus in the visual field,” J. Physiol. (London) 207, 611–622 (1970).

H. Levitt, “Transformed up–down methods in psychoacoustics,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 467–477 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967

W. Richards, “Apparent modifiability of receptive fields during accommodation and convergence and a model for size constancy,” Neuropsychologia 5, 63–72 (1967).

1966

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965

F. Vrabec, “Senile changes in the ganglion cells of the human retina,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 49, 561–572 (1965).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Glezer, “The receptive fields of the retina,” Vision Res. 5, 497–525 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962

P. E. Hallett, F. H. C. Marriott, F. C. Rodger, “The relationship of visual threshold to retinal position and area,” J. Physiol. (London) 160, 364–373 (1962).

1958

H. B. Barlow, “Temporal and spatial summation in human vision at different background intensities,” J. Physiol. (London) 141, 337–350 (1958).

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 18, 1520–1521 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1877

A. Ricco, “Relazione fra il minimo angolo visuale e l’intensità luminosa,” Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Lett. Arti Modena 17, 47–160 (1877).

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Milican, K. A. Allen, R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 3278–3296 (1993).

Ansell, P. L.

J. Marshall, J. Grindle, P. L. Ansell, B. Borwein, “Convolution in human rods: an ageing process,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 63, 181–187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

P. Artal, S. Marcos, I. Iglesias, D. G. Green, “Optical modulation transfer and contrast sensitivity with decentered small pupils in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 3575–3586 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Navarro, P. Artal, D. R. Williams, “Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 201–212 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, R. Navarro, “Effects of aging in retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1656–1662 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbour, H. L.

J. J. Plantner, H. L. Barbour, E. L. Kean, “The rhodopsin content of the human eye,” Current Eye Res. 7, 1125–1129 (1988).
[PubMed]

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, “Temporal and spatial summation in human vision at different background intensities,” J. Physiol. (London) 141, 337–350 (1958).

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Borwein, B.

J. Marshall, J. Grindle, P. L. Ansell, B. Borwein, “Convolution in human rods: an ageing process,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 63, 181–187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bouman, M. A.

A. M. W. Scholtes, M. A. Bouman, “Psychophysical experiments on spatial summation at threshold level of the human peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 17, 867–873 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brainard, D. H.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sekiguchi, D. R. Williams, D. H. Brainard, “Efficiency in detection of isoluminant and isochromatic interference fringes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2118–2133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Charman, W. N.

G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of pupil centration and diameter on ocular performance,” Vision Res. 28, 659–665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curcio, C.

C. Curcio, University of Alabama at Birmingham, U.A.B. Station, Birmingham, Ala. 35294 (personal communication, 1996).

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, D. N. Drucker, “Retinal ganglion cells in Alzheimer’s disease and aging,” Ann. Neurol. 33, 248–257 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Milican, K. A. Allen, R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 3278–3296 (1993).

D’Zmura, M.

M. D’Zmura, P. Lennie, “Shared pathways for rod and cone vision,” Vision Res. 26, 1273–1280 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davila, K. D.

K. D. Davila, W. S. Geisler, “The relative contributions of pre-neural and neural factors to areal summation in the fovea,” Vision Res. 31, 1369–1380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jong, P. T. V. M.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Waard, P. W. T.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly, S. K.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Drucker, D. N.

C. A. Curcio, D. N. Drucker, “Retinal ganglion cells in Alzheimer’s disease and aging,” Ann. Neurol. 33, 248–257 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fairchild, M. D.

P. Lennie, M. D. Fairchild, “Ganglion cell pathways for rod vision,” Vision Res. 34, 477–482 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernandez, L.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Ferro, M.

Fischer, B.

B. Fischer, “Overlap of receptive field centers and representation of the visual field in the cat’s optic tract,” Vision Res. 13, 2113–2120 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, J. G. Hollyfield, “Aging of the human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 1–17 (1992).

Geisler, W. S.

K. D. Davila, W. S. Geisler, “The relative contributions of pre-neural and neural factors to areal summation in the fovea,” Vision Res. 31, 1369–1380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbert, C. D.

C. D. Gilbert, T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive field dynamics in adult primary visual cortex,” Nature (London) 356, 150–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, V. D.

V. D. Glezer, “The receptive fields of the retina,” Vision Res. 5, 497–525 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, D. G.

P. Artal, S. Marcos, I. Iglesias, D. G. Green, “Optical modulation transfer and contrast sensitivity with decentered small pupils in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 3575–3586 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grindle, J.

J. Marshall, J. Grindle, P. L. Ansell, B. Borwein, “Convolution in human rods: an ageing process,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 63, 181–187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gruenert, U.

U. Gruenert, “Anatomical evidence for rod input to the parvocellular pathway in the visual system of the primate,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 9, 617–621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hallett, P. E.

P. E. Hallett, F. H. C. Marriott, F. C. Rodger, “The relationship of visual threshold to retinal position and area,” J. Physiol. (London) 160, 364–373 (1962).

Hannon, D. J.

J. F. Sturr, L. Zhang, H. A. Taub, D. J. Hannon, M. M. Jackowski, “Psychophysical evidence for losses in rod sensitivity in the aging visual system,” Vision Res. 37, 475–481 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, R. F.

R. F. Hess, “Spatial and temporal properties of human rod vision in the achromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 371, 387–406 (1986).

R. F. Hess, “Spatial and temporal limits of vision in the achromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 371, 365–385 (1986).

R. F. Hess, “Rod mediated vision: role of post-receptoral filters,” in Night Vision Basic Clinical and Applied Aspects, R. F. Hess, L. T. Sharpe, K. Nordby, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1990).

Hollyfield, J. G.

H. Gao, J. G. Hollyfield, “Aging of the human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 1–17 (1992).

Iglesias, I.

P. Artal, S. Marcos, I. Iglesias, D. G. Green, “Optical modulation transfer and contrast sensitivity with decentered small pupils in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 3575–3586 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IJspeert, J. K.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inui, T.

Jackowski, M. M.

J. F. Sturr, L. Zhang, H. A. Taub, D. J. Hannon, M. M. Jackowski, “Psychophysical evidence for losses in rod sensitivity in the aging visual system,” Vision Res. 37, 475–481 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kadlecová, V.

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 18, 1520–1521 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Milican, K. A. Allen, R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 3278–3296 (1993).

Kani, K.

Kean, E. L.

J. J. Plantner, H. L. Barbour, E. L. Kean, “The rhodopsin content of the human eye,” Current Eye Res. 7, 1125–1129 (1988).
[PubMed]

Keunen, J. E. E.

A. T. Liem, J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Rod densitometry in the aging human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32, 2676–2682 (1991).

Kliegl, R.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Landrum, J. T.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Lennie, P.

P. Lennie, M. D. Fairchild, “Ganglion cell pathways for rod vision,” Vision Res. 34, 477–482 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D’Zmura, P. Lennie, “Shared pathways for rod and cone vision,” Vision Res. 26, 1273–1280 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levitt, H.

H. Levitt, “Transformed up–down methods in psychoacoustics,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 467–477 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

Lie, I.

I. Lie, “Visual detection and resolution as a function of retinal locus,” Vision Res. 20, 967–974 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liem, A. T.

A. T. Liem, J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Rod densitometry in the aging human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32, 2676–2682 (1991).

Loewenfeld, I. E.

I. E. Loewenfeld, “Pupillary changes related to age,” in Topics in Neuroophthalmology, H. S. Thompson, R. Daroff, L. Frisén, J. S. Glasen, M. D. Sanders, eds. (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md., 1979).

Lutze, M.

Marcos, S.

P. Artal, S. Marcos, I. Iglesias, D. G. Green, “Optical modulation transfer and contrast sensitivity with decentered small pupils in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 3575–3586 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marriott, F. H. C.

P. E. Hallett, F. H. C. Marriott, F. C. Rodger, “The relationship of visual threshold to retinal position and area,” J. Physiol. (London) 160, 364–373 (1962).

Marshall, J.

J. Marshall, J. Grindle, P. L. Ansell, B. Borwein, “Convolution in human rods: an ageing process,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 63, 181–187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

McGrath, C.

J. D. Morrison, C. McGrath, “Assessment of the optical contributions to age-related deterioration in vision,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 70, 249–269 (1985).

McMahon, M. J.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milican, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Milican, K. A. Allen, R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 3278–3296 (1993).

Mimura, O.

Miranda, I.

Morrison, J. D.

J. D. Morrison, C. McGrath, “Assessment of the optical contributions to age-related deterioration in vision,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 70, 249–269 (1985).

Navarro, R.

Norren, D. V.

D. V. Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oehler, R.

L. Spillmann, A. Ransom-Hogg, R. Oehler, “A comparison of perceptive and receptive fields in man and monkey,” Hum. Neurobiol. 6, 51–62 (1987).
[PubMed]

Owsley, C.

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peleška, M.

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 18, 1520–1521 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Plach, M.

Plantner, J. J.

J. J. Plantner, H. L. Barbour, E. L. Kean, “The rhodopsin content of the human eye,” Current Eye Res. 7, 1125–1129 (1988).
[PubMed]

Pokorny, J.

Pulos, E.

E. Pulos, “Changes in rod sensitivity through adulthood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 30, 1738–1742 (1989).

Ransom-Hogg, A.

L. Spillmann, A. Ransom-Hogg, R. Oehler, “A comparison of perceptive and receptive fields in man and monkey,” Hum. Neurobiol. 6, 51–62 (1987).
[PubMed]

A. Ransom-Hogg, L. Spillmann, “Perceptive field size in fovea and periphery of the light- and dark-adapted retina,” Vision Res. 20, 221–228 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ricco, A.

A. Ricco, “Relazione fra il minimo angolo visuale e l’intensità luminosa,” Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Lett. Arti Modena 17, 47–160 (1877).

Richards, W.

W. Richards, “Apparent modifiability of receptive fields during accommodation and convergence and a model for size constancy,” Neuropsychologia 5, 63–72 (1967).

Rodger, F. C.

P. E. Hallett, F. H. C. Marriott, F. C. Rodger, “The relationship of visual threshold to retinal position and area,” J. Physiol. (London) 160, 364–373 (1962).

Sakitt, B.

B. Sakitt, “Configurational dependence of scotopic spatial summation,” J. Physiol. (London) 216, 513–529 (1971).

Schefrin, B. E.

Scholtes, A. M. W.

A. M. W. Scholtes, M. A. Bouman, “Psychophysical experiments on spatial summation at threshold level of the human peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 17, 867–873 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekiguchi, N.

Sekuler, R.

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, L. T.

L. T. Sharpe, “The light-adaptation of the human rod visual system,” in Night Vision Basic Clinical and Applied Aspects, R. F. Hess, L. T. Sharpe, K. Nordby, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1990).

Siemsen, D.

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

Spillmann, L.

L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, “Long-range interactions in visual perception,” TINS 19, 428–434 (1996).
[PubMed]

L. Spillmann, A. Ransom-Hogg, R. Oehler, “A comparison of perceptive and receptive fields in man and monkey,” Hum. Neurobiol. 6, 51–62 (1987).
[PubMed]

A. Ransom-Hogg, L. Spillmann, “Perceptive field size in fovea and periphery of the light- and dark-adapted retina,” Vision Res. 20, 221–228 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sturr, J. F.

J. F. Sturr, L. Zhang, H. A. Taub, D. J. Hannon, M. M. Jackowski, “Psychophysical evidence for losses in rod sensitivity in the aging visual system,” Vision Res. 37, 475–481 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Switkes, E.

Tarsis, S. L.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Taub, H. A.

J. F. Sturr, L. Zhang, H. A. Taub, D. J. Hannon, M. M. Jackowski, “Psychophysical evidence for losses in rod sensitivity in the aging visual system,” Vision Res. 37, 475–481 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utlaut, N.

van de Kraats, J.

A. T. Liem, J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Rod densitometry in the aging human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32, 2676–2682 (1991).

van den Berg, T. J. T. P.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Norren, D.

A. T. Liem, J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Rod densitometry in the aging human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32, 2676–2682 (1991).

Vaško, A.

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 18, 1520–1521 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Vos, J. J.

D. V. Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Vos, “Age dependence of glare effects and their significance in terms of visual ergonomics,” in Lighting for Aging Vision and Health, W. Adrian, ed. (Lighting Research Institute, New York, 1995).

Vrabec, F.

F. Vrabec, “Senile changes in the ganglion cells of the human retina,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 49, 561–572 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, G.

G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of pupil centration and diameter on ocular performance,” Vision Res. 28, 659–665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. (London) 395, 577–587 (1988).

R. A. Weale, The Senescence of Human Vision (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1992).

Werner, J. S.

L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, “Long-range interactions in visual perception,” TINS 19, 428–434 (1996).
[PubMed]

B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, M. Plach, N. Utlaut, E. Switkes, “Sites of age-related sensitivity loss in a short-wave cone pathway,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 355–363 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Werner, “Development of scotopic sensitivity and the absorption spectrum of the human ocular media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 247–258 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westheimer, G.

Wiesel, T. N.

C. D. Gilbert, T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive field dynamics in adult primary visual cortex,” Nature (London) 356, 150–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

Wilson, M. E.

M. E. Wilson, “Invariant features of spatial summation with changing locus in the visual field,” J. Physiol. (London) 207, 611–622 (1970).

Zhang, L.

J. F. Sturr, L. Zhang, H. A. Taub, D. J. Hannon, M. M. Jackowski, “Psychophysical evidence for losses in rod sensitivity in the aging visual system,” Vision Res. 37, 475–481 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Neurol.

C. A. Curcio, D. N. Drucker, “Retinal ganglion cells in Alzheimer’s disease and aging,” Ann. Neurol. 33, 248–257 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Br. J. Ophthamol.

J. Marshall, J. Grindle, P. L. Ansell, B. Borwein, “Convolution in human rods: an ageing process,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 63, 181–187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. Vrabec, “Senile changes in the ganglion cells of the human retina,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 49, 561–572 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Current Eye Res.

J. J. Plantner, H. L. Barbour, E. L. Kean, “The rhodopsin content of the human eye,” Current Eye Res. 7, 1125–1129 (1988).
[PubMed]

Eur. J. Neurosci.

U. Gruenert, “Anatomical evidence for rod input to the parvocellular pathway in the visual system of the primate,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 9, 617–621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hum. Neurobiol.

L. Spillmann, A. Ransom-Hogg, R. Oehler, “A comparison of perceptive and receptive fields in man and monkey,” Hum. Neurobiol. 6, 51–62 (1987).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

H. Gao, J. G. Hollyfield, “Aging of the human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 1–17 (1992).

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Milican, K. A. Allen, R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 3278–3296 (1993).

E. Pulos, “Changes in rod sensitivity through adulthood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 30, 1738–1742 (1989).

A. T. Liem, J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Rod densitometry in the aging human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32, 2676–2682 (1991).

J. Acoust. Soc. Am.

H. Levitt, “Transformed up–down methods in psychoacoustics,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 467–477 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Physiol. (London)

R. F. Hess, “Spatial and temporal limits of vision in the achromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 371, 365–385 (1986).

R. F. Hess, “Spatial and temporal properties of human rod vision in the achromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 371, 387–406 (1986).

R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. (London) 395, 577–587 (1988).

B. Sakitt, “Configurational dependence of scotopic spatial summation,” J. Physiol. (London) 216, 513–529 (1971).

H. B. Barlow, “Temporal and spatial summation in human vision at different background intensities,” J. Physiol. (London) 141, 337–350 (1958).

M. E. Wilson, “Invariant features of spatial summation with changing locus in the visual field,” J. Physiol. (London) 207, 611–622 (1970).

P. E. Hallett, F. H. C. Marriott, F. C. Rodger, “The relationship of visual threshold to retinal position and area,” J. Physiol. (London) 160, 364–373 (1962).

Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Lett. Arti Modena

A. Ricco, “Relazione fra il minimo angolo visuale e l’intensità luminosa,” Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Lett. Arti Modena 17, 47–160 (1877).

Nature (London)

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 18, 1520–1521 (1958).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Gilbert, T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive field dynamics in adult primary visual cortex,” Nature (London) 356, 150–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Neuropsychologia

W. Richards, “Apparent modifiability of receptive fields during accommodation and convergence and a model for size constancy,” Neuropsychologia 5, 63–72 (1967).

Q. J. Exp. Psychol.

J. D. Morrison, C. McGrath, “Assessment of the optical contributions to age-related deterioration in vision,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 70, 249–269 (1985).

TINS

L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, “Long-range interactions in visual perception,” TINS 19, 428–434 (1996).
[PubMed]

Vision Res.

A. Ransom-Hogg, L. Spillmann, “Perceptive field size in fovea and periphery of the light- and dark-adapted retina,” Vision Res. 20, 221–228 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. D. Glezer, “The receptive fields of the retina,” Vision Res. 5, 497–525 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. W. Scholtes, M. A. Bouman, “Psychophysical experiments on spatial summation at threshold level of the human peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 17, 867–873 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Lie, “Visual detection and resolution as a function of retinal locus,” Vision Res. 20, 967–974 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Davila, W. S. Geisler, “The relative contributions of pre-neural and neural factors to areal summation in the fovea,” Vision Res. 31, 1369–1380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Fischer, “Overlap of receptive field centers and representation of the visual field in the cat’s optic tract,” Vision Res. 13, 2113–2120 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Sturr, L. Zhang, H. A. Taub, D. J. Hannon, M. M. Jackowski, “Psychophysical evidence for losses in rod sensitivity in the aging visual system,” Vision Res. 37, 475–481 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of pupil centration and diameter on ocular performance,” Vision Res. 28, 659–665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, S. Marcos, I. Iglesias, D. G. Green, “Optical modulation transfer and contrast sensitivity with decentered small pupils in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 3575–3586 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D’Zmura, P. Lennie, “Shared pathways for rod and cone vision,” Vision Res. 26, 1273–1280 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lennie, M. D. Fairchild, “Ganglion cell pathways for rod vision,” Vision Res. 34, 477–482 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. F. Hess, “Rod mediated vision: role of post-receptoral filters,” in Night Vision Basic Clinical and Applied Aspects, R. F. Hess, L. T. Sharpe, K. Nordby, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1990).

L. T. Sharpe, “The light-adaptation of the human rod visual system,” in Night Vision Basic Clinical and Applied Aspects, R. F. Hess, L. T. Sharpe, K. Nordby, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1990).

R. A. Weale, The Senescence of Human Vision (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1992).

I. E. Loewenfeld, “Pupillary changes related to age,” in Topics in Neuroophthalmology, H. S. Thompson, R. Daroff, L. Frisén, J. S. Glasen, M. D. Sanders, eds. (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md., 1979).

J. J. Vos, “Age dependence of glare effects and their significance in terms of visual ergonomics,” in Lighting for Aging Vision and Health, W. Adrian, ed. (Lighting Research Institute, New York, 1995).

C. Curcio, University of Alabama at Birmingham, U.A.B. Station, Birmingham, Ala. 35294 (personal communication, 1996).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mean increment thresholds for 15 subjects plotted as a function of test stimulus area. Data points represent increment thresholds for 10-ms, 520-nm test lights of varying diameters presented on a 10°, -3.29-log-scotopic-troland, 640-nm background. The bilinear function passing through each set of data was fitted by using a least-squares criterion. The arrow points to the estimated Ricco’s area for each subject. The left, middle, and right plots in each row show the best-fitting, typically fitting, and worst-fitting functions, respectively, for subjects within an age group. Ages of individual subjects are shown in the upper right corner of each plot.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Estimated Ricco’s area plotted as a function of age. Filled circles represent estimated Ricco’s areas for 50 individuals. The line passing through the symbols represents the linear regression fitted to these points. The open circle represents data taken from Barlow.4

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Increment thresholds plotted as a function of age. Symbols represent thresholds for test lights of varying angular subtenses as indicated to the left of each data set. The line passing through each set of symbols represents the linear regression fitted to these points.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Four modeled modulation transfer functions (MTF’s) as described in the text. (B) Predicted increment thresholds for a series of circular test lights and different MTF’s. Each set of symbols represents predicted thresholds for circular test lights for subjects with a MTF of like symbol shown in (A).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Cumulative light spread functions incorporating different amounts of intraocular scatter. The circles and the diamonds represent cumulative light spreads for radially symmetric point-spread functions for an older and a younger eye, respectively. (B) Predicted increment thresholds taking into account varying amounts of intraocular scatter. Modeled increment thresholds for individuals with greater and lesser amounts of intraocular scatter are represented by the circles and the diamonds, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Predicted Measurement for Various MTF’s and Assumed Ricco’s Areas

Tables Icon

Table 2 Rod and Ganglion Cell Numbers for Mean Ricco’s Areas of Young and Old Observers

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

LSF(s)=[a2J1(2πas)/as]MTF(s),
I=I00Ra2πrLSF(r)dr,

Metrics