Abstract

Most empirical work on color constancy is based on simple laboratory models of natural viewing conditions. These typically consist of spots seen against uniform backgrounds or computer simulations of flat surfaces seen under spatially uniform illumination. In this study measurements were made under more natural viewing conditions. Observers used a projection colorimeter to adjust the appearance of a test patch until it appeared achromatic. Observers made such achromatic settings under a variety of illuminants and when the test surface was viewed against a number of different backgrounds. An analysis of the achromatic settings reveals that observers show good color constancy when the illumination is varied. Changing the background surface against which the test patch is seen, on the other hand, has a relatively small effect on the achromatic loci. The results thus indicate that constancy is not achieved by a simple comparison between the test surface and its local surround.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. H. Brainard, W. A. Brunt, J. M. Speigle, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. 1. Asymmetric matches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2091–2110 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. E. Arend, A. Reeves, J. Schirillo, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous color constancy: papers with diverse Munsell values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 661–672 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. E. Arend, A. Reeves, “Simultaneous color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1743–1751 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, “Asymmetric color-matching: how color appearance depends on the illuminant,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1433–1448 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, “A bilinear model of the illuminant’s effect on color appearance,” in Computational Models of Visual Processing; M. S. Landy, J. A. Movshon, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.,1991), pp. 171–186.
  6. K. H. Bauml, “Illuminant changes under different surface collections: examining some principles of color appearance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 261–271 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Helson, W. C. Michels, “The effect of chromatic adaptation on achromaticity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1025–1032 (1948).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. S. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 929–944 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. D. Fairchild, P. Lennie, “Chromatic adaptation to natural and incandescent illuminants,” Vision Res. 32, 2077–2085 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. E. Arend, “How much does illuminant color affect unattributed colors?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2134–2147 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. H. Bauml, “Color appearance: effects of illuminant changes under different surface collections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 531–542 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Seeing gray through the on and off pathways,” Visual Neurosci. 13, 591–596 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  13. H. Helson, “Fundamental problems in color vision. I. The principle governing changes in hue, saturation and lightness of non-selective samples in chromatic illumination,” J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439–476 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Helson, V. B. Jeffers, “Fundamental problems in color vision. II. Hue, lightness, and saturation of selective samples in chromatic illumination,” J. Exp. Psychol. 26, 1–27 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. W. Burnham, R. M. Evans, S. M. Newhall, “Prediction of color appearance with different adaptation illuminations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 35–42 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Color constancy under natural and artificial illumination,” Vision Res. 36, 2699–2711 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. W. Jin, S. K. Shevell, “Color memory and color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1981–1991 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Whittle, P. D. C. Challands, “The effect of background luminance on the brightness of flashes,” Vision Res. 9, 1095–1110 (1969).
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  20. A. L. Gilchrist, S. Delman, A. Jacobsen, “The classification and integration of edges as critical to the perception of reflectance and illumination,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 425–436 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Gilchrist, A. Jacobsen, “Perception of lightness and illumination in a world of one reflectance,” Perception 13, 5–19 (1984).
    [PubMed]
  22. D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, “Analysis of the retinex theory of color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1651–1661 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. L. T. Maloney, B. A. Wandell, “Color constancy: a method for recovering surface spectral reflectances,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 29–33 (1986).
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  24. G. Buchsbaum, “A spatial processor model for object colour perception,” J. Franklin Inst. 310, 1–26 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. H. Brainard, W. T. Freeman, “Bayesian color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1393–1411 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. L. Gilchrist, “Lightness contrast and failures of constancy: a common explanation,” Percept. Psychophys. 43, 415–424 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. M. Speigle, D. H. Brainard, “Luminosity thresholds: effects of test chromaticity and ambient illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 436–451 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. CIE, Colorimetry, 2nd ed. (Bureau Central de la CIE, Paris, 1986).
  29. Previous studies that measured the achromatic locus for test stimuli seen against uniform backgrounds have not generally revealed this simplifying regularity.7,8,12 Chichilnisky and Wandell, however, found that the achromatic locus was independent of test luminance for decremental stimuli.12 It is difficult to say what corresponds to a decrement in complex images. Our test patch luminances were generally near or below those of the illuminant; perhaps our stimuli correspond to decrements.
  30. J. von Kries, “Influence of adaptation on the effects produced by luminous stimuli,” in Sources of Color Vision, D. L. MacAdam, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1970). [Originally published in Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen (1905), Vol. 3, pp. 109–282.]
  31. A univariate index is unlikely to summarize completely all the richness of multivariate data. There are many reasonable ways to compute a constancy index from our data. In informal investigations, we have found that the numerical index values are quite stable with respect to variations in how the index is computed.
  32. We did not compute the background index for the White and Black surfaces, because the denominator of Eq. (2) is very small for these surfaces, which makes the index extremely sensitive to measurement variability in the determination of the achromatic locus.
  33. Observer JPH observed only with the Gray background in Experiment 1, so we cannot make a within-subject comparison of his background indices.
  34. J. Walraven, “Colour signals from incremental and decremental light stimuli,” Vision Res. 17, 71–76 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. W. R. Whipple, H. Wallach, F. J. Marshall, “The effect of area, separation, and dichoptic presentation on the perception of achromatic color,” Percept. Psychophys. 43, 367–372 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. P. Whittle, “Brightness, discriminability and the ‘crispening effect’,” Vision Res. 32, 1493–1507 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. As described for Experiment 3, this experiment used the RGB illuminant setup, no surrounding panels, the basic starting rule, and L* values of 50 and 70; observations were made in one session per condition.
  38. M. F. Wesner, S. K. Shevell, “Color perception within a chromatic context—changes in red green equilbria caused by noncontiguous light,” Vision Res. 32, 1623–1634 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. J. W. Jenness, S. K. Shevell, “Color appearance with sparse chromatic context,” Vision Res. 35, 797–805 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. R. S. Berns, M. E. Gorzynski, “Simulating surface colors on CRT displays: the importance of cognitive clues,” in Proceedings of the AIC Conference: Colour and Light (Association Internationale de la Couleur, 1991), pp. 21–24.
  41. M. E. Gorzynski, “Achromatic perception in color image displays,” Master’s thesis (Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, N.Y., 1992).
  42. D. H. Brainard, K. Ishigami, “Factors influencing the appearance of CRT colors,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Color Science, Systems, and Applications (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va.1995), pp. 62–66.
  43. E. H. Land, “Recent advances in retinex theory,” Vision Res. 26, 7–21 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. M. D’Zmura, P. Lennie, “Mechanisms of color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1662–1672 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. The term “gray world assumption” is a misnomer, however, since it implies that the space average reflectance needs to be nearly constant across the spectrum. All that is required for constancy is that the space average reflectance be nearly the same in all images.22,24
  46. J. J. McCann, “Psychophysical experiments in search of adaptation and the gray world,” in Proceedings of the IS&T 47th Annual Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1994), pp. 397–401.
  47. D. H. Brainard, M. D. Rutherford, J. M. Kraft, “Color constancy compared: experiments with real images and color monitors,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, S476 (1997).
  48. To compute the index, we first found the average within-experiment constancy index for each observer in those experiments in which a constancy index could be computed. We then computed an average index for each observer by averaging the within-experiment indices for that observer. Finally, we computed the overall average index by averaging across observers. The computed number includes all non-red-cloth experiments with the normal border discussed in this paper, including the data for observers KI and AMO. It also includes one additional control experiment for observer JAD that replicated Experiment 1 but used the RGB illuminant setup.
  49. See Gorzinski and Berns,40,41 Agostini and Bruno,50 Savoy and O’Shea,51 and Brainard et al.47 for some preliminary reports.
  50. T. Agostini, N. Bruno, “Lightness contrast in CRT and paper-and-illuminant displays,” Percept. Psychophys. 58, 250–258 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. R. L. Savoy, R. P. O’Shea, “Color constancy with reflected and emitted light,” Perception 22, 61 (1993).
  52. M. D’Zmura, G. Iverson, B. Singer, “Probabilistic color constancy,” in Geometric Representations of Perceptual Phenomena: Papers in Honor of Tarow Indow’s 70th Birthday, R. D. Luce, M. D’Zmura, D. Hoffman, G. Iverson, A. K. Romney, eds. (Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J., 1995), pp. 187–202.
  53. J. M. Speigle, D. H. Brainard, “Is color constancy task independent?” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Color Science, Systems, and Applications (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1996), pp. 167–172.
  54. H. Z. Hel-Or, X. Zhang, B. A. Wandell, “Effects of patterned backgrounds on color appearance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, S1065 (1996).
  55. A. L. Gilchrist, “Perceived lightness depends on perceived spatial arrangement,” Science 195, 185 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  56. A. L. Gilchrist, “When does perceived lightness depend on perceived spatial arrangement?” Percept. Psychophys. 28, 527–538 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  57. S. K. Shevell, I. Holliday, P. Whittle, “Two separate neural mechanisms of brightness induction,” Vision Res. 32, 2331–2340 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “Luminance edges perceived as changes of illumination vs. reflectance: effect on brightness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, S649 (1996).
  59. J. M. Kraft, D. H. Brainard, “What cues mediate color constancy?” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, S898 (1997).
  60. V. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  61. P. DeMarco, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Full-spectrum cone sensitivity functions for X-chromosome-linked anomalous trichromats,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1465–1476 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  62. D. H. Brainard, J. M. Speigle, “Achromatic loci measured under realistic viewing conditions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 35, 1328 (1994).

1997 (4)

D. H. Brainard, W. A. Brunt, J. M. Speigle, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. 1. Asymmetric matches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2091–2110 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, W. T. Freeman, “Bayesian color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1393–1411 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, M. D. Rutherford, J. M. Kraft, “Color constancy compared: experiments with real images and color monitors,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, S476 (1997).

J. M. Kraft, D. H. Brainard, “What cues mediate color constancy?” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, S898 (1997).

1996 (7)

J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “Luminance edges perceived as changes of illumination vs. reflectance: effect on brightness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, S649 (1996).

T. Agostini, N. Bruno, “Lightness contrast in CRT and paper-and-illuminant displays,” Percept. Psychophys. 58, 250–258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Z. Hel-Or, X. Zhang, B. A. Wandell, “Effects of patterned backgrounds on color appearance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, S1065 (1996).

J. M. Speigle, D. H. Brainard, “Luminosity thresholds: effects of test chromaticity and ambient illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 436–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Seeing gray through the on and off pathways,” Visual Neurosci. 13, 591–596 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Color constancy under natural and artificial illumination,” Vision Res. 36, 2699–2711 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Jin, S. K. Shevell, “Color memory and color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1981–1991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (2)

K. H. Bauml, “Color appearance: effects of illuminant changes under different surface collections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 531–542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, J. M. Speigle, “Achromatic loci measured under realistic viewing conditions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 35, 1328 (1994).

1993 (2)

L. E. Arend, “How much does illuminant color affect unattributed colors?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2134–2147 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Savoy, R. P. O’Shea, “Color constancy with reflected and emitted light,” Perception 22, 61 (1993).

1992 (6)

P. Whittle, “Brightness, discriminability and the ‘crispening effect’,” Vision Res. 32, 1493–1507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Wesner, S. K. Shevell, “Color perception within a chromatic context—changes in red green equilbria caused by noncontiguous light,” Vision Res. 32, 1623–1634 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Fairchild, P. Lennie, “Chromatic adaptation to natural and incandescent illuminants,” Vision Res. 32, 2077–2085 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, “Asymmetric color-matching: how color appearance depends on the illuminant,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1433–1448 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMarco, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Full-spectrum cone sensitivity functions for X-chromosome-linked anomalous trichromats,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1465–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Shevell, I. Holliday, P. Whittle, “Two separate neural mechanisms of brightness induction,” Vision Res. 32, 2331–2340 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1988 (2)

A. L. Gilchrist, “Lightness contrast and failures of constancy: a common explanation,” Percept. Psychophys. 43, 415–424 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Whipple, H. Wallach, F. J. Marshall, “The effect of area, separation, and dichoptic presentation on the perception of achromatic color,” Percept. Psychophys. 43, 367–372 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (5)

1984 (1)

A. Gilchrist, A. Jacobsen, “Perception of lightness and illumination in a world of one reflectance,” Perception 13, 5–19 (1984).
[PubMed]

1983 (1)

A. L. Gilchrist, S. Delman, A. Jacobsen, “The classification and integration of edges as critical to the perception of reflectance and illumination,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 425–436 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

J. S. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 929–944 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

G. Buchsbaum, “A spatial processor model for object colour perception,” J. Franklin Inst. 310, 1–26 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Gilchrist, “When does perceived lightness depend on perceived spatial arrangement?” Percept. Psychophys. 28, 527–538 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (2)

J. Walraven, “Colour signals from incremental and decremental light stimuli,” Vision Res. 17, 71–76 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gilchrist, “Perceived lightness depends on perceived spatial arrangement,” Science 195, 185 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, T. H. Taylor, “Quantitative studies in retinex theory: a comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the Color Mondrian’ experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445–458 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

V. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

P. Whittle, P. D. C. Challands, “The effect of background luminance on the brightness of flashes,” Vision Res. 9, 1095–1110 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1957 (1)

1948 (1)

1940 (1)

H. Helson, V. B. Jeffers, “Fundamental problems in color vision. II. Hue, lightness, and saturation of selective samples in chromatic illumination,” J. Exp. Psychol. 26, 1–27 (1940).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

H. Helson, “Fundamental problems in color vision. I. The principle governing changes in hue, saturation and lightness of non-selective samples in chromatic illumination,” J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439–476 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, T.

T. Agostini, N. Bruno, “Lightness contrast in CRT and paper-and-illuminant displays,” Percept. Psychophys. 58, 250–258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arend, L. E.

Bauml, K. H.

Berns, R. S.

R. S. Berns, M. E. Gorzynski, “Simulating surface colors on CRT displays: the importance of cognitive clues,” in Proceedings of the AIC Conference: Colour and Light (Association Internationale de la Couleur, 1991), pp. 21–24.

Brainard, D. H.

D. H. Brainard, W. T. Freeman, “Bayesian color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1393–1411 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, W. A. Brunt, J. M. Speigle, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. 1. Asymmetric matches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2091–2110 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, M. D. Rutherford, J. M. Kraft, “Color constancy compared: experiments with real images and color monitors,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, S476 (1997).

J. M. Kraft, D. H. Brainard, “What cues mediate color constancy?” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, S898 (1997).

J. M. Speigle, D. H. Brainard, “Luminosity thresholds: effects of test chromaticity and ambient illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 436–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, J. M. Speigle, “Achromatic loci measured under realistic viewing conditions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 35, 1328 (1994).

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, “Asymmetric color-matching: how color appearance depends on the illuminant,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1433–1448 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, “Analysis of the retinex theory of color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1651–1661 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Brainard, K. Ishigami, “Factors influencing the appearance of CRT colors,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Color Science, Systems, and Applications (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va.1995), pp. 62–66.

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, “A bilinear model of the illuminant’s effect on color appearance,” in Computational Models of Visual Processing; M. S. Landy, J. A. Movshon, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.,1991), pp. 171–186.

J. M. Speigle, D. H. Brainard, “Is color constancy task independent?” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Color Science, Systems, and Applications (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1996), pp. 167–172.

Bruno, N.

T. Agostini, N. Bruno, “Lightness contrast in CRT and paper-and-illuminant displays,” Percept. Psychophys. 58, 250–258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunt, W. A.

Buchsbaum, G.

G. Buchsbaum, “A spatial processor model for object colour perception,” J. Franklin Inst. 310, 1–26 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, R. W.

Challands, P. D. C.

P. Whittle, P. D. C. Challands, “The effect of background luminance on the brightness of flashes,” Vision Res. 9, 1095–1110 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chichilnisky, E. J.

E. J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Seeing gray through the on and off pathways,” Visual Neurosci. 13, 591–596 (1996).
[PubMed]

D’Zmura, M.

M. D’Zmura, P. Lennie, “Mechanisms of color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1662–1672 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D’Zmura, G. Iverson, B. Singer, “Probabilistic color constancy,” in Geometric Representations of Perceptual Phenomena: Papers in Honor of Tarow Indow’s 70th Birthday, R. D. Luce, M. D’Zmura, D. Hoffman, G. Iverson, A. K. Romney, eds. (Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J., 1995), pp. 187–202.

Delman, S.

A. L. Gilchrist, S. Delman, A. Jacobsen, “The classification and integration of edges as critical to the perception of reflectance and illumination,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 425–436 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeMarco, P.

Evans, R. M.

Fairchild, M. D.

M. D. Fairchild, P. Lennie, “Chromatic adaptation to natural and incandescent illuminants,” Vision Res. 32, 2077–2085 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, W. T.

Gilchrist, A.

A. Gilchrist, A. Jacobsen, “Perception of lightness and illumination in a world of one reflectance,” Perception 13, 5–19 (1984).
[PubMed]

Gilchrist, A. L.

A. L. Gilchrist, “Lightness contrast and failures of constancy: a common explanation,” Percept. Psychophys. 43, 415–424 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gilchrist, S. Delman, A. Jacobsen, “The classification and integration of edges as critical to the perception of reflectance and illumination,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 425–436 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gilchrist, “When does perceived lightness depend on perceived spatial arrangement?” Percept. Psychophys. 28, 527–538 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gilchrist, “Perceived lightness depends on perceived spatial arrangement,” Science 195, 185 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldstein, R.

Gorzynski, M. E.

R. S. Berns, M. E. Gorzynski, “Simulating surface colors on CRT displays: the importance of cognitive clues,” in Proceedings of the AIC Conference: Colour and Light (Association Internationale de la Couleur, 1991), pp. 21–24.

M. E. Gorzynski, “Achromatic perception in color image displays,” Master’s thesis (Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, N.Y., 1992).

Hel-Or, H. Z.

H. Z. Hel-Or, X. Zhang, B. A. Wandell, “Effects of patterned backgrounds on color appearance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, S1065 (1996).

Helson, H.

H. Helson, W. C. Michels, “The effect of chromatic adaptation on achromaticity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1025–1032 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Helson, V. B. Jeffers, “Fundamental problems in color vision. II. Hue, lightness, and saturation of selective samples in chromatic illumination,” J. Exp. Psychol. 26, 1–27 (1940).
[CrossRef]

H. Helson, “Fundamental problems in color vision. I. The principle governing changes in hue, saturation and lightness of non-selective samples in chromatic illumination,” J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439–476 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Holliday, I.

S. K. Shevell, I. Holliday, P. Whittle, “Two separate neural mechanisms of brightness induction,” Vision Res. 32, 2331–2340 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishigami, K.

D. H. Brainard, K. Ishigami, “Factors influencing the appearance of CRT colors,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Color Science, Systems, and Applications (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va.1995), pp. 62–66.

Iverson, G.

M. D’Zmura, G. Iverson, B. Singer, “Probabilistic color constancy,” in Geometric Representations of Perceptual Phenomena: Papers in Honor of Tarow Indow’s 70th Birthday, R. D. Luce, M. D’Zmura, D. Hoffman, G. Iverson, A. K. Romney, eds. (Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J., 1995), pp. 187–202.

Jacobsen, A.

A. Gilchrist, A. Jacobsen, “Perception of lightness and illumination in a world of one reflectance,” Perception 13, 5–19 (1984).
[PubMed]

A. L. Gilchrist, S. Delman, A. Jacobsen, “The classification and integration of edges as critical to the perception of reflectance and illumination,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 425–436 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeffers, V. B.

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[CrossRef]

Jenness, J. W.

J. W. Jenness, S. K. Shevell, “Color appearance with sparse chromatic context,” Vision Res. 35, 797–805 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, E. W.

Kraft, J. M.

D. H. Brainard, M. D. Rutherford, J. M. Kraft, “Color constancy compared: experiments with real images and color monitors,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, S476 (1997).

J. M. Kraft, D. H. Brainard, “What cues mediate color constancy?” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, S898 (1997).

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E. H. Land, “Recent advances in retinex theory,” Vision Res. 26, 7–21 (1986).
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M. D. Fairchild, P. Lennie, “Chromatic adaptation to natural and incandescent illuminants,” Vision Res. 32, 2077–2085 (1992).
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M. D’Zmura, P. Lennie, “Mechanisms of color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1662–1672 (1986).
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Lucassen, M. P.

M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Color constancy under natural and artificial illumination,” Vision Res. 36, 2699–2711 (1996).
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Marshall, F. J.

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Pokorny, J.

P. DeMarco, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Full-spectrum cone sensitivity functions for X-chromosome-linked anomalous trichromats,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1465–1476 (1992).
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V. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reeves, A.

Rutherford, M. D.

D. H. Brainard, M. D. Rutherford, J. M. Kraft, “Color constancy compared: experiments with real images and color monitors,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, S476 (1997).

Savoy, R. L.

R. L. Savoy, R. P. O’Shea, “Color constancy with reflected and emitted light,” Perception 22, 61 (1993).

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Shevell, S. K.

J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “Luminance edges perceived as changes of illumination vs. reflectance: effect on brightness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, S649 (1996).

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singer, B.

M. D’Zmura, G. Iverson, B. Singer, “Probabilistic color constancy,” in Geometric Representations of Perceptual Phenomena: Papers in Honor of Tarow Indow’s 70th Birthday, R. D. Luce, M. D’Zmura, D. Hoffman, G. Iverson, A. K. Romney, eds. (Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J., 1995), pp. 187–202.

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V. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

Speigle, J. M.

D. H. Brainard, W. A. Brunt, J. M. Speigle, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. 1. Asymmetric matches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2091–2110 (1997).
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J. M. Speigle, D. H. Brainard, “Luminosity thresholds: effects of test chromaticity and ambient illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 436–451 (1996).
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Taylor, T. H.

J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, T. H. Taylor, “Quantitative studies in retinex theory: a comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the Color Mondrian’ experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445–458 (1976).
[CrossRef]

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J. von Kries, “Influence of adaptation on the effects produced by luminous stimuli,” in Sources of Color Vision, D. L. MacAdam, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1970). [Originally published in Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen (1905), Vol. 3, pp. 109–282.]

Wallach, H.

W. R. Whipple, H. Wallach, F. J. Marshall, “The effect of area, separation, and dichoptic presentation on the perception of achromatic color,” Percept. Psychophys. 43, 367–372 (1988).
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D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, “A bilinear model of the illuminant’s effect on color appearance,” in Computational Models of Visual Processing; M. S. Landy, J. A. Movshon, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.,1991), pp. 171–186.

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J. S. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 929–944 (1982).
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M. F. Wesner, S. K. Shevell, “Color perception within a chromatic context—changes in red green equilbria caused by noncontiguous light,” Vision Res. 32, 1623–1634 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. R. Whipple, H. Wallach, F. J. Marshall, “The effect of area, separation, and dichoptic presentation on the perception of achromatic color,” Percept. Psychophys. 43, 367–372 (1988).
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D. H. Brainard, M. D. Rutherford, J. M. Kraft, “Color constancy compared: experiments with real images and color monitors,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, S476 (1997).

H. Z. Hel-Or, X. Zhang, B. A. Wandell, “Effects of patterned backgrounds on color appearance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, S1065 (1996).

J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “Luminance edges perceived as changes of illumination vs. reflectance: effect on brightness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, S649 (1996).

J. M. Kraft, D. H. Brainard, “What cues mediate color constancy?” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, S898 (1997).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. (1)

D. H. Brainard, J. M. Speigle, “Achromatic loci measured under realistic viewing conditions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 35, 1328 (1994).

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D. H. Brainard, W. A. Brunt, J. M. Speigle, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. 1. Asymmetric matches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2091–2110 (1997).
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[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, W. T. Freeman, “Bayesian color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1393–1411 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, “Analysis of the retinex theory of color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1651–1661 (1986).
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L. T. Maloney, B. A. Wandell, “Color constancy: a method for recovering surface spectral reflectances,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 29–33 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Speigle, D. H. Brainard, “Luminosity thresholds: effects of test chromaticity and ambient illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 436–451 (1996).
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K. H. Bauml, “Illuminant changes under different surface collections: examining some principles of color appearance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 261–271 (1995).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D’Zmura, P. Lennie, “Mechanisms of color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1662–1672 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Percept. Psychophys. (5)

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Perception (2)

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Science (1)

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Vision Res. (12)

S. K. Shevell, I. Holliday, P. Whittle, “Two separate neural mechanisms of brightness induction,” Vision Res. 32, 2331–2340 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Land, “Recent advances in retinex theory,” Vision Res. 26, 7–21 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Whittle, P. D. C. Challands, “The effect of background luminance on the brightness of flashes,” Vision Res. 9, 1095–1110 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, T. H. Taylor, “Quantitative studies in retinex theory: a comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the Color Mondrian’ experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445–458 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Color constancy under natural and artificial illumination,” Vision Res. 36, 2699–2711 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 929–944 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Fairchild, P. Lennie, “Chromatic adaptation to natural and incandescent illuminants,” Vision Res. 32, 2077–2085 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Whittle, “Brightness, discriminability and the ‘crispening effect’,” Vision Res. 32, 1493–1507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Walraven, “Colour signals from incremental and decremental light stimuli,” Vision Res. 17, 71–76 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Wesner, S. K. Shevell, “Color perception within a chromatic context—changes in red green equilbria caused by noncontiguous light,” Vision Res. 32, 1623–1634 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Jenness, S. K. Shevell, “Color appearance with sparse chromatic context,” Vision Res. 35, 797–805 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visual Neurosci. (1)

E. J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Seeing gray through the on and off pathways,” Visual Neurosci. 13, 591–596 (1996).
[PubMed]

Other (17)

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, “A bilinear model of the illuminant’s effect on color appearance,” in Computational Models of Visual Processing; M. S. Landy, J. A. Movshon, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.,1991), pp. 171–186.

R. S. Berns, M. E. Gorzynski, “Simulating surface colors on CRT displays: the importance of cognitive clues,” in Proceedings of the AIC Conference: Colour and Light (Association Internationale de la Couleur, 1991), pp. 21–24.

M. E. Gorzynski, “Achromatic perception in color image displays,” Master’s thesis (Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, N.Y., 1992).

D. H. Brainard, K. Ishigami, “Factors influencing the appearance of CRT colors,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Color Science, Systems, and Applications (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va.1995), pp. 62–66.

As described for Experiment 3, this experiment used the RGB illuminant setup, no surrounding panels, the basic starting rule, and L* values of 50 and 70; observations were made in one session per condition.

CIE, Colorimetry, 2nd ed. (Bureau Central de la CIE, Paris, 1986).

Previous studies that measured the achromatic locus for test stimuli seen against uniform backgrounds have not generally revealed this simplifying regularity.7,8,12 Chichilnisky and Wandell, however, found that the achromatic locus was independent of test luminance for decremental stimuli.12 It is difficult to say what corresponds to a decrement in complex images. Our test patch luminances were generally near or below those of the illuminant; perhaps our stimuli correspond to decrements.

J. von Kries, “Influence of adaptation on the effects produced by luminous stimuli,” in Sources of Color Vision, D. L. MacAdam, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1970). [Originally published in Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen (1905), Vol. 3, pp. 109–282.]

A univariate index is unlikely to summarize completely all the richness of multivariate data. There are many reasonable ways to compute a constancy index from our data. In informal investigations, we have found that the numerical index values are quite stable with respect to variations in how the index is computed.

We did not compute the background index for the White and Black surfaces, because the denominator of Eq. (2) is very small for these surfaces, which makes the index extremely sensitive to measurement variability in the determination of the achromatic locus.

Observer JPH observed only with the Gray background in Experiment 1, so we cannot make a within-subject comparison of his background indices.

M. D’Zmura, G. Iverson, B. Singer, “Probabilistic color constancy,” in Geometric Representations of Perceptual Phenomena: Papers in Honor of Tarow Indow’s 70th Birthday, R. D. Luce, M. D’Zmura, D. Hoffman, G. Iverson, A. K. Romney, eds. (Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J., 1995), pp. 187–202.

J. M. Speigle, D. H. Brainard, “Is color constancy task independent?” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Color Science, Systems, and Applications (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1996), pp. 167–172.

The term “gray world assumption” is a misnomer, however, since it implies that the space average reflectance needs to be nearly constant across the spectrum. All that is required for constancy is that the space average reflectance be nearly the same in all images.22,24

J. J. McCann, “Psychophysical experiments in search of adaptation and the gray world,” in Proceedings of the IS&T 47th Annual Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1994), pp. 397–401.

To compute the index, we first found the average within-experiment constancy index for each observer in those experiments in which a constancy index could be computed. We then computed an average index for each observer by averaging the within-experiment indices for that observer. Finally, we computed the overall average index by averaging across observers. The computed number includes all non-red-cloth experiments with the normal border discussed in this paper, including the data for observers KI and AMO. It also includes one additional control experiment for observer JAD that replicated Experiment 1 but used the RGB illuminant setup.

See Gorzinski and Berns,40,41 Agostini and Bruno,50 Savoy and O’Shea,51 and Brainard et al.47 for some preliminary reports.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental room. Left panel, top view; right panel, schematic of the observers’ view of the far wall of the room in its most complex configuration. Other objects in the room were visible to the observers, including a brown metal bookcase and an off-white table. Not drawn proportionally; locations are approximate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Linearity of achromatic loci. Each panel shows a scatterplot of the cone coordinates of the individual achromatic settings from a single session, for observer PW and Gray background. Each panel shows a two-dimensional view of the three-dimensional cone space. Each pair of lines is a two-dimensional projection of a single line fitted to the data in the three-dimensional cone space. The lines are constrained to pass through the origin. The cone coordinates were computed from our full spectral measurements with respect to the Smith–Pokorny fundamentals.60,61 The peak of each cone fundamental was normalized to 1.0.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Basic results from Experiment 1 for the Gray background for observer PW (left panel) and for five observers (right panel). Both plots: solid circles, CIE xy chromaticity of achromatic loci determined under two illuminants (Blue and Yellow); open circles, illuminant chromaticities. Note the large effect of the illuminant on the achromatic locus. The data for all observers are quite similar, with the exception of the achromatic setting under the Blue illuminant for observer JPH. Where visible, the error bars for the achromatic loci represent ±1 standard error of the mean, computed between sessions. For each observer, we computed the average of the within-session standard deviations of the individual achromatic settings. The crossed bars in the upper right of the left plot show these for observer PW. The corresponding bars in the right plot show the maxima of these mean standard deviations, computed across observers. In both plots, the left cross was computed from the settings under the Blue illuminant and the right cross was computed from the settings under the Yellow illuminant. The solid curves in both panels plot the blackbody locus from 2500 °K to 20000 °K.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Equivalent illuminants. Data from Experiment 1 for the Gray background surface. The left panel illustrates the equivalent illuminant calculation for observer PW. Open circles, chromaticities of the Blue and Yellow illuminants; solid circles, chromaticities of the measured achromatic loci under the two illuminants. The data are the same as those shown in the left panel of Fig. 3. Open triangle, equivalent illuminant computed from these data. Here, the equivalent illuminant represents the effect of the illuminant change relative to Blue illuminant chromaticity. In the right panel, closed circles represent the equivalent illuminants for five observers in the Gray background condition, computed from the data shown in the right panel of Fig. 3. Open circles represent the illuminant chromaticities. The equivalent illuminant representation separates the effect of the illuminant change from the scatter of the achromatic points within a single illuminant condition. The effect of the illuminant change is very similar across the five observers. Thus the differences between observers seen in Fig. 3 are primarily shifts in the achromatic loci within a single illuminant condition.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Equivalent illuminants. Data from Experiment 2 for the Gray background surface for observers JAD (left) and DHB (right). Open circles, chromaticities of nine experimental illuminants; solid circles, eight equivalent illuminants, computed with respect to illuminant 0. (Illuminant 0 is at the center of the grid of nine illuminants.) The variation in the illuminant chromaticities between the two observers represents variability in actual illuminant measurements in the sessions for the two observers. The solid curves in both panels plot the blackbody locus from 2500 °K to 20000 °K.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of background surface. The left panel shows the chromaticities of the Gray, Red, Yellow, Dark Blue, Brown, White, and Black background surfaces under the Blue and Yellow illuminants. Solid squares, chromaticities of the light reflected from the background surfaces under the Blue illuminant; open squares, corresponding chromaticities under the Yellow illuminant. The right panel shows the achromatic loci for observer PW measured for the seven background surfaces. Solid circles, achromatic loci; open circles, chromaticities of the Blue and Yellow illuminants. The error bars on the solid circles represent ±1 between-session standard error. Note that the achromatic loci cluster near the illuminant even though the chromaticities of the background surfaces scatter widely. For each condition, we computed the average of the within-session standard deviations of the individual achromatic settings. The crossed bars in the upper right represent the maxima of these, computed across the conditions shown. The left cross was computed from the settings under the Blue illuminant and the right cross from the settings made under the Yellow illuminant.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Equivalent illuminants. Data from Experiment 1 for all observer–background pairs measured. Solid circles, equivalent illuminants; open circles, illuminant chromaticities. The effect of the illuminant change is very similar across all of the background surfaces.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of achromatic settings made with and without the thin black border surrounding the test patch for two observers. Open circles, achromatic loci with the border present for the Gray and Red background surfaces; solid circles, settings for the same background surfaces without the border. The error bars on each point represent ±1 between-session standard error. There is little effect of the border. For each condition, we computed the average of the within-session standard deviations of the individual achromatic settings. The crossed bars in the upper right of each plot represent the maxima of these, computed across the conditions shown. The left cross was computed from the settings under the Blue illuminant and the right cross from the settings made under the Yellow illuminant.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of the effect of illuminant change and of background surface for Experiment 3, which directly compares the effect of two manipulations. The left panel shows the effect of changing the illuminant. Open circles, chromaticities of the Gray background surface under seven experimental illuminants. These chromaticities are very similar to those of the illuminants themselves. Solid circles, chromaticities of the achromatic loci. Settings were made in only one session per condition, so there are no error bars. Changing the illuminant has a large effect on both the chromaticity of the background surface and the achromatic loci. The right panel shows the effect of changing the background surface while holding the illuminant constant. Open circles, chromaticities of the seven background surfaces; solid circles, chromaticities of the corresponding achromatic loci. The spread of the achromatic loci is much smaller in this condition. Rather than tracking the background chromaticities, the achromatic loci cluster near the illuminant. For each condition, we computed the average of the within session standard deviations of the individual achromatic settings. The crossed bar shown in the upper right of each plot shows the maximum of these, computed across the conditions shown.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Settings made with the red cloth. Solid circles, achromatic settings measured for Observers WAB and JPH, with the error bars representing ±1 between-session standard error. Open circles, chromaticities of the Blue and Yellow illuminants. Notice that these are shifted from their location in other experiments because of interreflection from the red cloth. For each condition, we computed the average of the within-session standard deviations of the individual achromatic settings. The crossed bars in the upper right represent the maxima of these, computed across the conditions shown. The left cross was computed from the settings under the Blue illuminant and the right cross from the settings under the Yellow illuminant. Note that the scatter in the x-chromaticity settings indicated by these crosses is quite large. This scatter is systematic with luminance and indicates that a single point does not completely characterize the measured achromatic locus.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Settings made with the red cloth compared with settings made under a red illuminant for observer DHB. The left panel shows the achromatic locus measured under the red-cloth illuminant. Solid circle, chromaticity of the achromatic locus; open circle, chromaticity of the illuminant; cross, chromaticity of the Gray background surface under this illuminant. Settings were made in only one session per condition, so there are no error bars. The right panel shows settings made under the Gray illuminant with the red cloth. Solid circles, achromatic loci. One solid circle represents measurements made with the normal 1/4-in. black felt border around the test; the other solid circle represents measurements made with no border. Open circle, measured chromaticity of the Gray illuminant in the red-cloth condition; cross, chromaticity of the light reflected from the red cloth.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Settings made with red cloth and different background surfaces for observer JPH. The left panel shows data for four background surfaces and no red cloth. This condition is like Experiment 1 except that here the Munsell panels were removed. Solid circles, achromatic loci measured under the Blue and Yellow illuminants; open circles, illuminant chromaticities. The error bars on the closed circles represent ±1 between-session standard error. The right panel shows data for the same observer with the same background surfaces but with the red cloth in place. The legend is the same as in the left panel with the addition of the crosses, which plot the chromaticity of the light reflected from the red cloth under the two illuminant conditions. The data collected with and without the red cloth are very similar, which suggests that the change in space average chromaticity of the light reaching the observer induced by the red cloth has very little effect on the achromatic locus. For each condition, we computed the average of the within-session standard deviations of the individual achromatic settings. The crossed bars in the upper right represent the maxima of these, computed across the conditions shown. The left cross was computed from the settings under the Blue illuminant and the right cross from the settings made under the Yellow illuminant.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison of the effect of illuminant change and background surface, adaptive starting rule. Data from Experiment 6, observer WAB. Except for the change in starting rule, the experiment is identical to Experiment 3 and the data may be compared with those in Fig. 9. The left panel shows the effect of changing the illuminant. Open circles, chromaticities of the Gray background surface under seven experimental illuminants. These chromaticities are very similar to those of the illuminants themselves. Solid circles, chromaticities of the achromatic loci. The error bars on the closed circles represent ±1 between-session standard error. Changing the illuminant has a large effect on both the chromaticity of the background surface and the achromatic loci. The right panel shows the effect of changing the background surface while holding the illuminant constant. Open circles, chromaticities of the seven background surfaces; solid circles, chromaticities of the corresponding achromatic loci. The spread of the achromatic loci is much smaller in this condition. Rather than tracking the background chromaticities, the achromatic loci cluster near the illuminant. For each condition, we computed the average of the within-session standard deviations of the individual achromatic settings. The crossed bar in the upper right of each plot shows the maxima of these, computed across the conditions shown.

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Chromaticities and Luminances of Illuminants and Backgroundsa

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Table 2 Constancy and Background Indicesa

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Table 3 Stimuli for Experiments 3 and 6a

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Table 4 Constancy and Background Indices for Experiment 3, Observer DHBa

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Table 5 Constancy and Background Indices for Experiment 5, Observer JPHa

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Table 6 Constancy and Background Indices for Experiments 6 and 7a

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Table 7 Experiment 7 Stimulia

Equations (5)

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CI=1-c2-cdc2-c1.
BI=1-cb-cdbcb-cg.
rm=Drt,
ka2=Da1.
(1/k) diag(D)=a2./a1,

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