Abstract

The human contrast sensitivity function is bandpass in form for stimuli of low temporal frequency but low pass for flickering or moving stimuli. Because the loss in sensitivity to moving stimuli is large, images moving on the retina have little perceptible high-spatial-frequency content. The loss of high-spatial-frequency content—often referred to as motion blur—provides a potential cue to motion. The amount of motion blur is a function of stimulus velocity but is significant at velocities encountered by the visual system in everyday situations. Our experiments determined the influence of high-spatial-frequency losses induced by motion of this order on motion detection and on motion-based image segmentation. Motion detection and motion-based segmentation tasks were performed with either spectrally low-pass or spectrally broadband stimuli. Performance on these tasks was compared with a condition having no motion but in which form differences mimicked the perceptual loss of high spatial frequencies produced by motion. This allowed the relative salience of motion and motion-induced blur to be determined. Neither image segmentation nor motion detection was sensitive to the high-spatial-frequency content of the stimuli. Thus the change in perceptual form produced in moving stimuli is not normally used as a cue either for motion detection or for motion-based image segmentation in ordinary situations.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. We are indebted to S. Klein, who pointed this out to us. To solve such a task, subjects would presumably perform a contrast discrimination between two subjectively static gratings.
  30. J. Walraven, C. Enroth-Cugell, D. C. Hood, D. I. A. MacLeod, J. L. Schnapf, “The control of visual sensitivity: receptoral and postreceptoral processes,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), pp. 53–101.
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  32. F. A. Wichmann, G. B. Henning, “Does motion-blur facilitate motion detection?” presented at the OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, New York, October 20–24, 1996.

1995 (3)

Z.-L. Lu, G. Sperling, “The functional architecture of human visual motion perception,” Vision Res. 35, 2697–2722 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Logvinenko, “Linear-motion blur as spatial-frequency filtering,” Perception (Suppl.) 24, 126 (1995).

F. A. Wichmann, G. B. Henning, “Image segmentation from motion: just the loss of high-spatial-frequency content?” Perception (Suppl.) 24, 19 (1995).

1989 (2)

M. J. Morgan, S. Benton, “Motion-deblurring in human vision,” Nature (London) 340, 385–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Wolfe, K. R. Cave, S. L. Franzel, “Guided search: an alternative to the feature integration model for visual search,” J. Exp. Psychol. 15, 419–433 (1989).

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

A. Treisman, “Preattentive processing in vision,” Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 31, 156–177 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

B. Julesz, “A brief outline of the texton theory of human vision,” Trends Neurosci. 7, 41–45 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

B. Julesz, J. R. Bergen, “Textons, the fundamental elements in preattentive vision and perceptions of textures,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 62, 1619–1646 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. Fahle, T. Poggio, “Visual hyperacuity: spatiotemporal interpolation in human vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 213, 451–477 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Treisman, G. Gelade, “A feature integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

1975 (1)

1972 (1)

D. H. Kelly, “Adaptation effects on spatio-temporal sine-wave thresholds,” Vision Res. 12, 89–101 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (2)

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

D. A. Robinson, “The mechanics of human smooth pursuit eye movement,” J. Physiol. (London) 180, 569–591 (1965).

1956 (1)

1954 (1)

G. Westheimer, “Eye movement responses to horizontally moving stimulus,” Arch. Opthalmol. 52, 932–941 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Ahumada, A. J.

A. B. Watson, A. J. Ahumada, J. E. Farrell, “Window of visibility—a psychophysical theory of fidelity in time-sampled visual-motion displays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 300–307 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Watson, A. J. Ahumada, J. E. Farrell, “The window of visibility: a psychophysical theory of fidelity in time-sampled visual motion displays,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1983).

Benton, S.

M. J. Morgan, S. Benton, “Motion-deblurring in human vision,” Nature (London) 340, 385–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bergen, J. R.

B. Julesz, J. R. Bergen, “Textons, the fundamental elements in preattentive vision and perceptions of textures,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 62, 1619–1646 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Buchsbaum, G.

M. P. Eckert, G. Buchsbaum, “The significance of eye movements and image acceleration for coding television image sequences,” in Digital Images and Human Vision, A. B. Watson, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.,1993), pp. 89–98.

Cave, K. R.

J. M. Wolfe, K. R. Cave, S. L. Franzel, “Guided search: an alternative to the feature integration model for visual search,” J. Exp. Psychol. 15, 419–433 (1989).

Eckert, M. P.

M. P. Eckert, G. Buchsbaum, “The significance of eye movements and image acceleration for coding television image sequences,” in Digital Images and Human Vision, A. B. Watson, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.,1993), pp. 89–98.

Enroth-Cugell, C.

J. Walraven, C. Enroth-Cugell, D. C. Hood, D. I. A. MacLeod, J. L. Schnapf, “The control of visual sensitivity: receptoral and postreceptoral processes,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), pp. 53–101.

Fahle, M.

M. Fahle, T. Poggio, “Visual hyperacuity: spatiotemporal interpolation in human vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 213, 451–477 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, J. E.

A. B. Watson, A. J. Ahumada, J. E. Farrell, “Window of visibility—a psychophysical theory of fidelity in time-sampled visual-motion displays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 300–307 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Watson, A. J. Ahumada, J. E. Farrell, “The window of visibility: a psychophysical theory of fidelity in time-sampled visual motion displays,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1983).

Field, D. J.

Franzel, S. L.

J. M. Wolfe, K. R. Cave, S. L. Franzel, “Guided search: an alternative to the feature integration model for visual search,” J. Exp. Psychol. 15, 419–433 (1989).

Gelade, G.

A. Treisman, G. Gelade, “A feature integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girod, B.

B. Girod, “Eye movements and coding of video sequences,” in Visual Communications and Image Processing ’88: Third in a Series, T. R. Hsing, ed., Proc. SPIE1001, 398–405 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. Girod, “What’s wrong with mean-squared error?” in Digital Images and Human Vision, A. B. Watson, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.1993), pp. 207–220.

Henning, G. B.

F. A. Wichmann, G. B. Henning, “Image segmentation from motion: just the loss of high-spatial-frequency content?” Perception (Suppl.) 24, 19 (1995).

G. B. Henning, “Spatial-frequency tuning as a function of temporal frequency and stimulus motion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1362–1373 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Wichmann, G. B. Henning, “Does motion-blur facilitate motion detection?” presented at the OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, New York, October 20–24, 1996.

Hood, D. C.

J. Walraven, C. Enroth-Cugell, D. C. Hood, D. I. A. MacLeod, J. L. Schnapf, “The control of visual sensitivity: receptoral and postreceptoral processes,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), pp. 53–101.

Julesz, B.

B. Julesz, “A brief outline of the texton theory of human vision,” Trends Neurosci. 7, 41–45 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. Julesz, J. R. Bergen, “Textons, the fundamental elements in preattentive vision and perceptions of textures,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 62, 1619–1646 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, D. H.

Koenderink, J. J.

Logvinenko, A.

A. Logvinenko, “Linear-motion blur as spatial-frequency filtering,” Perception (Suppl.) 24, 126 (1995).

Lu, Z.-L.

Z.-L. Lu, G. Sperling, “The functional architecture of human visual motion perception,” Vision Res. 35, 2697–2722 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

J. Walraven, C. Enroth-Cugell, D. C. Hood, D. I. A. MacLeod, J. L. Schnapf, “The control of visual sensitivity: receptoral and postreceptoral processes,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), pp. 53–101.

McKee, S. P.

Morgan, M. J.

M. J. Morgan, S. Benton, “Motion-deblurring in human vision,” Nature (London) 340, 385–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, D. E.

D. E. Pearson, Transmission and Display of Pictorial Information (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Poggio, T.

M. Fahle, T. Poggio, “Visual hyperacuity: spatiotemporal interpolation in human vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 213, 451–477 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, D. A.

D. A. Robinson, “The mechanics of human smooth pursuit eye movement,” J. Physiol. (London) 180, 569–591 (1965).

Robson, J. G.

Schade, O. H.

Schnapf, J. L.

J. Walraven, C. Enroth-Cugell, D. C. Hood, D. I. A. MacLeod, J. L. Schnapf, “The control of visual sensitivity: receptoral and postreceptoral processes,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), pp. 53–101.

Sperling, G.

Z.-L. Lu, G. Sperling, “The functional architecture of human visual motion perception,” Vision Res. 35, 2697–2722 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treisman, A.

A. Treisman, “Preattentive processing in vision,” Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 31, 156–177 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Treisman, G. Gelade, “A feature integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Doorn, A. J.

Walraven, J.

J. Walraven, C. Enroth-Cugell, D. C. Hood, D. I. A. MacLeod, J. L. Schnapf, “The control of visual sensitivity: receptoral and postreceptoral processes,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), pp. 53–101.

Watson, A. B.

A. B. Watson, A. J. Ahumada, J. E. Farrell, “Window of visibility—a psychophysical theory of fidelity in time-sampled visual-motion displays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 300–307 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), pp. 6.1–6.43.

A. B. Watson, A. J. Ahumada, J. E. Farrell, “The window of visibility: a psychophysical theory of fidelity in time-sampled visual motion displays,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1983).

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, S. P. McKee, “Visual acuity in the presence of retinal image motion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 847–850 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. Westheimer, “Eye movement responses to horizontally moving stimulus,” Arch. Opthalmol. 52, 932–941 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Wichmann, F. A.

F. A. Wichmann, G. B. Henning, “Image segmentation from motion: just the loss of high-spatial-frequency content?” Perception (Suppl.) 24, 19 (1995).

F. A. Wichmann, G. B. Henning, “Does motion-blur facilitate motion detection?” presented at the OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, New York, October 20–24, 1996.

Wolfe, J. M.

J. M. Wolfe, K. R. Cave, S. L. Franzel, “Guided search: an alternative to the feature integration model for visual search,” J. Exp. Psychol. 15, 419–433 (1989).

Arch. Opthalmol. (1)

G. Westheimer, “Eye movement responses to horizontally moving stimulus,” Arch. Opthalmol. 52, 932–941 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

B. Julesz, J. R. Bergen, “Textons, the fundamental elements in preattentive vision and perceptions of textures,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 62, 1619–1646 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cogn. Psychol. (1)

A. Treisman, G. Gelade, “A feature integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. (1)

A. Treisman, “Preattentive processing in vision,” Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 31, 156–177 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Psychol. (1)

J. M. Wolfe, K. R. Cave, S. L. Franzel, “Guided search: an alternative to the feature integration model for visual search,” J. Exp. Psychol. 15, 419–433 (1989).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

D. A. Robinson, “The mechanics of human smooth pursuit eye movement,” J. Physiol. (London) 180, 569–591 (1965).

Nature (London) (1)

M. J. Morgan, S. Benton, “Motion-deblurring in human vision,” Nature (London) 340, 385–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Perception (Suppl.) (2)

A. Logvinenko, “Linear-motion blur as spatial-frequency filtering,” Perception (Suppl.) 24, 126 (1995).

F. A. Wichmann, G. B. Henning, “Image segmentation from motion: just the loss of high-spatial-frequency content?” Perception (Suppl.) 24, 19 (1995).

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B (1)

M. Fahle, T. Poggio, “Visual hyperacuity: spatiotemporal interpolation in human vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 213, 451–477 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Trends Neurosci. (1)

B. Julesz, “A brief outline of the texton theory of human vision,” Trends Neurosci. 7, 41–45 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (2)

Z.-L. Lu, G. Sperling, “The functional architecture of human visual motion perception,” Vision Res. 35, 2697–2722 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Kelly, “Adaptation effects on spatio-temporal sine-wave thresholds,” Vision Res. 12, 89–101 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (9)

A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), pp. 6.1–6.43.

A. B. Watson, A. J. Ahumada, J. E. Farrell, “The window of visibility: a psychophysical theory of fidelity in time-sampled visual motion displays,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1983).

D. E. Pearson, Transmission and Display of Pictorial Information (Wiley, New York, 1975).

M. P. Eckert, G. Buchsbaum, “The significance of eye movements and image acceleration for coding television image sequences,” in Digital Images and Human Vision, A. B. Watson, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.,1993), pp. 89–98.

B. Girod, “Eye movements and coding of video sequences,” in Visual Communications and Image Processing ’88: Third in a Series, T. R. Hsing, ed., Proc. SPIE1001, 398–405 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. Girod, “What’s wrong with mean-squared error?” in Digital Images and Human Vision, A. B. Watson, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.1993), pp. 207–220.

F. A. Wichmann, G. B. Henning, “Does motion-blur facilitate motion detection?” presented at the OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, New York, October 20–24, 1996.

We are indebted to S. Klein, who pointed this out to us. To solve such a task, subjects would presumably perform a contrast discrimination between two subjectively static gratings.

J. Walraven, C. Enroth-Cugell, D. C. Hood, D. I. A. MacLeod, J. L. Schnapf, “The control of visual sensitivity: receptoral and postreceptoral processes,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), pp. 53–101.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Threshold elevation relative to static sensitivity shown as a density plot at each spatial frequency (x axis) as a function of velocity (y axis); threshold elevation is expressed in decibels (data adapted from Kelly3).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Window of visibility for low-contrast stimuli. The gray region indicates combinations of spatial and temporal frequency that, at low contrasts, are invisible to the human observer. The dashed lines illustrate the extent of a window of visibility for stimuli of very high contrast. Static stimuli are shown as horizontal bars: low-pass static stimuli near the origin and high-frequency static stimuli as isolated horizontal bars away from the origin. Stimuli moving at a constant speed are shown as diagonal bars: low-pass moving stimuli near the origin and high-frequency moving stimuli as isolated diagonal bars in the first and third quadrants.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Screen shot of a region of the screen with the DOTs used for segmentation based on form rather than motion; the target matrix comprised six LP-DOTs—the blurred elements in the center of the image—to be detected against a background of BB-DOTs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic illustration of target motion. The roughly rectangular target matrix containing six DOTs translated around a circular path over time; the radius of the circular path was equal to the spatial amplitude of oscillation r in Eqs. (1) and (2). Note that, first, for clarity, the radius is grossly enlarged. During the experiments it was 4 pixels (for comparison, the DOT diameter was 48 pixels). Second, the frame of reference was invisible and is added for illustration purposes only.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Process of stimulus generation of the BB-DOTs shown in both the space and the spatial-frequency domain. Note that all three types of DOTs are printed with use of the maximally available range of gray levels and thus have much higher contrast than the ones actually displayed during the experiments. Further, the HP-DOT was appropriately scaled before being added to the LP-DOT; see the text for details.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Percent correct detection plotted against stimulus duration separately for each observer; the time axis is logarithmic. Data for three conditions are shown: (1) filled circles: motion detection, where both the target and background DOTs were BB-DOTs and the moving-target matrix was to be detected against static-background DOTs; (2) open circles: same as that for filled circles except that both target and background DOTs were LP-DOTs; and (3) filled triangles: form detection task, where a static-target matrix consisted of LP-DOTs and was to be detected against a background of static BB-DOTs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Percent correct discrimination plotted against stimulus duration separately for each observer; the time axis is logarithmic. Data for three conditions are shown: (1) filled circles: extraction of form from motion, where the horizontally oriented moving-target matrix was to be discriminated from the vertically oriented moving matrix; moving matrices and the static background consisted of BB-DOTs; (2) open circles: same as that for filled circles except that moving matrices and the static background consisted of LP-DOTs; and (3) filled triangles: static form discrimination task, where a static horizontal matrix consisting of LP-DOTs was to be discriminated from a static vertical LP-DOT matrix against a background of static BB-DOTs.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

x(t)=r sin(147.2t+ϕ),
y(t)=ρr cos(147.2t+ϕ),
LP-DOT(x, y)=[12+12cos(x2+y2)] sin(34x2+y2)34x2+y2ifx2+y2π0otherwise.
HP-DOT(x, y)=12cos(3x2+y2)-cos(4x2+y2)ifx2+y2π-cos(6x2+y2)+cos(8x2+y2)0otherwise.

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