Abstract

A paper by Ben Dor et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1329 (1997)] concludes that the blur we measured in our experiments was not atmospherically scattered light and that our theoretical model is incorrect because it violates the rules of linearity. Their work is based in part on “lack of raw data” in one of our experimental papers [J. Opt. Soc. Am A 12, 970 (1995)]. We present here the raw data measured in the experiments in question, which show clearly the measured atmospherically scattered light. Similar raw data has also been published elsewhere regarding other experiments. We also clarify some rules of linear systems that justify our conceptual approach, which is shown to be similar to that of turbulence modulation transfer function. A review of several dozen experiments and analyses by other investigators all over the world that directly contradict the Ben Dor et al. results and conclusions is presented. The well-known significance of aerosol blur in imaging through the atmosphere from satellites is discussed, and pictorial examples of satellite imagery are shown for different atmospheric optical depths. It is noted that atmospheric point-spread-function analyses in the remote-sensing literature generally neglect turbulence blur altogether and deal with aerosol blur only, which is often called the adjacency effect, and that such phenomena are well supported by many different types of experiments and many different Monte Carlo simulations for many different aerosol and instrumentation parameter situations. The Monte Carlo simulation results of Ben Dor et al. are shown also to contradict everyday reality such as the solar aureole. This wealth of literature by others strongly contradicts the results of Ben Dor et al. and confirms our conclusion that forward scatter of light by aerosols is indeed a significant source of blur in imaging through the atmosphere, especially if atmospheric optical depth is on the order of unity or more. This can be confirmed, too, by any observer looking through binoculars at the moon and surrounding moonlight even on a clear night. A broad system engineering approach involving both aerosol and turbulence blur is called for.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Ben Dor, A. D. Devir, G. Shaviv, P. Bruscaglioni, P. Donelli, A. Ismaelli, “Atmospheric scattering effect on spatial resolution of imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1329–1337 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Experimental comparison of turbulence modulation transfer function and aerosol modulation transfer function through the open atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 970–980 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. R. Bissonnette, “Imaging through fog and rain,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1045–1052 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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  12. D. Sadot, N. S. Kopeika, “Effects of practical aerosol forward scatter of infrared and visible light on atmospheric coherence diameter,” Opt. Eng. 34, 261–268 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Sadot, A. Melamed, N. Dinur, N. S. Kopeika, “Effects of aerosol forward scatter on long and short exposure atmospheric coherence diameter,” Waves Random Media 4, 1955–1972 (1994).
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  20. Y. J. Kaufman, “Solution of the equation of radiative transfer for remote sensing over nonuniform surface reflectivity,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4137–4147 (1982).
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  27. D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, “Influence of the background contribution upon space measurements of ground reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3676–3684 (1981).
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  28. W. Pearce, “Monte Carlo study of the atmospheric spread function,” Appl. Opt. 5, 438–447 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. A. Kargin, S. V. Kuznetsov, G. A. Mikhaylov, “Monte Carlo estimates of brightness contrast transfer function in a light scattering medium,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, 717–722 (1979).
  30. V. V. Belov, V. E. Zuev, G. M. Krekov, “Visibility of distant objects in scattering media,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 742–750 (1982).
  31. V. V. Belov, B. D. Borisov, V. N. Gemin, M. V. Kabanov, G. M. Krekov, “Experimental and mathematical modeling of the condition for seeing objects through a layer of a turbid medium,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 1042–1047 (1982).
  32. D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, “Influence of the background contribution upon space measurements of ground reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3676–3682 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. W. A. Pearce, “A study of the effects of the atmosphere on thematic mapper observatories,” (EG&G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc., Riverdale, Md., 1977).
  34. V. V. Belov, G. M. Krekov, “Effect of multiple scattering on the point-spread functions and modulation-transfer functions of the aerosol atmosphere in the problems of space-meteorological photography,” Opt. Lett. 4, 158–160 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. P. N. Reinersman, K. L. Carder, “Monte Carlo simulation of the atmospheric point-spread function with an application to correction for the adjacency effect,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4453–4471 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. A. Ishimaru, “Limitation on image resolution imposed by a random medium,” Appl. Opt. 17, 348–352 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978), Vols. 1 and 2.
  38. Y. J. Kaufman, C. Sendra, “Algorithm for automatic atmospheric corrections to visible and near-IR imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 9, 1357–1381 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  39. M. Griggs, “Measurements of atmospheric aerosol optical thickness over water using ERTS-1 data,” J. Air Pollution Control Assoc. 25, 622–626 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  40. Y. Mekler, H. Quenzel, G. Ohring, I. Marcus, “Relative atmospheric aerosol content from ERTS observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 967–972 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  41. P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, “Turbidity of the atmosphere determined from satellite calculation of optimum viewing geometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 7847–7855 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  42. Y. J. Kaufman, “Satellite sensing of aerosol absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4307–4317 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  43. D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Deveaux, M. Herman, “Estimation of Saharan aerosol optical thickness from blurring effects in thematic mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 15955–15964 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  44. Y. J. Kaufman, T. W. Brakke, E. Eloranta, “Field experiment to measure the radiative characteristics of a hazy atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 16, 1135–1151 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  45. D. D. Dyche, “Experimental determination of atmospheric scattering effects on scanner edge response,” master’s thesis (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1983).
  46. Y. Kawata, S. Ueno, T. Kusake, “Radiometric correction for atmospheric and topographic effects on Landsat MSS images,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 9, 729–748 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  47. R. Richter, “Correction of atmospheric and topographic effects for high spatial resolution satellite imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1099–1111 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  48. Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. T. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  49. E. F. Vermote, N. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. L. Privette, L. Remeer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanre, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surfaces: background, operational algorithm, and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  50. Special issue, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric corrections of the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14) (1997).
  51. L. R. Bissonnette, “Imaging through the atmosphere: practical instrumentation-based theory and verification of aerosol modulation transfer function: comment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1175–1179 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  52. B. Ben Dor, A. D. Devir, G. Shaviv, “Atmospheric scattering effects on spatial resolution of imaging systems: experimental,” in The Tenth Meeting on Optical Engineeringin Israel, I. Shladov, S. R. Rotman, eds., Proc. SPIE3110, 23–33 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  53. N. S. Kopeika, D. Sadot, “Imaging through the atmosphere: practical instrumentation-based theory and verification of aerosol modulation transfer function: reply to comment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1017–1023 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  54. D. Sadot, S. Shamriz, I. Sasson, I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Prediction of overall atmospheric MTF with standard weather parameters: comparison with measurements with two imaging systems,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3239–3248 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  55. D. Sadot, G. Kitron, N. Kitron, N. S. Kopeika, “Thermal imaging through the atmosphere: atmospheric MTF theory and verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 880–887 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  56. N. S. Kopeika, J. Bordogna, “Background noise in optical communication systems,” Proc. IEEE 155, 1571–1577 (1970) and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  57. H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), pp. 418–421. In the second edition see Sec. 19.1.
  58. G. Newkirk, J. A. Eddy, “Light scattering by particles in the upper atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 35–60 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  59. D. Tanre, C. Deveaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  60. R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere (Revised), (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, L. G. Hanscom Field, Bedford, Mass., 1971).
  61. P. Bruscaglioni, G. Zaccanti, A. Ismaelli, P. Pili, “Comparison between measured and calculated contributions of multiple scattered radiation to the transmittance of a light beam through a turbid medium,” Radio Sci. 22, 899–905 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  62. N. S. Kopeika, A System Engineering Approach to Imaging (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1998), pp. 351–358 and 443–513.
  63. D. Sadot, R. Rosenfeld, G. Shuker, N. S. Kopeika, “High resolution restoration of images distorted by the atmosphere, based upon average atmospheric MTF,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1799–1807 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  64. D. Sadot, N. S. Kopeika, S. R. Rotman, “Target acquisition modeling for contrast-limited imaging: effects of atmospheric blur and image restoration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2401–2414 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  65. N. S. Kopeika, A System Engineering Approach to Imaging (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1998), pp. 517–561.

1997 (5)

B. Ben Dor, A. D. Devir, G. Shaviv, P. Bruscaglioni, P. Donelli, A. Ismaelli, “Atmospheric scattering effect on spatial resolution of imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1329–1337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Richter, “Correction of atmospheric and topographic effects for high spatial resolution satellite imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1099–1111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. T. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, N. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. L. Privette, L. Remeer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanre, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surfaces: background, operational algorithm, and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Special issue, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric corrections of the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14) (1997).

1995 (7)

N. S. Kopeika, D. Sadot, “Imaging through the atmosphere: practical instrumentation-based theory and verification of aerosol modulation transfer function: reply to comment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1017–1023 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, S. Shamriz, I. Sasson, I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Prediction of overall atmospheric MTF with standard weather parameters: comparison with measurements with two imaging systems,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3239–3248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, R. Rosenfeld, G. Shuker, N. S. Kopeika, “High resolution restoration of images distorted by the atmosphere, based upon average atmospheric MTF,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1799–1807 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, N. S. Kopeika, S. R. Rotman, “Target acquisition modeling for contrast-limited imaging: effects of atmospheric blur and image restoration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2401–2414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Experimental comparison of turbulence modulation transfer function and aerosol modulation transfer function through the open atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 970–980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, N. S. Kopeika, “Effects of practical aerosol forward scatter of infrared and visible light on atmospheric coherence diameter,” Opt. Eng. 34, 261–268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Reinersman, K. L. Carder, “Monte Carlo simulation of the atmospheric point-spread function with an application to correction for the adjacency effect,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4453–4471 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

D. Sadot, A. Melamed, N. Dinur, N. S. Kopeika, “Effects of aerosol forward scatter on long and short exposure atmospheric coherence diameter,” Waves Random Media 4, 1955–1972 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, G. Kitron, N. Kitron, N. S. Kopeika, “Thermal imaging through the atmosphere: atmospheric MTF theory and verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 880–887 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Bissonnette, “Imaging through the atmosphere: practical instrumentation-based theory and verification of aerosol modulation transfer function: comment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1175–1179 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. Sadot, N. S. Kopeika, “Imaging through the atmosphere: practical instrumentation-based theory and verification of aerosol modulation transfer function,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 172–179 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. R. Bissonnette, “Imaging through fog and rain,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1045–1052 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (4)

Y. J. Kaufman, C. Sendra, “Algorithm for automatic atmospheric corrections to visible and near-IR imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 9, 1357–1381 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Deveaux, M. Herman, “Estimation of Saharan aerosol optical thickness from blurring effects in thematic mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 15955–15964 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawata, S. Ueno, T. Kusake, “Radiometric correction for atmospheric and topographic effects on Landsat MSS images,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 9, 729–748 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, C. Deveaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

P. Bruscaglioni, G. Zaccanti, A. Ismaelli, P. Pili, “Comparison between measured and calculated contributions of multiple scattered radiation to the transmittance of a light beam through a turbid medium,” Radio Sci. 22, 899–905 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, “Satellite sensing of aerosol absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4307–4317 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, P. Duhaut, M. Herman, “Adjacency effect produced by the atmospheric scattering in thematic mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 12000–12006 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

W. Pearce, “Monte Carlo study of the atmospheric spread function,” Appl. Opt. 5, 438–447 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, T. W. Brakke, E. Eloranta, “Field experiment to measure the radiative characteristics of a hazy atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 16, 1135–1151 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

P. N. Slater, “Radiometric consideration in remote sensing,” Proc. IEEE 73, 992–1011 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

Y. J. Kaufman, “Atmospheric effects on spatial resolution of surface imagery,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4164–4172 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, R. S. Fraser, “Atmospheric effect on classification of finite fields,” Remote Sensing Env. 15, 95–118 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (3)

V. V. Belov, V. E. Zuev, G. M. Krekov, “Visibility of distant objects in scattering media,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 742–750 (1982).

V. V. Belov, B. D. Borisov, V. N. Gemin, M. V. Kabanov, G. M. Krekov, “Experimental and mathematical modeling of the condition for seeing objects through a layer of a turbid medium,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 1042–1047 (1982).

Y. J. Kaufman, “Solution of the equation of radiative transfer for remote sensing over nonuniform surface reflectivity,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4137–4147 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (3)

1980 (2)

Y. Mekler, Y. J. Kaufman, “The effect of the Earth atmosphere on contrast reduction for a nonuniform surface albedo and two-halves field,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 4067–4083 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Dave, “Effect of atmospheric conditions on remote sensing of a surface non-homogeneity,” Photogram. Eng. Rem. Sens. 46, 1173–1180 (1980).

1979 (6)

J. Otterman, R. S. Fraser, “Adjacency effects on imaging by surface reflection and atmospheric scattering: cross radiance to zenith,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2852–2860 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

For example, D. L. Walters, D. L. Favier, J. R. Hines, “Vertical path atmospheric MTF measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 827–837 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Deschamps, A. de Leffe, “Atmospheric modeling for space measurements of ground reflections, including bidirectional properties,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3587–3594 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Belov, G. M. Krekov, “Effect of multiple scattering on the point-spread functions and modulation-transfer functions of the aerosol atmosphere in the problems of space-meteorological photography,” Opt. Lett. 4, 158–160 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Kargin, S. V. Kuznetsov, G. A. Mikhaylov, “Monte Carlo estimates of brightness contrast transfer function in a light scattering medium,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, 717–722 (1979).

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, “Turbidity of the atmosphere determined from satellite calculation of optimum viewing geometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 7847–7855 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

A. Ishimaru, “Limitation on image resolution imposed by a random medium,” Appl. Opt. 17, 348–352 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lutomirski, “Atmospheric degradation of electrooptical system performance,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3915–3921 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

Y. Mekler, H. Quenzel, G. Ohring, I. Marcus, “Relative atmospheric aerosol content from ERTS observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 967–972 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

M. Griggs, “Measurements of atmospheric aerosol optical thickness over water using ERTS-1 data,” J. Air Pollution Control Assoc. 25, 622–626 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Odell, J. A. Weinman, “The effect of atmospheric haze on image of the Earth’s surface,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 5035–5040 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

N. S. Kopeika, J. Bordogna, “Background noise in optical communication systems,” Proc. IEEE 155, 1571–1577 (1970) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

1966 (2)

1964 (1)

G. Newkirk, J. A. Eddy, “Light scattering by particles in the upper atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 35–60 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Belov, V. V.

V. V. Belov, V. E. Zuev, G. M. Krekov, “Visibility of distant objects in scattering media,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 742–750 (1982).

V. V. Belov, B. D. Borisov, V. N. Gemin, M. V. Kabanov, G. M. Krekov, “Experimental and mathematical modeling of the condition for seeing objects through a layer of a turbid medium,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 1042–1047 (1982).

V. V. Belov, G. M. Krekov, “Effect of multiple scattering on the point-spread functions and modulation-transfer functions of the aerosol atmosphere in the problems of space-meteorological photography,” Opt. Lett. 4, 158–160 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ben Dor, B.

B. Ben Dor, A. D. Devir, G. Shaviv, P. Bruscaglioni, P. Donelli, A. Ismaelli, “Atmospheric scattering effect on spatial resolution of imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1329–1337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Ben Dor, A. D. Devir, G. Shaviv, “Atmospheric scattering effects on spatial resolution of imaging systems: experimental,” in The Tenth Meeting on Optical Engineeringin Israel, I. Shladov, S. R. Rotman, eds., Proc. SPIE3110, 23–33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bissonnette, L. R.

L. R. Bissonnette, “Imaging through the atmosphere: practical instrumentation-based theory and verification of aerosol modulation transfer function: comment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1175–1179 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Bissonnette, “Imaging through fog and rain,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1045–1052 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bordogna, J.

N. S. Kopeika, J. Bordogna, “Background noise in optical communication systems,” Proc. IEEE 155, 1571–1577 (1970) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Borisov, B. D.

V. V. Belov, B. D. Borisov, V. N. Gemin, M. V. Kabanov, G. M. Krekov, “Experimental and mathematical modeling of the condition for seeing objects through a layer of a turbid medium,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 1042–1047 (1982).

Brakke, T. W.

Y. J. Kaufman, T. W. Brakke, E. Eloranta, “Field experiment to measure the radiative characteristics of a hazy atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 16, 1135–1151 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bruscaglioni, P.

B. Ben Dor, A. D. Devir, G. Shaviv, P. Bruscaglioni, P. Donelli, A. Ismaelli, “Atmospheric scattering effect on spatial resolution of imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1329–1337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Bruscaglioni, G. Zaccanti, A. Ismaelli, P. Pili, “Comparison between measured and calculated contributions of multiple scattered radiation to the transmittance of a light beam through a turbid medium,” Radio Sci. 22, 899–905 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

Dave, J. V.

J. V. Dave, “Effect of atmospheric conditions on remote sensing of a surface non-homogeneity,” Photogram. Eng. Rem. Sens. 46, 1173–1180 (1980).

de Leffe, A.

Deschamps, P.

Deschamps, P. Y.

D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Deveaux, M. Herman, “Estimation of Saharan aerosol optical thickness from blurring effects in thematic mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 15955–15964 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, P. Duhaut, M. Herman, “Adjacency effect produced by the atmospheric scattering in thematic mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 12000–12006 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, “Influence of the background contribution upon space measurements of ground reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3676–3684 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, “Influence of the background contribution upon space measurements of ground reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3676–3682 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deveaux, C.

D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Deveaux, M. Herman, “Estimation of Saharan aerosol optical thickness from blurring effects in thematic mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 15955–15964 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, C. Deveaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Develis, J. B.

Devir, A. D.

B. Ben Dor, A. D. Devir, G. Shaviv, P. Bruscaglioni, P. Donelli, A. Ismaelli, “Atmospheric scattering effect on spatial resolution of imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1329–1337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Ben Dor, A. D. Devir, G. Shaviv, “Atmospheric scattering effects on spatial resolution of imaging systems: experimental,” in The Tenth Meeting on Optical Engineeringin Israel, I. Shladov, S. R. Rotman, eds., Proc. SPIE3110, 23–33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dinur, N.

D. Sadot, A. Melamed, N. Dinur, N. S. Kopeika, “Effects of aerosol forward scatter on long and short exposure atmospheric coherence diameter,” Waves Random Media 4, 1955–1972 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Donelli, P.

B. Ben Dor, A. D. Devir, G. Shaviv, P. Bruscaglioni, P. Donelli, A. Ismaelli, “Atmospheric scattering effect on spatial resolution of imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1329–1337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dror, I.

I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Experimental comparison of turbulence modulation transfer function and aerosol modulation transfer function through the open atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 970–980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, S. Shamriz, I. Sasson, I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Prediction of overall atmospheric MTF with standard weather parameters: comparison with measurements with two imaging systems,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3239–3248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Duhaut, P.

D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, P. Duhaut, M. Herman, “Adjacency effect produced by the atmospheric scattering in thematic mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 12000–12006 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dyche, D. D.

D. D. Dyche, “Experimental determination of atmospheric scattering effects on scanner edge response,” master’s thesis (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1983).

Eddy, J. A.

G. Newkirk, J. A. Eddy, “Light scattering by particles in the upper atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 35–60 (1964).
[CrossRef]

El Saleous, N.

E. F. Vermote, N. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. L. Privette, L. Remeer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanre, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surfaces: background, operational algorithm, and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eloranta, E.

Y. J. Kaufman, T. W. Brakke, E. Eloranta, “Field experiment to measure the radiative characteristics of a hazy atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 16, 1135–1151 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Favier, D. L.

For example, D. L. Walters, D. L. Favier, J. R. Hines, “Vertical path atmospheric MTF measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 827–837 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere (Revised), (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, L. G. Hanscom Field, Bedford, Mass., 1971).

Fraser, R. S.

Fried, D. L.

Frouin, R.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. T. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Garing, J. S.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere (Revised), (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, L. G. Hanscom Field, Bedford, Mass., 1971).

Gemin, V. N.

V. V. Belov, B. D. Borisov, V. N. Gemin, M. V. Kabanov, G. M. Krekov, “Experimental and mathematical modeling of the condition for seeing objects through a layer of a turbid medium,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 1042–1047 (1982).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

Gordon, H. R.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. T. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grassl, H.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. T. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Griggs, M.

M. Griggs, “Measurements of atmospheric aerosol optical thickness over water using ERTS-1 data,” J. Air Pollution Control Assoc. 25, 622–626 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Haba, Y.

S. Ueno, Y. Haba, Y. Kawata, T. Kusaka, Y. Terashita, “The atmospheric blurring effect on remotely-sensed Earth imagery,” in Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. L. Fymat, V. E. Zuev, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1979), pp. 303–319.

Herman, B. M.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. T. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Deveaux, M. Herman, “Estimation of Saharan aerosol optical thickness from blurring effects in thematic mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 15955–15964 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, C. Deveaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, P. Duhaut, M. Herman, “Adjacency effect produced by the atmospheric scattering in thematic mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 12000–12006 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, “Influence of the background contribution upon space measurements of ground reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3676–3682 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, “Influence of the background contribution upon space measurements of ground reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3676–3684 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Deschamps, A. de Leffe, “Atmospheric modeling for space measurements of ground reflections, including bidirectional properties,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3587–3594 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hines, J. R.

For example, D. L. Walters, D. L. Favier, J. R. Hines, “Vertical path atmospheric MTF measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 827–837 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, “Limitation on image resolution imposed by a random medium,” Appl. Opt. 17, 348–352 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978), Vols. 1 and 2.

Ismaelli, A.

B. Ben Dor, A. D. Devir, G. Shaviv, P. Bruscaglioni, P. Donelli, A. Ismaelli, “Atmospheric scattering effect on spatial resolution of imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1329–1337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Bruscaglioni, G. Zaccanti, A. Ismaelli, P. Pili, “Comparison between measured and calculated contributions of multiple scattered radiation to the transmittance of a light beam through a turbid medium,” Radio Sci. 22, 899–905 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Justice, C. O.

E. F. Vermote, N. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. L. Privette, L. Remeer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanre, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surfaces: background, operational algorithm, and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kabanov, M. V.

V. V. Belov, B. D. Borisov, V. N. Gemin, M. V. Kabanov, G. M. Krekov, “Experimental and mathematical modeling of the condition for seeing objects through a layer of a turbid medium,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 1042–1047 (1982).

Kargin, B. A.

B. A. Kargin, S. V. Kuznetsov, G. A. Mikhaylov, “Monte Carlo estimates of brightness contrast transfer function in a light scattering medium,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, 717–722 (1979).

Kaufman, Y. J.

E. F. Vermote, N. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. L. Privette, L. Remeer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanre, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surfaces: background, operational algorithm, and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. T. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, C. Sendra, “Algorithm for automatic atmospheric corrections to visible and near-IR imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 9, 1357–1381 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, “Satellite sensing of aerosol absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4307–4317 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, T. W. Brakke, E. Eloranta, “Field experiment to measure the radiative characteristics of a hazy atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 16, 1135–1151 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, R. S. Fraser, “Atmospheric effect on classification of finite fields,” Remote Sensing Env. 15, 95–118 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, “Atmospheric effects on spatial resolution of surface imagery,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4164–4172 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, “Solution of the equation of radiative transfer for remote sensing over nonuniform surface reflectivity,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4137–4147 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, “Combined eye-atmosphere visibility model,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1525–1531 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mekler, Y. J. Kaufman, “The effect of the Earth atmosphere on contrast reduction for a nonuniform surface albedo and two-halves field,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 4067–4083 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, Y.

Y. Kawata, S. Ueno, T. Kusake, “Radiometric correction for atmospheric and topographic effects on Landsat MSS images,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 9, 729–748 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Ueno, Y. Haba, Y. Kawata, T. Kusaka, Y. Terashita, “The atmospheric blurring effect on remotely-sensed Earth imagery,” in Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. L. Fymat, V. E. Zuev, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1979), pp. 303–319.

King, M. D.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. T. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kitron, G.

D. Sadot, G. Kitron, N. Kitron, N. S. Kopeika, “Thermal imaging through the atmosphere: atmospheric MTF theory and verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 880–887 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kitron, N.

D. Sadot, G. Kitron, N. Kitron, N. S. Kopeika, “Thermal imaging through the atmosphere: atmospheric MTF theory and verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 880–887 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koepke, P.

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, “Turbidity of the atmosphere determined from satellite calculation of optimum viewing geometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 7847–7855 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kopeika, N. S.

N. S. Kopeika, D. Sadot, “Imaging through the atmosphere: practical instrumentation-based theory and verification of aerosol modulation transfer function: reply to comment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1017–1023 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, S. Shamriz, I. Sasson, I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Prediction of overall atmospheric MTF with standard weather parameters: comparison with measurements with two imaging systems,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3239–3248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, N. S. Kopeika, “Effects of practical aerosol forward scatter of infrared and visible light on atmospheric coherence diameter,” Opt. Eng. 34, 261–268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Experimental comparison of turbulence modulation transfer function and aerosol modulation transfer function through the open atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 970–980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, R. Rosenfeld, G. Shuker, N. S. Kopeika, “High resolution restoration of images distorted by the atmosphere, based upon average atmospheric MTF,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1799–1807 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, N. S. Kopeika, S. R. Rotman, “Target acquisition modeling for contrast-limited imaging: effects of atmospheric blur and image restoration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2401–2414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, A. Melamed, N. Dinur, N. S. Kopeika, “Effects of aerosol forward scatter on long and short exposure atmospheric coherence diameter,” Waves Random Media 4, 1955–1972 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, G. Kitron, N. Kitron, N. S. Kopeika, “Thermal imaging through the atmosphere: atmospheric MTF theory and verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 880–887 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, N. S. Kopeika, “Imaging through the atmosphere: practical instrumentation-based theory and verification of aerosol modulation transfer function,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 172–179 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Kopeika, J. Bordogna, “Background noise in optical communication systems,” Proc. IEEE 155, 1571–1577 (1970) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

N. S. Kopeika, A System Engineering Approach to Imaging (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1998), pp. 517–561.

N. S. Kopeika, A System Engineering Approach to Imaging (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1998), pp. 351–358 and 443–513.

Krekov, G. M.

V. V. Belov, B. D. Borisov, V. N. Gemin, M. V. Kabanov, G. M. Krekov, “Experimental and mathematical modeling of the condition for seeing objects through a layer of a turbid medium,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 1042–1047 (1982).

V. V. Belov, V. E. Zuev, G. M. Krekov, “Visibility of distant objects in scattering media,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 742–750 (1982).

V. V. Belov, G. M. Krekov, “Effect of multiple scattering on the point-spread functions and modulation-transfer functions of the aerosol atmosphere in the problems of space-meteorological photography,” Opt. Lett. 4, 158–160 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kusaka, T.

S. Ueno, Y. Haba, Y. Kawata, T. Kusaka, Y. Terashita, “The atmospheric blurring effect on remotely-sensed Earth imagery,” in Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. L. Fymat, V. E. Zuev, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1979), pp. 303–319.

Kusake, T.

Y. Kawata, S. Ueno, T. Kusake, “Radiometric correction for atmospheric and topographic effects on Landsat MSS images,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 9, 729–748 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, S. V.

B. A. Kargin, S. V. Kuznetsov, G. A. Mikhaylov, “Monte Carlo estimates of brightness contrast transfer function in a light scattering medium,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, 717–722 (1979).

Lenoble, J.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. T. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lutomirski, L.

L. Lutomirski, “Atmospheric degradation of electrooptical system performance,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3915–3921 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lutomirski, R. F.

Marcus, I.

Y. Mekler, H. Quenzel, G. Ohring, I. Marcus, “Relative atmospheric aerosol content from ERTS observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 967–972 (1977).
[CrossRef]

McClatchey, R. A.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere (Revised), (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, L. G. Hanscom Field, Bedford, Mass., 1971).

Mekler, Y.

Y. Mekler, Y. J. Kaufman, “The effect of the Earth atmosphere on contrast reduction for a nonuniform surface albedo and two-halves field,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 4067–4083 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mekler, H. Quenzel, G. Ohring, I. Marcus, “Relative atmospheric aerosol content from ERTS observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 967–972 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Melamed, A.

D. Sadot, A. Melamed, N. Dinur, N. S. Kopeika, “Effects of aerosol forward scatter on long and short exposure atmospheric coherence diameter,” Waves Random Media 4, 1955–1972 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mikhaylov, G. A.

B. A. Kargin, S. V. Kuznetsov, G. A. Mikhaylov, “Monte Carlo estimates of brightness contrast transfer function in a light scattering medium,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, 717–722 (1979).

Nakajima, T.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. T. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Newkirk, G.

G. Newkirk, J. A. Eddy, “Light scattering by particles in the upper atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 35–60 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Odell, S. R.

S. R. Odell, J. A. Weinman, “The effect of atmospheric haze on image of the Earth’s surface,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 5035–5040 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ohring, G.

Y. Mekler, H. Quenzel, G. Ohring, I. Marcus, “Relative atmospheric aerosol content from ERTS observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 967–972 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Otterman, J.

Parrent, G. B.

Pearce, W.

W. Pearce, “Monte Carlo study of the atmospheric spread function,” Appl. Opt. 5, 438–447 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pearce, W. A.

W. A. Pearce, “A study of the effects of the atmosphere on thematic mapper observatories,” (EG&G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc., Riverdale, Md., 1977).

W. A. Pearce, “A study of the effects of the atmosphere on Thematic Mapper observations,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Pili, P.

P. Bruscaglioni, G. Zaccanti, A. Ismaelli, P. Pili, “Comparison between measured and calculated contributions of multiple scattered radiation to the transmittance of a light beam through a turbid medium,” Radio Sci. 22, 899–905 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Privette, J. L.

E. F. Vermote, N. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. L. Privette, L. Remeer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanre, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surfaces: background, operational algorithm, and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quenzel, H.

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, “Turbidity of the atmosphere determined from satellite calculation of optimum viewing geometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 7847–7855 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mekler, H. Quenzel, G. Ohring, I. Marcus, “Relative atmospheric aerosol content from ERTS observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 967–972 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Reinersman, P. N.

Remeer, L.

E. F. Vermote, N. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. L. Privette, L. Remeer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanre, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surfaces: background, operational algorithm, and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richter, R.

R. Richter, “Correction of atmospheric and topographic effects for high spatial resolution satellite imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1099–1111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roger, J. C.

E. F. Vermote, N. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. L. Privette, L. Remeer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanre, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surfaces: background, operational algorithm, and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, R.

D. Sadot, R. Rosenfeld, G. Shuker, N. S. Kopeika, “High resolution restoration of images distorted by the atmosphere, based upon average atmospheric MTF,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1799–1807 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rotman, S. R.

Sadot, D.

D. Sadot, N. S. Kopeika, S. R. Rotman, “Target acquisition modeling for contrast-limited imaging: effects of atmospheric blur and image restoration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2401–2414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, R. Rosenfeld, G. Shuker, N. S. Kopeika, “High resolution restoration of images distorted by the atmosphere, based upon average atmospheric MTF,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1799–1807 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Kopeika, D. Sadot, “Imaging through the atmosphere: practical instrumentation-based theory and verification of aerosol modulation transfer function: reply to comment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1017–1023 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, S. Shamriz, I. Sasson, I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Prediction of overall atmospheric MTF with standard weather parameters: comparison with measurements with two imaging systems,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3239–3248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, N. S. Kopeika, “Effects of practical aerosol forward scatter of infrared and visible light on atmospheric coherence diameter,” Opt. Eng. 34, 261–268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, A. Melamed, N. Dinur, N. S. Kopeika, “Effects of aerosol forward scatter on long and short exposure atmospheric coherence diameter,” Waves Random Media 4, 1955–1972 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, G. Kitron, N. Kitron, N. S. Kopeika, “Thermal imaging through the atmosphere: atmospheric MTF theory and verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 880–887 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, N. S. Kopeika, “Imaging through the atmosphere: practical instrumentation-based theory and verification of aerosol modulation transfer function,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 172–179 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Santer, R.

D. Tanre, C. Deveaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sasson, I.

D. Sadot, S. Shamriz, I. Sasson, I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Prediction of overall atmospheric MTF with standard weather parameters: comparison with measurements with two imaging systems,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3239–3248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Selby, J. E.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere (Revised), (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, L. G. Hanscom Field, Bedford, Mass., 1971).

Sendra, C.

Y. J. Kaufman, C. Sendra, “Algorithm for automatic atmospheric corrections to visible and near-IR imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 9, 1357–1381 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shamriz, S.

D. Sadot, S. Shamriz, I. Sasson, I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Prediction of overall atmospheric MTF with standard weather parameters: comparison with measurements with two imaging systems,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3239–3248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shaviv, G.

B. Ben Dor, A. D. Devir, G. Shaviv, P. Bruscaglioni, P. Donelli, A. Ismaelli, “Atmospheric scattering effect on spatial resolution of imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1329–1337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Ben Dor, A. D. Devir, G. Shaviv, “Atmospheric scattering effects on spatial resolution of imaging systems: experimental,” in The Tenth Meeting on Optical Engineeringin Israel, I. Shladov, S. R. Rotman, eds., Proc. SPIE3110, 23–33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shuker, G.

D. Sadot, R. Rosenfeld, G. Shuker, N. S. Kopeika, “High resolution restoration of images distorted by the atmosphere, based upon average atmospheric MTF,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1799–1807 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Slater, P. N.

P. N. Slater, “Radiometric consideration in remote sensing,” Proc. IEEE 73, 992–1011 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Tanre, D.

E. F. Vermote, N. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. L. Privette, L. Remeer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanre, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surfaces: background, operational algorithm, and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. T. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Deveaux, M. Herman, “Estimation of Saharan aerosol optical thickness from blurring effects in thematic mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 15955–15964 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, C. Deveaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, P. Duhaut, M. Herman, “Adjacency effect produced by the atmospheric scattering in thematic mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 12000–12006 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, “Influence of the background contribution upon space measurements of ground reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3676–3684 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, “Influence of the background contribution upon space measurements of ground reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3676–3682 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Deschamps, A. de Leffe, “Atmospheric modeling for space measurements of ground reflections, including bidirectional properties,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3587–3594 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teillet, P. T.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. T. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Terashita, Y.

S. Ueno, Y. Haba, Y. Kawata, T. Kusaka, Y. Terashita, “The atmospheric blurring effect on remotely-sensed Earth imagery,” in Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. L. Fymat, V. E. Zuev, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1979), pp. 303–319.

Ueno, S.

Y. Kawata, S. Ueno, T. Kusake, “Radiometric correction for atmospheric and topographic effects on Landsat MSS images,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 9, 729–748 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Ueno, Y. Haba, Y. Kawata, T. Kusaka, Y. Terashita, “The atmospheric blurring effect on remotely-sensed Earth imagery,” in Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. L. Fymat, V. E. Zuev, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1979), pp. 303–319.

Van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), pp. 418–421. In the second edition see Sec. 19.1.

Vermote, E. F.

E. F. Vermote, N. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. L. Privette, L. Remeer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanre, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surfaces: background, operational algorithm, and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Volz, F. E.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere (Revised), (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, L. G. Hanscom Field, Bedford, Mass., 1971).

Walters, D. L.

For example, D. L. Walters, D. L. Favier, J. R. Hines, “Vertical path atmospheric MTF measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 827–837 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Weinman, J. A.

S. R. Odell, J. A. Weinman, “The effect of atmospheric haze on image of the Earth’s surface,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 5035–5040 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yura, H. T.

Zaccanti, G.

P. Bruscaglioni, G. Zaccanti, A. Ismaelli, P. Pili, “Comparison between measured and calculated contributions of multiple scattered radiation to the transmittance of a light beam through a turbid medium,” Radio Sci. 22, 899–905 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zuev, V. E.

V. V. Belov, V. E. Zuev, G. M. Krekov, “Visibility of distant objects in scattering media,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 742–750 (1982).

Appl. Opt. (2)

L. Lutomirski, “Atmospheric degradation of electrooptical system performance,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3915–3921 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Kaufman, “Atmospheric effects on spatial resolution of surface imagery,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4164–4172 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

Int. J. Remote Sens. (3)

Y. J. Kaufman, C. Sendra, “Algorithm for automatic atmospheric corrections to visible and near-IR imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 9, 1357–1381 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawata, S. Ueno, T. Kusake, “Radiometric correction for atmospheric and topographic effects on Landsat MSS images,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 9, 729–748 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Richter, “Correction of atmospheric and topographic effects for high spatial resolution satellite imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1099–1111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (1)

V. V. Belov, V. E. Zuev, G. M. Krekov, “Visibility of distant objects in scattering media,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 742–750 (1982).

Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (2)

V. V. Belov, B. D. Borisov, V. N. Gemin, M. V. Kabanov, G. M. Krekov, “Experimental and mathematical modeling of the condition for seeing objects through a layer of a turbid medium,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 1042–1047 (1982).

B. A. Kargin, S. V. Kuznetsov, G. A. Mikhaylov, “Monte Carlo estimates of brightness contrast transfer function in a light scattering medium,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, 717–722 (1979).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

B. Ben Dor, A. D. Devir, G. Shaviv, P. Bruscaglioni, P. Donelli, A. Ismaelli, “Atmospheric scattering effect on spatial resolution of imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1329–1337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Bissonnette, “Imaging through the atmosphere: practical instrumentation-based theory and verification of aerosol modulation transfer function: comment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1175–1179 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Air Pollution Control Assoc. (1)

M. Griggs, “Measurements of atmospheric aerosol optical thickness over water using ERTS-1 data,” J. Air Pollution Control Assoc. 25, 622–626 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

Y. J. Kaufman, T. W. Brakke, E. Eloranta, “Field experiment to measure the radiative characteristics of a hazy atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 16, 1135–1151 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. Newkirk, J. A. Eddy, “Light scattering by particles in the upper atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 35–60 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

Y. Mekler, H. Quenzel, G. Ohring, I. Marcus, “Relative atmospheric aerosol content from ERTS observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 967–972 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, N. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. L. Privette, L. Remeer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanre, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surfaces: background, operational algorithm, and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Odell, J. A. Weinman, “The effect of atmospheric haze on image of the Earth’s surface,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 5035–5040 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (9)

Y. Mekler, Y. J. Kaufman, “The effect of the Earth atmosphere on contrast reduction for a nonuniform surface albedo and two-halves field,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 4067–4083 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, “Solution of the equation of radiative transfer for remote sensing over nonuniform surface reflectivity,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4137–4147 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, P. Duhaut, M. Herman, “Adjacency effect produced by the atmospheric scattering in thematic mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 12000–12006 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Special issue, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric corrections of the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14) (1997).

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. T. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, “Turbidity of the atmosphere determined from satellite calculation of optimum viewing geometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 7847–7855 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, “Satellite sensing of aerosol absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4307–4317 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Deveaux, M. Herman, “Estimation of Saharan aerosol optical thickness from blurring effects in thematic mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 15955–15964 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, C. Deveaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

D. L. Fried, “Limiting resolution looking down through the atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1380–1384 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Experimental comparison of turbulence modulation transfer function and aerosol modulation transfer function through the open atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 970–980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, N. S. Kopeika, “Imaging through the atmosphere: practical instrumentation-based theory and verification of aerosol modulation transfer function,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 172–179 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Eng. (5)

D. Sadot, S. Shamriz, I. Sasson, I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Prediction of overall atmospheric MTF with standard weather parameters: comparison with measurements with two imaging systems,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3239–3248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, G. Kitron, N. Kitron, N. S. Kopeika, “Thermal imaging through the atmosphere: atmospheric MTF theory and verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 880–887 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, R. Rosenfeld, G. Shuker, N. S. Kopeika, “High resolution restoration of images distorted by the atmosphere, based upon average atmospheric MTF,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1799–1807 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Bissonnette, “Imaging through fog and rain,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1045–1052 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, N. S. Kopeika, “Effects of practical aerosol forward scatter of infrared and visible light on atmospheric coherence diameter,” Opt. Eng. 34, 261–268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photogram. Eng. Rem. Sens. (1)

J. V. Dave, “Effect of atmospheric conditions on remote sensing of a surface non-homogeneity,” Photogram. Eng. Rem. Sens. 46, 1173–1180 (1980).

Proc. IEEE (2)

P. N. Slater, “Radiometric consideration in remote sensing,” Proc. IEEE 73, 992–1011 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Kopeika, J. Bordogna, “Background noise in optical communication systems,” Proc. IEEE 155, 1571–1577 (1970) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Radio Sci. (1)

P. Bruscaglioni, G. Zaccanti, A. Ismaelli, P. Pili, “Comparison between measured and calculated contributions of multiple scattered radiation to the transmittance of a light beam through a turbid medium,” Radio Sci. 22, 899–905 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sensing Env. (1)

Y. J. Kaufman, R. S. Fraser, “Atmospheric effect on classification of finite fields,” Remote Sensing Env. 15, 95–118 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Waves Random Media (1)

D. Sadot, A. Melamed, N. Dinur, N. S. Kopeika, “Effects of aerosol forward scatter on long and short exposure atmospheric coherence diameter,” Waves Random Media 4, 1955–1972 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

W. A. Pearce, “A study of the effects of the atmosphere on Thematic Mapper observations,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1977).

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

W. A. Pearce, “A study of the effects of the atmosphere on thematic mapper observatories,” (EG&G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc., Riverdale, Md., 1977).

S. Ueno, Y. Haba, Y. Kawata, T. Kusaka, Y. Terashita, “The atmospheric blurring effect on remotely-sensed Earth imagery,” in Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. L. Fymat, V. E. Zuev, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1979), pp. 303–319.

N. S. Kopeika, A System Engineering Approach to Imaging (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1998), pp. 351–358 and 443–513.

N. S. Kopeika, A System Engineering Approach to Imaging (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1998), pp. 517–561.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere (Revised), (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, L. G. Hanscom Field, Bedford, Mass., 1971).

B. Ben Dor, A. D. Devir, G. Shaviv, “Atmospheric scattering effects on spatial resolution of imaging systems: experimental,” in The Tenth Meeting on Optical Engineeringin Israel, I. Shladov, S. R. Rotman, eds., Proc. SPIE3110, 23–33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), pp. 418–421. In the second edition see Sec. 19.1.

D. D. Dyche, “Experimental determination of atmospheric scattering effects on scanner edge response,” master’s thesis (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1983).

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978), Vols. 1 and 2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Landsat-TM images (0.4–2.2-µm wavelength) over Senegal with visible atmospheric optical depths τ: (a) April 30, 1986 ( τ = 0.55 ) ; (b) May 3, 1987 ( τ = 0.84 ) ; (c) April 1, 1987 ( τ = 1.46 ) ; (d) April 17, 1987 ( τ = 2.40 ) . Near-infrared optical depths were ∼20% smaller.43 These images are connected with experiments described in Ref. 43.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured edge responses and (b) calculated LSF’s (linear scale) for passive imaging northward of 5.5-km-distant resolution chart July 16, 1991, at 7:30 a.m. Lambda is wavelength. Weather data is from Ref. 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 2 but for July 14, 1991, at 1:42 p.m.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 2 but for July 7, 1991, at 6:41 p.m.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PSF measurement of 633-nm-He–Ne-wavelength laser beam 6.5 km south on Aug. 14, 1991 at 8:34 p.m.

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