Abstract

We examined how well we can recover surface-reflectance properties from shading patterns under changes in surface shape. The stimulus we used was a square surface modulated in depth by a low-pass-filtered random field and rendered by the Phong illumination model [Commun. ACM18, 311 (1975)]. Two different surface images (target and match) were presented side by side, with either the viewing direction or the surface-normal direction rotating around the horizontal axis. The target shape was manipulated by changing the spatial spectrum, and the target reflectance was manipulated by changing the diffuse-reflection coefficient and the specular-reflection exponent (shininess) of the Phong model. The shape parameters of the match stimulus were fixed, but its reflectance parameters were under the control of subjects, who had to make the apparent reflectance of the two surfaces as similar as possible. The results showed that the constant error (difference between simulated and matched values) was large except when the two surfaces had the same shape parameters or when they differed only in scale. The pattern of the constant errors and response variabilities suggests that the judgments of the subjects were based on the similarity of the luminance histogram of the surface image. Our results demonstrate a limitation of surface-reflectance constancy for changes in shape and the importance of image-based information in reflectance judgments. The results are discussed in relation to previous studies that showed effects of spatial layout on surface-reflectance perception.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1996 (2)

A. Johnston, W. Curran, “Investigating shape-from-shading illusions using solid objects,” Vision Res. 36, 2827–2835 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kersten, A. C. Hurlbert, “Discounting the color of mutual illumination: a 3D-shape-induced color phenomenon,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, S1065 (1996).

1994 (2)

F. E. Pollick, S. Nishida, Y. Koike, M. Kawato, “Perceived motion in structure from motion: pointing responses to the axis of rotation,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 91–109 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Johnston, P. J. Passmore, “Independent encoding of surface orientation and surface curvature,” Vision Res. 34, 3005–3012 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

E. H. Adelson, “Perceptual organization and the judgement of brightness,” Science 262, 2042–2044 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. C. Knill, D. Kersten, “Apparent surface curvature affects lightness perception,” Nature (London) 351, 228–230 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

A. Blake, H. Bülthoff, “Does the brain know the physics of specular reflection?” Nature (London) 343, 165–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Todd, P. Bressan, “The perception of 3-dimensional affine structure from minimal apparent motion sequences,” Percept. Psychophys. 48, 419–430 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

J. T. Todd, F. D. Reichel, “Ordinal structure in the vi-sual perception and cognition of smoothly curved surfaces,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 643–657 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

E. H. Land, “Recent advances in retinex theory,” Vision Res. 26, 7–22 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

A. Gilchrist, A. Jacobsen, “Perception of lightness and illumination in a world of one reflectance,” Perception 13, 5–19 (1984).
[PubMed]

1980 (1)

A. L. Gilchrist, “When does perceived lightness depend on perceived spatial arrangement?” Percept. Psychophys. 28, 527–538 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

A. L. Gilchrist, “The perception of surface blacks and whites,” Sci. Am. 240, 112–124 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

A. L. Gilchrist, “Perceived lightness depends on perceived spatial arrangement,” Science 195, 185–187 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

B. T. Phong, “Illumination for computer generated pictures,” Commun. ACM 18, 311–317 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Adelson, E. H.

E. H. Adelson, “Perceptual organization and the judgement of brightness,” Science 262, 2042–2044 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blake, A.

A. Blake, H. Bülthoff, “Does the brain know the physics of specular reflection?” Nature (London) 343, 165–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brainard, D. H.

Bressan, P.

J. T. Todd, P. Bressan, “The perception of 3-dimensional affine structure from minimal apparent motion sequences,” Percept. Psychophys. 48, 419–430 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bülthoff, H.

A. Blake, H. Bülthoff, “Does the brain know the physics of specular reflection?” Nature (London) 343, 165–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chubb, C.

C. Chubb, M. Landy, “Orthogonal distribution analysis: a new approach to the study of texture perception,” in Computational Models of Visual Processing, M. S. Landy, J. A. Movshon, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1991), pp. 291–301.

Cohen, M.

M. Cohen, J. Wallace, Radiosity and Realistic Image Synthesis (Academic Press Professional, Cambridge, Mass., 1993).

Curran, W.

A. Johnston, W. Curran, “Investigating shape-from-shading illusions using solid objects,” Vision Res. 36, 2827–2835 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Zmura, M.

M. D’Zmura, “Shading ambiguity: reflectance and illumination,” in Computational Models of Visual Processing, M. S. Landy, J. A. Movshon, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1991), pp. 187–208.

Feiner, S. K.

J. D. Foley, A. van Dam, S. K. Feiner, J. F. Hughes, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1990).

Foley, J. D.

J. D. Foley, A. van Dam, S. K. Feiner, J. F. Hughes, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1990).

Gilchrist, A.

A. Gilchrist, A. Jacobsen, “Perception of lightness and illumination in a world of one reflectance,” Perception 13, 5–19 (1984).
[PubMed]

Gilchrist, A. L.

A. L. Gilchrist, “When does perceived lightness depend on perceived spatial arrangement?” Percept. Psychophys. 28, 527–538 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gilchrist, “The perception of surface blacks and whites,” Sci. Am. 240, 112–124 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gilchrist, “Perceived lightness depends on perceived spatial arrangement,” Science 195, 185–187 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, E.

E. Hall, Computer Image Processing and Recognition (Academic, New York, 1979).

Hughes, J. F.

J. D. Foley, A. van Dam, S. K. Feiner, J. F. Hughes, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1990).

Hurlbert, A. C.

D. Kersten, A. C. Hurlbert, “Discounting the color of mutual illumination: a 3D-shape-induced color phenomenon,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, S1065 (1996).

Jacobsen, A.

A. Gilchrist, A. Jacobsen, “Perception of lightness and illumination in a world of one reflectance,” Perception 13, 5–19 (1984).
[PubMed]

Johnston, A.

A. Johnston, W. Curran, “Investigating shape-from-shading illusions using solid objects,” Vision Res. 36, 2827–2835 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Johnston, P. J. Passmore, “Independent encoding of surface orientation and surface curvature,” Vision Res. 34, 3005–3012 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawato, M.

F. E. Pollick, S. Nishida, Y. Koike, M. Kawato, “Perceived motion in structure from motion: pointing responses to the axis of rotation,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 91–109 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kersten, D.

D. Kersten, A. C. Hurlbert, “Discounting the color of mutual illumination: a 3D-shape-induced color phenomenon,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, S1065 (1996).

D. C. Knill, D. Kersten, “Apparent surface curvature affects lightness perception,” Nature (London) 351, 228–230 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Knill, D. C.

D. C. Knill, D. Kersten, “Apparent surface curvature affects lightness perception,” Nature (London) 351, 228–230 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koike, Y.

F. E. Pollick, S. Nishida, Y. Koike, M. Kawato, “Perceived motion in structure from motion: pointing responses to the axis of rotation,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 91–109 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Land, E. H.

E. H. Land, “Recent advances in retinex theory,” Vision Res. 26, 7–22 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landy, M.

C. Chubb, M. Landy, “Orthogonal distribution analysis: a new approach to the study of texture perception,” in Computational Models of Visual Processing, M. S. Landy, J. A. Movshon, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1991), pp. 291–301.

Nishida, S.

F. E. Pollick, S. Nishida, Y. Koike, M. Kawato, “Perceived motion in structure from motion: pointing responses to the axis of rotation,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 91–109 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Passmore, P. J.

A. Johnston, P. J. Passmore, “Independent encoding of surface orientation and surface curvature,” Vision Res. 34, 3005–3012 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phong, B. T.

B. T. Phong, “Illumination for computer generated pictures,” Commun. ACM 18, 311–317 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pollick, F. E.

F. E. Pollick, S. Nishida, Y. Koike, M. Kawato, “Perceived motion in structure from motion: pointing responses to the axis of rotation,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 91–109 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichel, F. D.

J. T. Todd, F. D. Reichel, “Ordinal structure in the vi-sual perception and cognition of smoothly curved surfaces,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 643–657 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Todd, J. T.

J. T. Todd, P. Bressan, “The perception of 3-dimensional affine structure from minimal apparent motion sequences,” Percept. Psychophys. 48, 419–430 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Todd, F. D. Reichel, “Ordinal structure in the vi-sual perception and cognition of smoothly curved surfaces,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 643–657 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Dam, A.

J. D. Foley, A. van Dam, S. K. Feiner, J. F. Hughes, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1990).

Wallace, J.

M. Cohen, J. Wallace, Radiosity and Realistic Image Synthesis (Academic Press Professional, Cambridge, Mass., 1993).

Wandell, B. A.

Commun. ACM (1)

B. T. Phong, “Illumination for computer generated pictures,” Commun. ACM 18, 311–317 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

D. Kersten, A. C. Hurlbert, “Discounting the color of mutual illumination: a 3D-shape-induced color phenomenon,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, S1065 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature (London) (2)

D. C. Knill, D. Kersten, “Apparent surface curvature affects lightness perception,” Nature (London) 351, 228–230 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Blake, H. Bülthoff, “Does the brain know the physics of specular reflection?” Nature (London) 343, 165–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Percept. Psychophys. (3)

A. L. Gilchrist, “When does perceived lightness depend on perceived spatial arrangement?” Percept. Psychophys. 28, 527–538 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Todd, P. Bressan, “The perception of 3-dimensional affine structure from minimal apparent motion sequences,” Percept. Psychophys. 48, 419–430 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Pollick, S. Nishida, Y. Koike, M. Kawato, “Perceived motion in structure from motion: pointing responses to the axis of rotation,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 91–109 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perception (1)

A. Gilchrist, A. Jacobsen, “Perception of lightness and illumination in a world of one reflectance,” Perception 13, 5–19 (1984).
[PubMed]

Psychol. Rev. (1)

J. T. Todd, F. D. Reichel, “Ordinal structure in the vi-sual perception and cognition of smoothly curved surfaces,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 643–657 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sci. Am. (1)

A. L. Gilchrist, “The perception of surface blacks and whites,” Sci. Am. 240, 112–124 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

E. H. Adelson, “Perceptual organization and the judgement of brightness,” Science 262, 2042–2044 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gilchrist, “Perceived lightness depends on perceived spatial arrangement,” Science 195, 185–187 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (3)

A. Johnston, W. Curran, “Investigating shape-from-shading illusions using solid objects,” Vision Res. 36, 2827–2835 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Johnston, P. J. Passmore, “Independent encoding of surface orientation and surface curvature,” Vision Res. 34, 3005–3012 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Land, “Recent advances in retinex theory,” Vision Res. 26, 7–22 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

M. D’Zmura, “Shading ambiguity: reflectance and illumination,” in Computational Models of Visual Processing, M. S. Landy, J. A. Movshon, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1991), pp. 187–208.

M. Cohen, J. Wallace, Radiosity and Realistic Image Synthesis (Academic Press Professional, Cambridge, Mass., 1993).

J. D. Foley, A. van Dam, S. K. Feiner, J. F. Hughes, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1990).

E. Hall, Computer Image Processing and Recognition (Academic, New York, 1979).

C. Chubb, M. Landy, “Orthogonal distribution analysis: a new approach to the study of texture perception,” in Computational Models of Visual Processing, M. S. Landy, J. A. Movshon, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1991), pp. 291–301.

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