Abstract

Interferometry at grazing incidence allows one to perform macroscopic shape tests of rough surfaces with submicrometer precision. The highest measurement accuracy is achieved with a null test: the object wave front is adapted to the ideal surface under test through the use of diffractive optical elements. Deviations between the ideal and the real surface shape result in characteristic phase distributions at the interferometer output. Rod objects with rather arbitrary cross-section profiles are especially suitable for this type of measurement. The design of appropriate test wave fronts can be carried out by means of geometrical considerations. Expressions describing aberrations that are due to misalignments of the work piece can easily be derived. Misalignment aberrations and genuine surface deviations are separated by least-squares fitting.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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