Abstract

The loci of unique blue and unique yellow were measured with and without a rod bleach for various test sizes in the fovea and at 1 and 8 deg nasal and superior retinal eccentricities. Test sizes and retinal positions were selected to systematically manipulate the absolute and relative numbers of S cones underlying the test stimuli. The results revealed the following: (1) The locus of unique blue shifted to longer wavelengths as the absolute number of S cones underlying the test stimulus increased, suggesting that the S-cone neural weighting factor of the red/green (R/G) opponent model is linked to the absolute number of S cones. (2) In general, the locus of unique yellow remained invariant, although changes were observed in the superior retina. This finding indicates that either the L-to-M-cone ratio may not be invariant across all retinal quadrants or that this ratio may not determine the locus of unique yellow. (3) Rod signals affected the locus of the unique hues, especially at small test sizes, demonstrating an influence of rods on the R/G opponent mechanism.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  37. Although there is evidence that the R/G opponent code is not linear under all conditions38,39 and that other models may also be applied to our data,40-43 as a starting point we assumed both a linear model of foveal R/G opponency as expressed in Eq. (1) and that unique blue and unique yellow are mediated by a common process. We also included the effects of individual differences in photopigment absorption spectra (e.g., Ref. 44) and changes in photopigment optical density with eccentricity45,46 in the model and calculated the effects on the unique hue loci. Manipulation of these factors could account for no more than a 1-nm change in the loci of unique blue and unique yellow.
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    [CrossRef]
  61. N. W. Daw, R. J. Jensen, W. J. Brunken, “Rod pathways in mammalian retinae,” Trends Neurosci. 13, 110–115 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  62. B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  63. S. L. Buck, R. Knight, “Partial additivity of rod signals with M- and L-cone signals in increment detection,” Vision Res. 34, 2537–2545 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  64. S. L. Buck, “Influence of rod signals on hue perception: evidence from successive scotopic contrast,” Vision Res. 37, 1295–1302 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

C. M. Cicerone, S. Otake, “Color-opponent sites: Individual variability and changes with retinal eccentricity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, 454 (1997).

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to Macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, “Influence of rod signals on hue perception: evidence from successive scotopic contrast,” Vision Res. 37, 1295–1302 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Neitz, S. A. Hagstrom, P. M. Kainz, J. Neitz, “L and M cone opsin gene expression in the human retina: relationship with gene order and retinal eccentricity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 37, S448 (1996).

F. Naarendorp, K. S. Rice, P. A. Sieving, “Summation of rod and S cone signals at threshold in human observers,” Vision Res. 36, 2681–2688 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, “Partial additivity of rod signals with M- and L-cone signals in increment detection,” Vision Res. 34, 2537–2545 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (4)

A. L. Nagy, J. A. Doyal, “Red–green color discrimination as a function of stimulus field size in peripheral vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1147–1156 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neitz, M. Neitz, G. H. Jacobs, “More than three different cone pigments among people with normal color vision,” Vision Res. 33, 117–122 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, R. H. Webb, “Mapping cone photopigment optical density,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 52–58 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

1991 (3)

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Guth, “Model for color vision and light adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 976–993 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (3)

P. K. Ahnelt, C. Keri, H. Kolb, “Identification of pedicles of putative blue-sensitive cones in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 293, 39–53 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. W. Daw, R. J. Jensen, W. J. Brunken, “Rod pathways in mammalian retinae,” Trends Neurosci. 13, 110–115 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

S. K. Shevell, R. A. Humanski, “Color perception under chromatic adaptation: red/green equilibria with adapted short-wavelength-sensitive cones,” Vision Res. 28, 1345–1356 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (3)

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vision Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. van Esch, E. E. Koldenhof, A. J. van Doorn, J. J. Koenderink, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the human peripheral visual field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 443–450 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Absolute spectral sensitivity at different eccentricities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 836–840 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

Y. Ejima, S. Takahashi, “Interaction between short- and longer-wavelength cones in hue cancellation codes: nonlinearities of hue cancellation as a function of stimulus intensity,” Vision Res. 25, 1911–1922 (1980).
[CrossRef]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Variation in density of macular pigmentation and in short-wave cone sensitivity with eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 706–711 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

B. R. Wooten, J. S. Werner, “Short-wave cone input to the red–green opponent channel,” Vision Res. 19, 1053–1054 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (4)

C. R. Ingling, “The spectral sensitivity of the opponent-color channels,” Vision Res. 17, 1083–1089 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Ingling, “The spectral sensitivity of the opponent-color channels,” Vision Res. 17, 1083–1089 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. I. Spectral sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 195–202 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 67, 202–207 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (3)

B. A. Ambler, R. W. Proctor, “Rod involvement in peripheral color processing,” Scand. J. Psychol. 17, 142–148 (1976).
[PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Absence of rod activity from peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1433–1437 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effect of field size on red–green color mixture equations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (2)

C. M. Cicerone, D. H. Krantz, J. Larimer, “Opponent-process additivity III: effect of moderate chromatic adaptation,” Vision Res. 15, 1125–1135 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (2)

N. Drasdo, C. W. Fowler, “Non-linear projection of the retinal image in a wide-angle schematic eye,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 58, 709–714 (1974).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Ambler, “Hue discrimination in peripheral vision under conditions of dark and light adaptation,” Percept. Psychophys. 15, 586–590 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 217, 447–471 (1971).

1970 (1)

P. W. Trezona, “Rod participation in the ‘blue’ mechanism and its effect on colour matching,” Vision Res. 10, 317–332 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, J. D. Cohen, “The experimental determination of unique green in the spectrum,” Percept. Psychophys. 4, 65–68 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. E. Neun, “Hue–wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

1961 (1)

1959 (1)

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1955 (1)

A. C. Cruz, J. D. Moreland, “Small field tritanomaly in peripheral vision,” Farbe 4, 241–245 (1955).

1953 (1)

R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wave-length discrimination of the peripheral retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 119, 170–190 (1953).

1951 (1)

R. A. Weale, “Hue-discrimination in para-central parts of the human retina measured at different luminance levels,” J. Physiol. (London) 113, 115–122 (1951).

1950 (1)

M. Gilbert, “Colour perception in parafoveal vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London, Sect. B 63, 83–89 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1919 (1)

C. E. Feree, G. Rand, “Chromatic threshold of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory,” Psychol. Rev. 26, 16–41 (1919).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, I.

Ahnelt, P. K.

P. K. Ahnelt, C. Keri, H. Kolb, “Identification of pedicles of putative blue-sensitive cones in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 293, 39–53 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 217, 447–471 (1971).

Ambler, B. A.

B. A. Ambler, R. W. Proctor, “Rod involvement in peripheral color processing,” Scand. J. Psychol. 17, 142–148 (1976).
[PubMed]

B. A. Ambler, “Hue discrimination in peripheral vision under conditions of dark and light adaptation,” Percept. Psychophys. 15, 586–590 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ayde, C. J.

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. E. Neun, “Hue–wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunken, W. J.

N. W. Daw, R. J. Jensen, W. J. Brunken, “Rod pathways in mammalian retinae,” Trends Neurosci. 13, 110–115 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buck, S. L.

S. L. Buck, “Influence of rod signals on hue perception: evidence from successive scotopic contrast,” Vision Res. 37, 1295–1302 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, “Partial additivity of rod signals with M- and L-cone signals in increment detection,” Vision Res. 34, 2537–2545 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, R. H. Webb, “Mapping cone photopigment optical density,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 52–58 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vision Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, H.

Cicerone, C. M.

C. M. Cicerone, S. Otake, “Color-opponent sites: Individual variability and changes with retinal eccentricity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, 454 (1997).

J. L. Nerger, C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Cicerone, D. H. Krantz, J. Larimer, “Opponent-process additivity III: effect of moderate chromatic adaptation,” Vision Res. 15, 1125–1135 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Otake, C. M. Cicerone, “The relative numbers of L and M cones and the cone density distribution in the peripheral retina,” in Advances in Color Vision, Vol. 4 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.,1992), pp. 35–37.

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F. Naarendorp, K. S. Rice, P. A. Sieving, “Summation of rod and S cone signals at threshold in human observers,” Vision Res. 36, 2681–2688 (1996).
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B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to Macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
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A. C. Cruz, J. D. Moreland, “Small field tritanomaly in peripheral vision,” Farbe 4, 241–245 (1955).

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C. M. Cicerone, S. Otake, “Color-opponent sites: Individual variability and changes with retinal eccentricity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, 454 (1997).

M. Neitz, S. A. Hagstrom, P. M. Kainz, J. Neitz, “L and M cone opsin gene expression in the human retina: relationship with gene order and retinal eccentricity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 37, S448 (1996).

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Opt. Acta (1)

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
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Percept. Psychophys. (2)

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, J. D. Cohen, “The experimental determination of unique green in the spectrum,” Percept. Psychophys. 4, 65–68 (1968).
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Although there is evidence that the R/G opponent code is not linear under all conditions38,39 and that other models may also be applied to our data,40-43 as a starting point we assumed both a linear model of foveal R/G opponency as expressed in Eq. (1) and that unique blue and unique yellow are mediated by a common process. We also included the effects of individual differences in photopigment absorption spectra (e.g., Ref. 44) and changes in photopigment optical density with eccentricity45,46 in the model and calculated the effects on the unique hue loci. Manipulation of these factors could account for no more than a 1-nm change in the loci of unique blue and unique yellow.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Predicted patterns of unique blue loci based on the absolute (panel A) and relative (panel B) S-cone models (see text for details).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Loci of unique blue plotted as a function of stimulus size for 1 and 8 deg nasal and superior retinal eccentricities. Different symbols denote different observers; error bars represent ±1 SEM based on between-session variability.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Loci of unique yellow plotted as a function of stimulus size for 1 and 8 deg nasal and superior retinal eccentricities. Different symbols denote different observers; error bars represent ±1 SEM based on between-session variability.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In the left (right) panel, unique blue (yellow) loci measured in the superior retina are compared with those obtained in the nasal retina. Different symbols specify different retinal eccentricities and test sizes; error bars represent ±1 SEM based on between-session variability. Dashed lines delimit the ±3-nm-shift criterion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In the left (right) panel, unique blue (yellow) loci measured at 8 deg retinal eccentricity are compared with those at 1 deg retinal eccentricity. Different symbols specify retinal quadrants and test sizes; error bars represent ±1 SEM based on between-session variability. Dashed lines delimit the ±3-nm-shift criterion.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wavelengths of unique blue (left panels) and unique yellow (right panels) are plotted as a function of retinal eccentricity for the large test sizes. Data plotted at 1 and 8 deg eccentricities were obtained on the cone plateau following a rod bleach. Different panels represent different observers; filled symbols denote data from the nasal retina; open symbols specify data from the superior retina. The shaded region represents ±3 nm of the foveal value for each observer. Error bars denote ±1 SEM based on between-session variability.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

In the left (right) panel, unique blue (yellow) loci measured in the no-rod-bleach condition are compared with those from the rod-bleach condition. Different symbols specify different retinal eccentricities and test sizes; error bars represent ±1 SEM based on between-session variability. Dashed lines delimit the ±3-nm-shift criterion.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Unique blue loci obtained in the superior (upper panel) and nasal (lower panel) retinal quadrants are plotted in the manner of Fig. 1. Different symbols denote the three observers. The solid line represents the mean of the three observers. Results mirror predictions based on the absolute S-cone model.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Estimates of Relative and Absolute Numbers of S Cones and Total Cones

Equations (1)

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k1S(λ)-k2M(λ)+k3L(λ)=0.

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