Abstract

First measures of sensitivity and the need for a model to interpret them are addressed. Then modeling in the Fourier domain is promoted by a demonstration of how such an approach explains spatial sensitization and its dependence on luminance. Then the retinal illuminance and receptor absorptions produced by various stimuli are derived to foster interpretation of the neural mechanisms underlying various psychophysical phenomena. Finally, the sequence and the anatomical loci of the processes controlling visual sensitivity are addressed. It is concluded that multiplicative adaptation often has effects identical to response compression followed by subtractive adaptation and that, perhaps as a consequence, there is no evidence of retinal gain changes in human cone vision until light levels are well above those available in natural scenes and in most contemporary psychophysical experiments; that contrast gain control fine tunes sensitivity to patterns at all luminances; and that response compression, modulated by subtractive adaptation, predominates in the control of sensitivity in human cone vision.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. I. A. MacLeod, “Visual sensitivity,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 29, 369–645 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. Shapley, C. Enroth-Cugell, “Visual adaptation and retinal gain controls,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. Osborne, G. Chader, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1984), Vol. 3, pp. 263–346.
  3. D. C. Hood, M. A. Finkelstein, “Sensitivity to light,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Vol. 1, pp. 5-1–5-66.
  4. J. Walraven, C. Enroth-Cugell, D. Hood, D. I. A. MacLeod, J. L. Schnapf, “The control of visual sensitivity: receptoral and postreceptoral processes,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, New York, 1990), pp. 53–101.
  5. D. C. Hood, “Retinal control of sensitivity,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. (to be published).
  6. S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, M. H. Pirenne, “Energy, quanta, and vision,” J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819–840 (1942).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. L. E. Marks, Sensory Processes: The New Psychophysics (Academic, New York, 1974).
  8. L. Michaelis, M. L. Menten, “Die Kinetik der invertinwirkung,” Biochem. Z. 49, 333–369 (1913).
  9. D. A. Baylor, B. J. Nunn, J. L. Schnapf, “Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. (London) 390, 145–160 (1987).
  10. J. C. Armington, The Electroretinogram (Academic, New York, 1974).
  11. H. Autrum, “The physiological basis of colour vision in honeybees,” in Colour Vision, A. V. S. de Reuck, J. Knight, eds. (Little, Brown, Boston, Mass., 1965), pp. 286–300.
  12. N. V. S. Graham, Visual Pattern Analyzers (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1989).
  13. S. Hecht, C. Haig, A. M. Chase, “The influence of light adaptation on subsequent dark adaptation of the eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831–850 (1937).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. L. Van Trees, Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory. Part I. Detection, Estimation, and Linear Modulation Theory (Wiley, New York, 1968).
  15. G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md., 1970).
  16. D. Y. Teller, “Locus questions in visual science,” in Visual Coding and Adaptability, C. S. Harris, ed. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1980), pp. 151–176.
  17. D. Y. Teller, “Linking propositions,” Vision Res. 24, 1233–1246 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. Y. Teller, E. N. Pugh, “Linking propositions in color vision,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, New York, 1983), pp. 577–589.
  19. D. Y. Teller, “The domain of visual science,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, New York, 1990), pp. 11–21.
  20. H. R. Wilson, D. J. Gelb, “Modified line element theory for spatial frequency and width discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 124–131 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Q. Hu, S. A. Klein, T. Carney, “Can sinusoidal vernier acuity be predicted by contrast discrimination?” Vision Res. 33, 1241–1258 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J. Yang, X. Qi, W. Makous, “Zero frequency masking and a model of contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 35, 1965–1978 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. J. Yang, W. Makous, “Modeling pedestal experiments with amplitude instead of contrast,” Vision Res. 35, 1979–1989 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. N. Graham, D. C. Hood, “Modeling the dynamics of light adaptation: the merging of two traditions,” Vision Res. 32, 1373–1393 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, “Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).
  26. C. Enroth-Cugell, J. G. Robson, “The contrast sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells of the cat,” J. Physiol. (London) 187, 517–552 (1966).
  27. A. Pantle, R. Sekuler, “Size-detecting mechanisms in human vision,” Science 162, 1146–1147 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. C. Blakemore, F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).
  29. N. Graham, J. Nachmias, “Detection of grating patterns containing two spatial frequencies: a comparison of single-channel and multiple channel models,” Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, J. G. Robson, “Spatial-frequency channels in human vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. J. P. Thomas, “Model of the function of receptive fields in human vision,” Psychol. Rev. 77, 121–134 (1970).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. J. P. Thomas, L. A. Olzak, “Contrast gain control and fine spatial discriminations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2392–2405 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  33. H. R. Wilson, J. R. Bergen, “A four mechanism model for threshold spatial vision,” Vision Res. 19, 19–32 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. A. B. Watson, A. J. Ahumada, “A hexagonal orthogonal-oriented pyramid as a model of image representation in visual cortex,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 97–106 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. J. M. Foley, “Human luminance pattern-vision mechanisms: masking experiments require a new model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1710–1719 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  36. J. Rovamo, J. Mustonen, R. Näsänen, “Modelling contrast sensitivity as a function of retinal illuminance and grating area,” Vision Res. 34, 1301–1314 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. P. G. J. Barten, “Simple model for spatial frequency masking and contrast discrimination,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display VI, B. E. Rogowitz, J. P. Allebach, eds., Proc. SPIE2411, 142–158 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  38. P. G. J. Barten, “Physical model for the contrast sensitivity of the human eye,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display III, B. E. Rogowitz, ed., Proc. SPIE1666, 57–72 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  39. L. A. Bauman, A. B. Bonds, “Inhibitory refinement of spatial frequency selectivity in single cells of the cat striate cortex,” Vision Res. 31, 933–944 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex,” J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215–243 (1968).
  41. G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in the human retina during scotopic vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 881–894 (1965).
  42. G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in human cone vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139–154 (1967).
  43. B. H. Crawford, “The effect of field size and pattern on the change of visual sensitivity with time,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 129, 94–106 (1940).
    [Crossref]
  44. J. I. Markoff, J. F. Sturr, “Spatial and luminance determinants of the increment threshold under monoptic and dichoptic viewing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1530–1537 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  45. J. F. Sturr, D. Y. Teller, “Sensitization by annular surrounds: dichoptic properties,” Vision Res. 13, 909–918 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  46. A. Arditi, “Binocular vision,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Vol. 1, pp. 23-1–23-41.
  47. R. Fox, R. Check, “Binocular fusion: a test of the suppression theory,” Percept. Psychophys. 1, 331–334 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  48. W. Makous, R. K. Sanders, “Suppressive interactions between fused patterns,” in Visual Psychophysics and Physiology, J. C. Armington, J. Krauskopf, B. R. Wooten, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 167–179.
  49. C. Yu, D. M. Levi, “Cortical components of the Westheimer function,” Vision Res. (to be published).
  50. S. L. Buck, W. Makous, T. Piantanida, “Background visibility and increment thresholds,” Vision Res. 23, 1107–1113 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  51. P. Lennie, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Background configuration and rod threshold,” J. Physiol. (London) 233, 143–156 (1973).
  52. D. W. Blick, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Rod threshold: influence of neighboring cones,” Vision Res. 18, 1611–1616 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  53. M. Latch, P. Lennie, “Rod–cone interaction in light adaptation,” J. Physiol. (London) 269, 517–534 (1977).
  54. M. M. Hayhoe, M. V. Smith, “The role of spatial filtering in sensitivity regulation,” Vision Res. 29, 457–469 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  55. M. M. Hayhoe, “Spatial interactions and models of adaptation,” Vision Res. 30, 957–965 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  56. H. R. Wilson, R. Humanski, “Spatial frequency adaptation and contrast gain control,” Vision Res. 33, 1133–1149 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  57. D. A. Burkhardt, “The influence of center-surround antagonism on light adaptation in cones in the retina of the turtle,” Visual Neurosci. 12, 877–885 (1995).
    [PubMed]
  58. D. A. Burkhardt, “Sensitization and centre–surround antagonism in Necturus retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 236, 593–610 (1974).
  59. C. J. Karwoski, L. M. Proenza, “Transient adaptation and sensitization in the retina of Necturus,” J. Gen. Physiol. 76, 479–497 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  60. C. J. Karwoski, D. A. Burkhardt, “Ganglion cell responses of the mudpuppy retina to flashing and moving stimuli,” Vision Res. 16, 1483–1495 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  61. C. Enroth-Cugell, P. Lennie, R. M. Shapley, “Surround contribution to light adaptation in cat retinal ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. (London) 247, 579–588 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  62. E. A. Essock, S. Lehmkuhle, J. Frascella, J. M. Enoch, “Temporal modulation of the background affects the sensitization response of X- and Y-cells in the dLGN of cat,” Vision Res. 25, 1007–1019 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  63. K. Nakayama, “Local adaptation in cat LGN cells: evidence for a surround antagonism,” Vision Res. 11, 501–509 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  64. B. Sakmann, O. D. Creutzfeldt, H. Scheich, “An experimental comparison between the ganglion cell receptive field and the receptive field of the adaptation pool in the cat retina” Pfluegers Arch. Gesamte Physiol. Menschen Tiere 307, 133–137 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  65. H. B. Barlow, W. R. Levick, “Threshold setting by the surround of cat retinal ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. (London) 259, 193–208 (1976).
  66. B. G. Cleland, A. W. Freeman, “Visual adaptation is highly localized in the cat’s retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 404, 591–611 (1988).
  67. D. M. Dacey, M. R. Petersen, “Dendritic field size and morphology of midget and parasol ganglion cells of the human retina,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 9666–9670 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  68. D. I. A. MacLeod, D. R. Williams, W. Makous, “A visual nonlinearity fed by single cones,” Vision Res. 32, 347–363 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  69. B. Chen, W. Makous, D. R. Williams, “Serial spatial filters in vision,” Vision Res. 33, 413–427 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  70. S. He, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Contrast-modulation flicker: dynamics and spatial resolution of the light adaptation process,” Vision Res. (to be published).
  71. X. Qi, “Spatial summation and antagonism of foveal cone signals at different illuminances on the human retina,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, 1997).
  72. R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).
  73. H. R. Wilson, “Responses of spatial mechanisms can explain hyperacuity,” Vision Res. 26, 453–469 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  74. A. C. Naiman, W. Makous, “Vernier acuity modeled by one-dimensional Fourier analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (Suppl.) 37, S734 (1996).
  75. S. J. Waugh, D. M. Levi, “Orientation, masking, and vernier acuity for line targets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2305–2317 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  76. A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Vol. 1, pp. 6-1–6-43.
  77. M. B. Mandler, W. Makous, “A three channel model of temporal frequency perception,” Vision Res. 24, 1881–1887 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  78. X. Qi, J. Yang, W. Makous, “Further evidence of a third temporal channel,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (Suppl.) 34, 780 (1993).
  79. R. F. Hess, R. J. Snowden, “Temporal properties of human visual filters: number, shapes, and spatial covariation,” Vision Res. 32, 47–59 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  80. S. J. Waugh, R. F. Hess, “Suprathreshold temporal-frequency discrimination in the fovea and the periphery,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1199–1212 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  81. D. C. Hood, N. Graham, T. E. von Wiegand, V. M. Chase, “Probed-sinewave paradigm: a test of models of light-adaptation dynamics,” Vision Res. 37, 1177–1191 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  82. T. E. von Wiegand, D. C. Hood, N. Graham, “Testing a computational model of light-adaptation dynamics,” Vision Res. 35, 3937–3051 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  83. S. Wu, S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, R. T. Eskew, J. He, “Rapid sensitivity changes on flickering backgrounds: tests of models of light adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2367–2378 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  84. D. H. Kelly, “Flicker,” in Visual Psychophysics, Vol. VII/4 of Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson, L. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, New York, 1972), pp. 273–302.
  85. C. A. Burbeck, D. H. Kelly, “Spatiotemporal characteristics of visual mechanisms: excitatory–inhibitory model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1121–1126 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  86. J. Yang, W. Makous, “Spatiotemporal separability in contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 24, 2569–2575 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  87. J. G. Robson, “Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity functions of the visual system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141–1142 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  88. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).
  89. G. Wyszecki, W. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  90. J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  91. S. L. Buck, D. R. Peeples, W. L. Makous, “Spatial patterns of rod–cone interaction,” Vision Res. 19, 775–782 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  92. R. A. Applegate, V. Lakshminarayanan, “Parametric representation of Stiles–Crawford functions: normal variation of peak location and directionality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1611–1623 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  93. C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  94. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effect of field size on red–green color mixture equations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  95. O. S. Packer, D. R. Williams, “The quantum efficiency and directional sensitivity in peripheral primate photoreceptor mosaic,” presented at OSA 1996 Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., October 20–24 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).
  96. D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Phototransduction in human cones measured using the a-wave of the ERG,” Vision Res. 35, 2801–2810 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  97. W. S. Stiles, B. F. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
    [Crossref]
  98. C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  99. G. Østerberg, “Topography of the layer of rods and cones in the human retina,” Acta Ophthalmol. 13, Suppl. 6, 1–103 (1935).
  100. E. Aulhorn, H. Harms, “Visual perimetry,” in Visual Psychophysics, Vol. VII/4 of Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, New York, 1972), pp. 102–145.
  101. W. A. H. Rushton, G. H. Henry, “Bleaching and regeneration of cone pigments in man,” Vision Res. 8, 617–631 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  102. H. B. Barlow, “Retinal noise and absolute threshold,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 634–639 (1956).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  103. E. N. Pugh, “Rhodopsin flash photolysis in man,” J. Physiol. (London) 248, 413–435 (1975).
  104. T. W. Kraft, D. M. Schneeweis, J. L. Schnapf, “Visual transduction in human rod photoreceptors,” J. Physiol. (London) 464, 747–765 (1993).
  105. M. E. Breton, A. W. Schueller, T. D. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “Analysis of ERG a-wave amplification and kinetics in terms of the G-protein cascade of phototransduction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 295–309 (1994).
  106. G. S. Brindley, “The deformation phosphene and the funnelling of light into rods and cones,” J. Physiol. (London) 188, 24–25P (1966).
  107. M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 217, 447–471 (1971).
  108. M. Hollins, M. Alpern, “Dark adaptation and visual pigment regeneration in human cones,” J. Gen. Physiol. 62, 430–447 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  109. A. C. C. Coolen, D. van Norren, “Kinetics of human cone photopigments explained with a Rushton–Henry model,” Biol. Cybern. 58, 123–128 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  110. M. Alpern, F. Maaseidvaag, N. Ohba, “The kinetics of cone visual pigments in man,” Vision Res. 11, 539–549 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  111. M. Alpern, E. N. Pugh, “The density and photosensitivity of human rhodopsin in the living retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 237, 341–370 (1974).
  112. T. Yeh, B. B. Lee, J. Kremers, “The time course of adaptation in macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 36, 913–931 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  113. H. B. Barlow, R. Fitzhugh, S. W. Kuffler, “Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat’s retina during dark adaptation,” J. Physiol. (London) 137, 338–354 (1957).
  114. P. O. Bishop, W. Kozak, G. J. Vakkur, “Some quantitative aspects of the cat’s eye: axis and plane of reference, visual field, co-ordinates and optics,” J. Physiol. (London) 163, 466–502 (1962).
  115. D. B. Judd, “Basic correlates of the visual stimulus,” in Handbook of Experimental Psychology, S. S. Stevens, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1951), pp. 811–867.
  116. Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour and Vision, 2nd ed. (Chapman and Hall, London, 1968).
  117. E. H. Adelson, “Saturation and adaptation in the rod system,” Vision Res. 22, 1299–1312 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  118. H. B. Barlow, “Optic nerve impulses and Weber’s law,” Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 539–546 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  119. F. S. Werblin, “Control of retinal sensitivity. II. Lateral interactions at the outer plexiform layer,” J. Gen. Physiol. 63, 62–87 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  120. B. G. Cleland, C. Enroth-Cugell, “Quantitative aspects of sensitivity and summation in the cat retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 198, 17–38 (1968).
  121. C. Enroth-Cugell, P. Lennie, “The control of retinal ganglion cell discharge by receptive field surrounds,” J. Physiol. (London) 247, 551–578 (1975).
  122. K. Purpura, D. Tranchina, E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, “Light adaptation in the primate retina: analysis of changes in gain and dynamics of monkey retinal ganglion cells,” Visual Neurosci. 4, 75–93 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  123. K. I. Naka, W. A. H. Rushton, “S-potentials from colour units in the retina of the fish (Cyprinidae),” J. Physiol. (London) 185, 536–555 (1966).
  124. D. A. Baylor, A. L. Hodgkin, T. D. Lamb, “Reconstruction of the electrical responses of turtle cones to flashes and steps of light,” J. Physiol. (London) 242, 759–791 (1974).
  125. D. H. Kelly, “Visual responses to time-dependent stimuli. I. Amplitude sensitivity measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 422–428 (1961).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  126. B. B. Lee, D. M. Dacey, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Time course and cone specificity of adaptation in primate outer retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S1163 (1997).
  127. M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time-course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vision Res. 27, 1981–1996 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  128. W. S. Geisler, “Mechanisms of visual sensitivity: backgrounds and early dark adaptation,” Vision Res. 23, 1423–1432 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  129. H. R. Wilson, V. P. Ferrara, C. Yo, “Psychophysically motivated model for two-dimensional motion perception,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 79–97 (1992).
  130. W. S. Geisler, “Effects of bleaching and backgrounds on the flash response of the cone system,” J. Physiol. (London) 312, 413–434 (1981).
  131. P. T. Kortum, W. S. Geisler, “Adaptation mechanisms in spatial vision. II. Flash thresholds and background adaptation,” Vision Res. 35, 1595–1609 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  132. M. M. Hayhoe, M. E. Levin, R. J. Koshel, “Subtractive processes in light adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 323–333 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  133. M. A. Finkelstein, M. Harrison, D. C. Hood, “Sites of sensitivity control within a long-wavelength cone pathway,” Vision Res. 30, 1145–1158 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  134. G. Sclar, J. H. R. Maunsell, P. Lennie, “Coding of image contrast in central visual pathways of the macaque monkey,” Vision Res. 30, 1–10 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  135. K. Donner, D. Copenhagen, T. Reuter, “Weber and noise adaptation in the retina of the toad Bufo marinus,” J. Gen. Physiol. 95, 733–753 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  136. M. E. Rudd, L. G. Brown, “Stochastic retinal mechanisms of light adaptation and gain control,” Spatial Vis. 10, 125–148 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  137. G. Sperling, M. M. Sondhi, “Model for visual luminance discrimination and flicker detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1133–1145 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  138. J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. (London) 437, 681–713 (1990).
  139. G. L. Fain, “Sensitivity of toad rods: dependence on wave-length and background illumination,” J. Physiol. (London) 261, 71–101 (1976).
  140. G. L. Fain, H. R. Matthews, M. C. Cornwall, “Dark adaptation in vertebrate photoreceptors,” Trends Neurosci. 19, 502–507 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  141. M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  142. B. J. Nunn, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in retinal rods of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” Nature 299, 726–728 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  143. K. Nakatani, T. Tamura, K.-W. Yau, “Light adaptation in retinal rods of the rabbit and two other nonprimate mammals,” J. Gen. Physiol. 97, 413–435 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  144. T. Tamura, K. Nakatani, K.-W. Yau, “Light adaptation in cat retinal rods,” Science 245, 755–758 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  145. R. D. Penn, W. A. Hagins, “Kinetics of the photocurrent of retinal rods,” Biophys. J. 12, 1073–1094 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  146. W. A. H. Rushton, “Increment threshold and dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 104–109 (1963).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  147. W. A. H. Rushton, “The sensitivity of rods under illumination,” J. Physiol. (London) 178, 141–160 (1965).
  148. W. A. H. Rushton, “The Ferrier lecture: Visual adaptation,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 162, 20–46 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  149. D. C. Burr, J. Ross, M. C. Morrone, “Local regulation of luminance gain,” Vision Res. 25, 717–727 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  150. C. M. Cicerone, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, “The spread of adaptation in human foveal and parafoveal cone vision,” Vision Res. 30, 1603–1615 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  151. R. M. Boynton, D. N. Whitten, “Visual adaptation in monkey cones: recordings of late receptor potentials,” Science 170, 1423–1425 (1970).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  152. K. T. Brown, K. Watanabe, M. Murakami, “The early and late receptor potentials of monkey cones and rods,” Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 457–482 (1965).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  153. K. T. Brown, “The electroretinogram: its components and their origins,” Vision Res. 8, 633–677 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  154. W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1975).
  155. J. M. Valeton, N. D. van Norren, “Light adaptation of primate cones: an analysis based on extracellular data,” Vision Res. 23, 1539–1547 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  156. D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Human cone receptor activity: the leading edge of the a-wave and models of receptor activity,” Visual Neurosci. 10, 857–871 (1993).
  157. D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, D. R. Pepperberg, “The trailing edge of the photoresponse from human cones derived using a two-flash ERG paradigm,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 64–67.
  158. W. Makous, “Optics,” in Vision Research: a Practical Approach, J. G. Robson, R. H. S. Carpenter, eds. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, to be published).
  159. H. B. Barlow, W. R. Levick, “The Purkinje shift in the cat retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 196, 2P–3P (1968).
  160. B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, J. Kremers, “Responses to pulses and sinusoids in macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 23, 3081–3096 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  161. P. Lennie, “Roles of M and P pathways,” in Contrast Sensitivity, R. Shapley, D. M.-K. Lam, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1993), pp. 201–213.
  162. W. Makous, D. Teller, R. Boothe, “Binocular interaction in the dark,” Vision Res. 16, 473–476 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  163. J. J. Kulikowski, “What really limits vision? Conceptual limitations to the assessment of visual function and the role of interacting channels,” in Limits of Vision, J. J. Kulikowski, V. Walsh, I. J. Murray, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1991), Vol. 5, pp. 286–329.
  164. C. F. Stromeyer, S. Klein, B. M. Dawson, L. Spillmann, “Low spatial frequency channels in human vision: adaptation and masking,” Vision Res. 22, 225–233 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  165. R. M. Jones, U. Tulunay-Keesey, “Phase selectivity of spatial frequency channels,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 66–70 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  166. G. E. Legge, D. Kersten, “Light and dark bars: contrast discrimination,” Vision Res. 23, 473–483 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  167. D. G. Albrecht, S. B. Farrar, D. B. Hamilton, “Spatial contrast adaptation characteristics of neurones recorded in the cat’s visual cortex,” J. Physiol. (London) 347, 713–739 (1984).
  168. M. A. Finkelstein, D. C. Hood, “Cone system saturation: more than one stage of sensitivity loss,” Vision Res. 21, 319–328 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  169. W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “Equivalent adaptation levels in localized retinal areas,” in Mechanisms of Colour Vision: Selected Papers of W. S. Stiles, F. R. S., with a New Introductory Essay, W. S. Stiles, ed. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 36–53.
  170. W. S. Stiles, “Color vision: the approach through increment-threshold sensitivity,” Physics 45, 100–113 (1959).
  171. W. S. Stiles, “Separation of the ‘blue’ and ‘green’ mechanisms of foveal vision by measurements of increment thresholds,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 133, 418–434 (1946).
    [Crossref]
  172. B. Chen, W. Makous, “Light capture by human cones,” J. Physiol. (London) 414, 89–109 (1989).
  173. A. B. Saul, M. S. Cynader, “Adaptation in single units in visual cortex: the tuning of aftereffects in the spatial domain,” Visual Neurosci. 2, 593–607 (1989).
  174. A. B. Bonds, “The encoding of cortical contrast gain control,” in Contrast Sensitivity, R. Shapley, D. M.-K. Lam, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1993), pp. 215–230.
  175. J. D. Allison, V. A. Casagrande, E. J. Debruyn, A. B. Bonds, “Contrast adaptation in striate cortical neurons of the nocturnal primate bush baby,” Visual Neurosci. 10, 1129–1139 (1993).
  176. D. Lehman, G. W. Beeler, D. H. Fender, “Changes in patterns of the human electroencephalogram during fluctuations of perception of stabilized images,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 335–343 (1965).
  177. D. J. Heeger, “Normalization of cell responses in cat striate cortex,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 181–197 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  178. R. J. Snowden, “Adaptability of the visual system is inversely related to its sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 25–32 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  179. A. B. Watson, J. A. Solomon, “A model of visual contrast gain control and pattern masking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2379–2391 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  180. M. P. Eckstein, A. J. Ahumada, A. B. Watson, “Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. II. Effects of contrast gain control, background variations, and white noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2406–2419 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  181. G. T. Fechner, Elemente der Psychophysik (Breitkopf und Hertel, Leipzig, 1860).
  182. M. Abramowitz, I. A. Stegun, eds., Handbook of Mathematical Tables with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables, Vol. 55 of Applied Mathematics (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1964).

1997 (6)

1996 (5)

M. E. Rudd, L. G. Brown, “Stochastic retinal mechanisms of light adaptation and gain control,” Spatial Vis. 10, 125–148 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. L. Fain, H. R. Matthews, M. C. Cornwall, “Dark adaptation in vertebrate photoreceptors,” Trends Neurosci. 19, 502–507 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Naiman, W. Makous, “Vernier acuity modeled by one-dimensional Fourier analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (Suppl.) 37, S734 (1996).

T. Yeh, B. B. Lee, J. Kremers, “The time course of adaptation in macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 36, 913–931 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (7)

T. E. von Wiegand, D. C. Hood, N. Graham, “Testing a computational model of light-adaptation dynamics,” Vision Res. 35, 3937–3051 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, X. Qi, W. Makous, “Zero frequency masking and a model of contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 35, 1965–1978 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, W. Makous, “Modeling pedestal experiments with amplitude instead of contrast,” Vision Res. 35, 1979–1989 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Burkhardt, “The influence of center-surround antagonism on light adaptation in cones in the retina of the turtle,” Visual Neurosci. 12, 877–885 (1995).
[PubMed]

P. T. Kortum, W. S. Geisler, “Adaptation mechanisms in spatial vision. II. Flash thresholds and background adaptation,” Vision Res. 35, 1595–1609 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Waugh, D. M. Levi, “Orientation, masking, and vernier acuity for line targets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2305–2317 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Phototransduction in human cones measured using the a-wave of the ERG,” Vision Res. 35, 2801–2810 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (7)

R. J. Snowden, “Adaptability of the visual system is inversely related to its sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 25–32 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. J. Waugh, R. F. Hess, “Suprathreshold temporal-frequency discrimination in the fovea and the periphery,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1199–1212 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. M. Foley, “Human luminance pattern-vision mechanisms: masking experiments require a new model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1710–1719 (1994).
[Crossref]

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, J. Kremers, “Responses to pulses and sinusoids in macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 23, 3081–3096 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, W. Makous, “Spatiotemporal separability in contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 24, 2569–2575 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Rovamo, J. Mustonen, R. Näsänen, “Modelling contrast sensitivity as a function of retinal illuminance and grating area,” Vision Res. 34, 1301–1314 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Breton, A. W. Schueller, T. D. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “Analysis of ERG a-wave amplification and kinetics in terms of the G-protein cascade of phototransduction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 295–309 (1994).

1993 (8)

T. W. Kraft, D. M. Schneeweis, J. L. Schnapf, “Visual transduction in human rod photoreceptors,” J. Physiol. (London) 464, 747–765 (1993).

B. Chen, W. Makous, D. R. Williams, “Serial spatial filters in vision,” Vision Res. 33, 413–427 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Qi, J. Yang, W. Makous, “Further evidence of a third temporal channel,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (Suppl.) 34, 780 (1993).

H. R. Wilson, R. Humanski, “Spatial frequency adaptation and contrast gain control,” Vision Res. 33, 1133–1149 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Hu, S. A. Klein, T. Carney, “Can sinusoidal vernier acuity be predicted by contrast discrimination?” Vision Res. 33, 1241–1258 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Human cone receptor activity: the leading edge of the a-wave and models of receptor activity,” Visual Neurosci. 10, 857–871 (1993).

R. A. Applegate, V. Lakshminarayanan, “Parametric representation of Stiles–Crawford functions: normal variation of peak location and directionality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1611–1623 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Allison, V. A. Casagrande, E. J. Debruyn, A. B. Bonds, “Contrast adaptation in striate cortical neurons of the nocturnal primate bush baby,” Visual Neurosci. 10, 1129–1139 (1993).

1992 (7)

D. J. Heeger, “Normalization of cell responses in cat striate cortex,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 181–197 (1992).
[PubMed]

M. M. Hayhoe, M. E. Levin, R. J. Koshel, “Subtractive processes in light adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 323–333 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Wilson, V. P. Ferrara, C. Yo, “Psychophysically motivated model for two-dimensional motion perception,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 79–97 (1992).

N. Graham, D. C. Hood, “Modeling the dynamics of light adaptation: the merging of two traditions,” Vision Res. 32, 1373–1393 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Hess, R. J. Snowden, “Temporal properties of human visual filters: number, shapes, and spatial covariation,” Vision Res. 32, 47–59 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Dacey, M. R. Petersen, “Dendritic field size and morphology of midget and parasol ganglion cells of the human retina,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 9666–9670 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. I. A. MacLeod, D. R. Williams, W. Makous, “A visual nonlinearity fed by single cones,” Vision Res. 32, 347–363 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

L. A. Bauman, A. B. Bonds, “Inhibitory refinement of spatial frequency selectivity in single cells of the cat striate cortex,” Vision Res. 31, 933–944 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Nakatani, T. Tamura, K.-W. Yau, “Light adaptation in retinal rods of the rabbit and two other nonprimate mammals,” J. Gen. Physiol. 97, 413–435 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (8)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Cicerone, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, “The spread of adaptation in human foveal and parafoveal cone vision,” Vision Res. 30, 1603–1615 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Purpura, D. Tranchina, E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, “Light adaptation in the primate retina: analysis of changes in gain and dynamics of monkey retinal ganglion cells,” Visual Neurosci. 4, 75–93 (1990).
[PubMed]

M. A. Finkelstein, M. Harrison, D. C. Hood, “Sites of sensitivity control within a long-wavelength cone pathway,” Vision Res. 30, 1145–1158 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sclar, J. H. R. Maunsell, P. Lennie, “Coding of image contrast in central visual pathways of the macaque monkey,” Vision Res. 30, 1–10 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Donner, D. Copenhagen, T. Reuter, “Weber and noise adaptation in the retina of the toad Bufo marinus,” J. Gen. Physiol. 95, 733–753 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. (London) 437, 681–713 (1990).

M. M. Hayhoe, “Spatial interactions and models of adaptation,” Vision Res. 30, 957–965 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (5)

M. M. Hayhoe, M. V. Smith, “The role of spatial filtering in sensitivity regulation,” Vision Res. 29, 457–469 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Watson, A. J. Ahumada, “A hexagonal orthogonal-oriented pyramid as a model of image representation in visual cortex,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 97–106 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tamura, K. Nakatani, K.-W. Yau, “Light adaptation in cat retinal rods,” Science 245, 755–758 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Chen, W. Makous, “Light capture by human cones,” J. Physiol. (London) 414, 89–109 (1989).

A. B. Saul, M. S. Cynader, “Adaptation in single units in visual cortex: the tuning of aftereffects in the spatial domain,” Visual Neurosci. 2, 593–607 (1989).

1988 (2)

B. G. Cleland, A. W. Freeman, “Visual adaptation is highly localized in the cat’s retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 404, 591–611 (1988).

A. C. C. Coolen, D. van Norren, “Kinetics of human cone photopigments explained with a Rushton–Henry model,” Biol. Cybern. 58, 123–128 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

D. A. Baylor, B. J. Nunn, J. L. Schnapf, “Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. (London) 390, 145–160 (1987).

M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time-course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vision Res. 27, 1981–1996 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

H. R. Wilson, “Responses of spatial mechanisms can explain hyperacuity,” Vision Res. 26, 453–469 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

E. A. Essock, S. Lehmkuhle, J. Frascella, J. M. Enoch, “Temporal modulation of the background affects the sensitization response of X- and Y-cells in the dLGN of cat,” Vision Res. 25, 1007–1019 (1985).
[Crossref]

D. C. Burr, J. Ross, M. C. Morrone, “Local regulation of luminance gain,” Vision Res. 25, 717–727 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (4)

D. G. Albrecht, S. B. Farrar, D. B. Hamilton, “Spatial contrast adaptation characteristics of neurones recorded in the cat’s visual cortex,” J. Physiol. (London) 347, 713–739 (1984).

H. R. Wilson, D. J. Gelb, “Modified line element theory for spatial frequency and width discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 124–131 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Teller, “Linking propositions,” Vision Res. 24, 1233–1246 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Mandler, W. Makous, “A three channel model of temporal frequency perception,” Vision Res. 24, 1881–1887 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (4)

S. L. Buck, W. Makous, T. Piantanida, “Background visibility and increment thresholds,” Vision Res. 23, 1107–1113 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Legge, D. Kersten, “Light and dark bars: contrast discrimination,” Vision Res. 23, 473–483 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. M. Valeton, N. D. van Norren, “Light adaptation of primate cones: an analysis based on extracellular data,” Vision Res. 23, 1539–1547 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Geisler, “Mechanisms of visual sensitivity: backgrounds and early dark adaptation,” Vision Res. 23, 1423–1432 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (3)

C. F. Stromeyer, S. Klein, B. M. Dawson, L. Spillmann, “Low spatial frequency channels in human vision: adaptation and masking,” Vision Res. 22, 225–233 (1982).
[Crossref]

B. J. Nunn, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in retinal rods of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” Nature 299, 726–728 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Adelson, “Saturation and adaptation in the rod system,” Vision Res. 22, 1299–1312 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (2)

W. S. Geisler, “Effects of bleaching and backgrounds on the flash response of the cone system,” J. Physiol. (London) 312, 413–434 (1981).

M. A. Finkelstein, D. C. Hood, “Cone system saturation: more than one stage of sensitivity loss,” Vision Res. 21, 319–328 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (3)

1979 (2)

H. R. Wilson, J. R. Bergen, “A four mechanism model for threshold spatial vision,” Vision Res. 19, 19–32 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Buck, D. R. Peeples, W. L. Makous, “Spatial patterns of rod–cone interaction,” Vision Res. 19, 775–782 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (2)

D. W. Blick, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Rod threshold: influence of neighboring cones,” Vision Res. 18, 1611–1616 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. I. A. MacLeod, “Visual sensitivity,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 29, 369–645 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

M. Latch, P. Lennie, “Rod–cone interaction in light adaptation,” J. Physiol. (London) 269, 517–534 (1977).

1976 (5)

C. J. Karwoski, D. A. Burkhardt, “Ganglion cell responses of the mudpuppy retina to flashing and moving stimuli,” Vision Res. 16, 1483–1495 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. B. Barlow, W. R. Levick, “Threshold setting by the surround of cat retinal ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. (London) 259, 193–208 (1976).

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effect of field size on red–green color mixture equations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. L. Fain, “Sensitivity of toad rods: dependence on wave-length and background illumination,” J. Physiol. (London) 261, 71–101 (1976).

W. Makous, D. Teller, R. Boothe, “Binocular interaction in the dark,” Vision Res. 16, 473–476 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (4)

W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1975).

C. Enroth-Cugell, P. Lennie, “The control of retinal ganglion cell discharge by receptive field surrounds,” J. Physiol. (London) 247, 551–578 (1975).

C. Enroth-Cugell, P. Lennie, R. M. Shapley, “Surround contribution to light adaptation in cat retinal ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. (London) 247, 579–588 (1975).
[PubMed]

E. N. Pugh, “Rhodopsin flash photolysis in man,” J. Physiol. (London) 248, 413–435 (1975).

1974 (4)

F. S. Werblin, “Control of retinal sensitivity. II. Lateral interactions at the outer plexiform layer,” J. Gen. Physiol. 63, 62–87 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Alpern, E. N. Pugh, “The density and photosensitivity of human rhodopsin in the living retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 237, 341–370 (1974).

D. A. Burkhardt, “Sensitization and centre–surround antagonism in Necturus retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 236, 593–610 (1974).

D. A. Baylor, A. L. Hodgkin, T. D. Lamb, “Reconstruction of the electrical responses of turtle cones to flashes and steps of light,” J. Physiol. (London) 242, 759–791 (1974).

1973 (2)

P. Lennie, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Background configuration and rod threshold,” J. Physiol. (London) 233, 143–156 (1973).

J. F. Sturr, D. Y. Teller, “Sensitization by annular surrounds: dichoptic properties,” Vision Res. 13, 909–918 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

R. D. Penn, W. A. Hagins, “Kinetics of the photocurrent of retinal rods,” Biophys. J. 12, 1073–1094 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (7)

M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, J. G. Robson, “Spatial-frequency channels in human vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. I. Markoff, J. F. Sturr, “Spatial and luminance determinants of the increment threshold under monoptic and dichoptic viewing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1530–1537 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Graham, J. Nachmias, “Detection of grating patterns containing two spatial frequencies: a comparison of single-channel and multiple channel models,” Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Nakayama, “Local adaptation in cat LGN cells: evidence for a surround antagonism,” Vision Res. 11, 501–509 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Alpern, F. Maaseidvaag, N. Ohba, “The kinetics of cone visual pigments in man,” Vision Res. 11, 539–549 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 217, 447–471 (1971).

M. Hollins, M. Alpern, “Dark adaptation and visual pigment regeneration in human cones,” J. Gen. Physiol. 62, 430–447 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (2)

J. P. Thomas, “Model of the function of receptive fields in human vision,” Psychol. Rev. 77, 121–134 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, D. N. Whitten, “Visual adaptation in monkey cones: recordings of late receptor potentials,” Science 170, 1423–1425 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (2)

C. Blakemore, F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

B. Sakmann, O. D. Creutzfeldt, H. Scheich, “An experimental comparison between the ganglion cell receptive field and the receptive field of the adaptation pool in the cat retina” Pfluegers Arch. Gesamte Physiol. Menschen Tiere 307, 133–137 (1969).
[Crossref]

1968 (8)

A. Pantle, R. Sekuler, “Size-detecting mechanisms in human vision,” Science 162, 1146–1147 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, “Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).

B. G. Cleland, C. Enroth-Cugell, “Quantitative aspects of sensitivity and summation in the cat retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 198, 17–38 (1968).

D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex,” J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215–243 (1968).

K. T. Brown, “The electroretinogram: its components and their origins,” Vision Res. 8, 633–677 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. B. Barlow, W. R. Levick, “The Purkinje shift in the cat retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 196, 2P–3P (1968).

G. Sperling, M. M. Sondhi, “Model for visual luminance discrimination and flicker detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1133–1145 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. H. Rushton, G. H. Henry, “Bleaching and regeneration of cone pigments in man,” Vision Res. 8, 617–631 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in human cone vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139–154 (1967).

1966 (5)

G. S. Brindley, “The deformation phosphene and the funnelling of light into rods and cones,” J. Physiol. (London) 188, 24–25P (1966).

C. Enroth-Cugell, J. G. Robson, “The contrast sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells of the cat,” J. Physiol. (London) 187, 517–552 (1966).

R. Fox, R. Check, “Binocular fusion: a test of the suppression theory,” Percept. Psychophys. 1, 331–334 (1966).
[Crossref]

K. I. Naka, W. A. H. Rushton, “S-potentials from colour units in the retina of the fish (Cyprinidae),” J. Physiol. (London) 185, 536–555 (1966).

J. G. Robson, “Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity functions of the visual system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141–1142 (1966).
[Crossref]

1965 (6)

K. T. Brown, K. Watanabe, M. Murakami, “The early and late receptor potentials of monkey cones and rods,” Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 457–482 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. H. Rushton, “The sensitivity of rods under illumination,” J. Physiol. (London) 178, 141–160 (1965).

W. A. H. Rushton, “The Ferrier lecture: Visual adaptation,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 162, 20–46 (1965).
[Crossref]

D. Lehman, G. W. Beeler, D. H. Fender, “Changes in patterns of the human electroencephalogram during fluctuations of perception of stabilized images,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 335–343 (1965).

H. B. Barlow, “Optic nerve impulses and Weber’s law,” Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 539–546 (1965).
[Crossref]

G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in the human retina during scotopic vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 881–894 (1965).

1963 (1)

1962 (1)

P. O. Bishop, W. Kozak, G. J. Vakkur, “Some quantitative aspects of the cat’s eye: axis and plane of reference, visual field, co-ordinates and optics,” J. Physiol. (London) 163, 466–502 (1962).

1961 (1)

1959 (1)

W. S. Stiles, “Color vision: the approach through increment-threshold sensitivity,” Physics 45, 100–113 (1959).

1957 (1)

H. B. Barlow, R. Fitzhugh, S. W. Kuffler, “Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat’s retina during dark adaptation,” J. Physiol. (London) 137, 338–354 (1957).

1956 (1)

1954 (1)

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

W. S. Stiles, “Separation of the ‘blue’ and ‘green’ mechanisms of foveal vision by measurements of increment thresholds,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 133, 418–434 (1946).
[Crossref]

1942 (1)

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, M. H. Pirenne, “Energy, quanta, and vision,” J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819–840 (1942).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1940 (1)

B. H. Crawford, “The effect of field size and pattern on the change of visual sensitivity with time,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 129, 94–106 (1940).
[Crossref]

1937 (1)

S. Hecht, C. Haig, A. M. Chase, “The influence of light adaptation on subsequent dark adaptation of the eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831–850 (1937).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1935 (1)

G. Østerberg, “Topography of the layer of rods and cones in the human retina,” Acta Ophthalmol. 13, Suppl. 6, 1–103 (1935).

1933 (1)

W. S. Stiles, B. F. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[Crossref]

1913 (1)

L. Michaelis, M. L. Menten, “Die Kinetik der invertinwirkung,” Biochem. Z. 49, 333–369 (1913).

Adelson, E. H.

E. H. Adelson, “Saturation and adaptation in the rod system,” Vision Res. 22, 1299–1312 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

Ahumada, A. J.

M. P. Eckstein, A. J. Ahumada, A. B. Watson, “Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. II. Effects of contrast gain control, background variations, and white noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2406–2419 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. B. Watson, A. J. Ahumada, “A hexagonal orthogonal-oriented pyramid as a model of image representation in visual cortex,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 97–106 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albrecht, D. G.

D. G. Albrecht, S. B. Farrar, D. B. Hamilton, “Spatial contrast adaptation characteristics of neurones recorded in the cat’s visual cortex,” J. Physiol. (London) 347, 713–739 (1984).

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allison, J. D.

J. D. Allison, V. A. Casagrande, E. J. Debruyn, A. B. Bonds, “Contrast adaptation in striate cortical neurons of the nocturnal primate bush baby,” Visual Neurosci. 10, 1129–1139 (1993).

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, E. N. Pugh, “The density and photosensitivity of human rhodopsin in the living retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 237, 341–370 (1974).

M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 217, 447–471 (1971).

M. Hollins, M. Alpern, “Dark adaptation and visual pigment regeneration in human cones,” J. Gen. Physiol. 62, 430–447 (1971).
[Crossref]

M. Alpern, F. Maaseidvaag, N. Ohba, “The kinetics of cone visual pigments in man,” Vision Res. 11, 539–549 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Applegate, R. A.

Arditi, A.

A. Arditi, “Binocular vision,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Vol. 1, pp. 23-1–23-41.

Armington, J. C.

J. C. Armington, The Electroretinogram (Academic, New York, 1974).

Aulhorn, E.

E. Aulhorn, H. Harms, “Visual perimetry,” in Visual Psychophysics, Vol. VII/4 of Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, New York, 1972), pp. 102–145.

Autrum, H.

H. Autrum, “The physiological basis of colour vision in honeybees,” in Colour Vision, A. V. S. de Reuck, J. Knight, eds. (Little, Brown, Boston, Mass., 1965), pp. 286–300.

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, W. R. Levick, “Threshold setting by the surround of cat retinal ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. (London) 259, 193–208 (1976).

H. B. Barlow, W. R. Levick, “The Purkinje shift in the cat retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 196, 2P–3P (1968).

H. B. Barlow, “Optic nerve impulses and Weber’s law,” Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 539–546 (1965).
[Crossref]

H. B. Barlow, R. Fitzhugh, S. W. Kuffler, “Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat’s retina during dark adaptation,” J. Physiol. (London) 137, 338–354 (1957).

H. B. Barlow, “Retinal noise and absolute threshold,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 634–639 (1956).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baron, W. S.

W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1975).

Barten, P. G. J.

P. G. J. Barten, “Simple model for spatial frequency masking and contrast discrimination,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display VI, B. E. Rogowitz, J. P. Allebach, eds., Proc. SPIE2411, 142–158 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. G. J. Barten, “Physical model for the contrast sensitivity of the human eye,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display III, B. E. Rogowitz, ed., Proc. SPIE1666, 57–72 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bauman, L. A.

L. A. Bauman, A. B. Bonds, “Inhibitory refinement of spatial frequency selectivity in single cells of the cat striate cortex,” Vision Res. 31, 933–944 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baylor, D. A.

J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. (London) 437, 681–713 (1990).

D. A. Baylor, B. J. Nunn, J. L. Schnapf, “Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. (London) 390, 145–160 (1987).

B. J. Nunn, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in retinal rods of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” Nature 299, 726–728 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Baylor, A. L. Hodgkin, T. D. Lamb, “Reconstruction of the electrical responses of turtle cones to flashes and steps of light,” J. Physiol. (London) 242, 759–791 (1974).

Beeler, G. W.

D. Lehman, G. W. Beeler, D. H. Fender, “Changes in patterns of the human electroencephalogram during fluctuations of perception of stabilized images,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 335–343 (1965).

Benimoff, N. I.

M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time-course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vision Res. 27, 1981–1996 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berendschot, T. T. J. M.

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergen, J. R.

H. R. Wilson, J. R. Bergen, “A four mechanism model for threshold spatial vision,” Vision Res. 19, 19–32 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birch, D. G.

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Phototransduction in human cones measured using the a-wave of the ERG,” Vision Res. 35, 2801–2810 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Human cone receptor activity: the leading edge of the a-wave and models of receptor activity,” Visual Neurosci. 10, 857–871 (1993).

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, D. R. Pepperberg, “The trailing edge of the photoresponse from human cones derived using a two-flash ERG paradigm,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 64–67.

Bishop, P. O.

P. O. Bishop, W. Kozak, G. J. Vakkur, “Some quantitative aspects of the cat’s eye: axis and plane of reference, visual field, co-ordinates and optics,” J. Physiol. (London) 163, 466–502 (1962).

Blakemore, C.

C. Blakemore, F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

Blick, D. W.

D. W. Blick, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Rod threshold: influence of neighboring cones,” Vision Res. 18, 1611–1616 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonds, A. B.

J. D. Allison, V. A. Casagrande, E. J. Debruyn, A. B. Bonds, “Contrast adaptation in striate cortical neurons of the nocturnal primate bush baby,” Visual Neurosci. 10, 1129–1139 (1993).

L. A. Bauman, A. B. Bonds, “Inhibitory refinement of spatial frequency selectivity in single cells of the cat striate cortex,” Vision Res. 31, 933–944 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Bonds, “The encoding of cortical contrast gain control,” in Contrast Sensitivity, R. Shapley, D. M.-K. Lam, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1993), pp. 215–230.

Boothe, R.

W. Makous, D. Teller, R. Boothe, “Binocular interaction in the dark,” Vision Res. 16, 473–476 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boynton, R. M.

W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1975).

R. M. Boynton, D. N. Whitten, “Visual adaptation in monkey cones: recordings of late receptor potentials,” Science 170, 1423–1425 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bracewell, R. N.

R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).

Breton, M. E.

M. E. Breton, A. W. Schueller, T. D. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “Analysis of ERG a-wave amplification and kinetics in terms of the G-protein cascade of phototransduction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 295–309 (1994).

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, “The deformation phosphene and the funnelling of light into rods and cones,” J. Physiol. (London) 188, 24–25P (1966).

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md., 1970).

Brown, K. T.

K. T. Brown, “The electroretinogram: its components and their origins,” Vision Res. 8, 633–677 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. T. Brown, K. Watanabe, M. Murakami, “The early and late receptor potentials of monkey cones and rods,” Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 457–482 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, L. G.

M. E. Rudd, L. G. Brown, “Stochastic retinal mechanisms of light adaptation and gain control,” Spatial Vis. 10, 125–148 (1996).
[Crossref]

Buck, S. L.

S. L. Buck, W. Makous, T. Piantanida, “Background visibility and increment thresholds,” Vision Res. 23, 1107–1113 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Buck, D. R. Peeples, W. L. Makous, “Spatial patterns of rod–cone interaction,” Vision Res. 19, 775–782 (1979).
[Crossref]

Burbeck, C. A.

Burkhardt, D. A.

D. A. Burkhardt, “The influence of center-surround antagonism on light adaptation in cones in the retina of the turtle,” Visual Neurosci. 12, 877–885 (1995).
[PubMed]

C. J. Karwoski, D. A. Burkhardt, “Ganglion cell responses of the mudpuppy retina to flashing and moving stimuli,” Vision Res. 16, 1483–1495 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Burkhardt, “Sensitization and centre–surround antagonism in Necturus retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 236, 593–610 (1974).

Burns, S. A.

Burr, D. C.

D. C. Burr, J. Ross, M. C. Morrone, “Local regulation of luminance gain,” Vision Res. 25, 717–727 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, F. W.

C. Blakemore, F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, “Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).

Carney, T.

Q. Hu, S. A. Klein, T. Carney, “Can sinusoidal vernier acuity be predicted by contrast discrimination?” Vision Res. 33, 1241–1258 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casagrande, V. A.

J. D. Allison, V. A. Casagrande, E. J. Debruyn, A. B. Bonds, “Contrast adaptation in striate cortical neurons of the nocturnal primate bush baby,” Visual Neurosci. 10, 1129–1139 (1993).

Chase, A. M.

S. Hecht, C. Haig, A. M. Chase, “The influence of light adaptation on subsequent dark adaptation of the eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831–850 (1937).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chase, V. M.

D. C. Hood, N. Graham, T. E. von Wiegand, V. M. Chase, “Probed-sinewave paradigm: a test of models of light-adaptation dynamics,” Vision Res. 37, 1177–1191 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Check, R.

R. Fox, R. Check, “Binocular fusion: a test of the suppression theory,” Percept. Psychophys. 1, 331–334 (1966).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

B. Chen, W. Makous, D. R. Williams, “Serial spatial filters in vision,” Vision Res. 33, 413–427 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Chen, W. Makous, “Light capture by human cones,” J. Physiol. (London) 414, 89–109 (1989).

Cicerone, C. M.

C. M. Cicerone, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, “The spread of adaptation in human foveal and parafoveal cone vision,” Vision Res. 30, 1603–1615 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cleland, B. G.

B. G. Cleland, A. W. Freeman, “Visual adaptation is highly localized in the cat’s retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 404, 591–611 (1988).

B. G. Cleland, C. Enroth-Cugell, “Quantitative aspects of sensitivity and summation in the cat retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 198, 17–38 (1968).

Coolen, A. C. C.

A. C. C. Coolen, D. van Norren, “Kinetics of human cone photopigments explained with a Rushton–Henry model,” Biol. Cybern. 58, 123–128 (1988).
[Crossref]

Copenhagen, D.

K. Donner, D. Copenhagen, T. Reuter, “Weber and noise adaptation in the retina of the toad Bufo marinus,” J. Gen. Physiol. 95, 733–753 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cornwall, M. C.

G. L. Fain, H. R. Matthews, M. C. Cornwall, “Dark adaptation in vertebrate photoreceptors,” Trends Neurosci. 19, 502–507 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crawford, B. F.

W. S. Stiles, B. F. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[Crossref]

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, “The effect of field size and pattern on the change of visual sensitivity with time,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 129, 94–106 (1940).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “Equivalent adaptation levels in localized retinal areas,” in Mechanisms of Colour Vision: Selected Papers of W. S. Stiles, F. R. S., with a New Introductory Essay, W. S. Stiles, ed. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 36–53.

Creutzfeldt, O. D.

B. Sakmann, O. D. Creutzfeldt, H. Scheich, “An experimental comparison between the ganglion cell receptive field and the receptive field of the adaptation pool in the cat retina” Pfluegers Arch. Gesamte Physiol. Menschen Tiere 307, 133–137 (1969).
[Crossref]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cynader, M. S.

A. B. Saul, M. S. Cynader, “Adaptation in single units in visual cortex: the tuning of aftereffects in the spatial domain,” Visual Neurosci. 2, 593–607 (1989).

Dacey, D. M.

B. B. Lee, D. M. Dacey, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Time course and cone specificity of adaptation in primate outer retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S1163 (1997).

D. M. Dacey, M. R. Petersen, “Dendritic field size and morphology of midget and parasol ganglion cells of the human retina,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 9666–9670 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dawson, B. M.

C. F. Stromeyer, S. Klein, B. M. Dawson, L. Spillmann, “Low spatial frequency channels in human vision: adaptation and masking,” Vision Res. 22, 225–233 (1982).
[Crossref]

Debruyn, E. J.

J. D. Allison, V. A. Casagrande, E. J. Debruyn, A. B. Bonds, “Contrast adaptation in striate cortical neurons of the nocturnal primate bush baby,” Visual Neurosci. 10, 1129–1139 (1993).

Donner, K.

K. Donner, D. Copenhagen, T. Reuter, “Weber and noise adaptation in the retina of the toad Bufo marinus,” J. Gen. Physiol. 95, 733–753 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eckstein, M. P.

Elsner, A. E.

Enoch, J. M.

E. A. Essock, S. Lehmkuhle, J. Frascella, J. M. Enoch, “Temporal modulation of the background affects the sensitization response of X- and Y-cells in the dLGN of cat,” Vision Res. 25, 1007–1019 (1985).
[Crossref]

Enroth-Cugell, C.

C. Enroth-Cugell, P. Lennie, R. M. Shapley, “Surround contribution to light adaptation in cat retinal ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. (London) 247, 579–588 (1975).
[PubMed]

C. Enroth-Cugell, P. Lennie, “The control of retinal ganglion cell discharge by receptive field surrounds,” J. Physiol. (London) 247, 551–578 (1975).

B. G. Cleland, C. Enroth-Cugell, “Quantitative aspects of sensitivity and summation in the cat retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 198, 17–38 (1968).

C. Enroth-Cugell, J. G. Robson, “The contrast sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells of the cat,” J. Physiol. (London) 187, 517–552 (1966).

R. Shapley, C. Enroth-Cugell, “Visual adaptation and retinal gain controls,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. Osborne, G. Chader, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1984), Vol. 3, pp. 263–346.

J. Walraven, C. Enroth-Cugell, D. Hood, D. I. A. MacLeod, J. L. Schnapf, “The control of visual sensitivity: receptoral and postreceptoral processes,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, New York, 1990), pp. 53–101.

Eskew, R. T.

Essock, E. A.

E. A. Essock, S. Lehmkuhle, J. Frascella, J. M. Enoch, “Temporal modulation of the background affects the sensitization response of X- and Y-cells in the dLGN of cat,” Vision Res. 25, 1007–1019 (1985).
[Crossref]

Fain, G. L.

G. L. Fain, H. R. Matthews, M. C. Cornwall, “Dark adaptation in vertebrate photoreceptors,” Trends Neurosci. 19, 502–507 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. L. Fain, “Sensitivity of toad rods: dependence on wave-length and background illumination,” J. Physiol. (London) 261, 71–101 (1976).

Farrar, S. B.

D. G. Albrecht, S. B. Farrar, D. B. Hamilton, “Spatial contrast adaptation characteristics of neurones recorded in the cat’s visual cortex,” J. Physiol. (London) 347, 713–739 (1984).

Fechner, G. T.

G. T. Fechner, Elemente der Psychophysik (Breitkopf und Hertel, Leipzig, 1860).

Fender, D. H.

D. Lehman, G. W. Beeler, D. H. Fender, “Changes in patterns of the human electroencephalogram during fluctuations of perception of stabilized images,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 335–343 (1965).

Ferrara, V. P.

H. R. Wilson, V. P. Ferrara, C. Yo, “Psychophysically motivated model for two-dimensional motion perception,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 79–97 (1992).

Finkelstein, M. A.

M. A. Finkelstein, M. Harrison, D. C. Hood, “Sites of sensitivity control within a long-wavelength cone pathway,” Vision Res. 30, 1145–1158 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Finkelstein, D. C. Hood, “Cone system saturation: more than one stage of sensitivity loss,” Vision Res. 21, 319–328 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, M. A. Finkelstein, “Sensitivity to light,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Vol. 1, pp. 5-1–5-66.

Fitzhugh, R.

H. B. Barlow, R. Fitzhugh, S. W. Kuffler, “Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat’s retina during dark adaptation,” J. Physiol. (London) 137, 338–354 (1957).

Foley, J. M.

Fox, R.

R. Fox, R. Check, “Binocular fusion: a test of the suppression theory,” Percept. Psychophys. 1, 331–334 (1966).
[Crossref]

Frascella, J.

E. A. Essock, S. Lehmkuhle, J. Frascella, J. M. Enoch, “Temporal modulation of the background affects the sensitization response of X- and Y-cells in the dLGN of cat,” Vision Res. 25, 1007–1019 (1985).
[Crossref]

Freeman, A. W.

B. G. Cleland, A. W. Freeman, “Visual adaptation is highly localized in the cat’s retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 404, 591–611 (1988).

Geisler, W. S.

P. T. Kortum, W. S. Geisler, “Adaptation mechanisms in spatial vision. II. Flash thresholds and background adaptation,” Vision Res. 35, 1595–1609 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Geisler, “Mechanisms of visual sensitivity: backgrounds and early dark adaptation,” Vision Res. 23, 1423–1432 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Geisler, “Effects of bleaching and backgrounds on the flash response of the cone system,” J. Physiol. (London) 312, 413–434 (1981).

Gelb, D. J.

Graham, N.

D. C. Hood, N. Graham, T. E. von Wiegand, V. M. Chase, “Probed-sinewave paradigm: a test of models of light-adaptation dynamics,” Vision Res. 37, 1177–1191 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. von Wiegand, D. C. Hood, N. Graham, “Testing a computational model of light-adaptation dynamics,” Vision Res. 35, 3937–3051 (1995).
[Crossref]

N. Graham, D. C. Hood, “Modeling the dynamics of light adaptation: the merging of two traditions,” Vision Res. 32, 1373–1393 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Graham, J. Nachmias, “Detection of grating patterns containing two spatial frequencies: a comparison of single-channel and multiple channel models,” Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graham, N. V. S.

N. V. S. Graham, Visual Pattern Analyzers (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1989).

Hagins, W. A.

R. D. Penn, W. A. Hagins, “Kinetics of the photocurrent of retinal rods,” Biophys. J. 12, 1073–1094 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haig, C.

S. Hecht, C. Haig, A. M. Chase, “The influence of light adaptation on subsequent dark adaptation of the eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831–850 (1937).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamilton, D. B.

D. G. Albrecht, S. B. Farrar, D. B. Hamilton, “Spatial contrast adaptation characteristics of neurones recorded in the cat’s visual cortex,” J. Physiol. (London) 347, 713–739 (1984).

Harms, H.

E. Aulhorn, H. Harms, “Visual perimetry,” in Visual Psychophysics, Vol. VII/4 of Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, New York, 1972), pp. 102–145.

Harrison, M.

M. A. Finkelstein, M. Harrison, D. C. Hood, “Sites of sensitivity control within a long-wavelength cone pathway,” Vision Res. 30, 1145–1158 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayhoe, M. M.

M. M. Hayhoe, M. E. Levin, R. J. Koshel, “Subtractive processes in light adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 323–333 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Cicerone, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, “The spread of adaptation in human foveal and parafoveal cone vision,” Vision Res. 30, 1603–1615 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Hayhoe, “Spatial interactions and models of adaptation,” Vision Res. 30, 957–965 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Hayhoe, M. V. Smith, “The role of spatial filtering in sensitivity regulation,” Vision Res. 29, 457–469 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time-course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vision Res. 27, 1981–1996 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, J.

He, S.

S. He, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Contrast-modulation flicker: dynamics and spatial resolution of the light adaptation process,” Vision Res. (to be published).

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, M. H. Pirenne, “Energy, quanta, and vision,” J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819–840 (1942).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hecht, C. Haig, A. M. Chase, “The influence of light adaptation on subsequent dark adaptation of the eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831–850 (1937).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heeger, D. J.

D. J. Heeger, “Normalization of cell responses in cat striate cortex,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 181–197 (1992).
[PubMed]

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henry, G. H.

W. A. H. Rushton, G. H. Henry, “Bleaching and regeneration of cone pigments in man,” Vision Res. 8, 617–631 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hess, R. F.

S. J. Waugh, R. F. Hess, “Suprathreshold temporal-frequency discrimination in the fovea and the periphery,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1199–1212 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. F. Hess, R. J. Snowden, “Temporal properties of human visual filters: number, shapes, and spatial covariation,” Vision Res. 32, 47–59 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hodgkin, A. L.

D. A. Baylor, A. L. Hodgkin, T. D. Lamb, “Reconstruction of the electrical responses of turtle cones to flashes and steps of light,” J. Physiol. (London) 242, 759–791 (1974).

Hollins, M.

M. Hollins, M. Alpern, “Dark adaptation and visual pigment regeneration in human cones,” J. Gen. Physiol. 62, 430–447 (1971).
[Crossref]

Hood, D.

J. Walraven, C. Enroth-Cugell, D. Hood, D. I. A. MacLeod, J. L. Schnapf, “The control of visual sensitivity: receptoral and postreceptoral processes,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, New York, 1990), pp. 53–101.

Hood, D. C.

D. C. Hood, N. Graham, T. E. von Wiegand, V. M. Chase, “Probed-sinewave paradigm: a test of models of light-adaptation dynamics,” Vision Res. 37, 1177–1191 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. von Wiegand, D. C. Hood, N. Graham, “Testing a computational model of light-adaptation dynamics,” Vision Res. 35, 3937–3051 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Phototransduction in human cones measured using the a-wave of the ERG,” Vision Res. 35, 2801–2810 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Human cone receptor activity: the leading edge of the a-wave and models of receptor activity,” Visual Neurosci. 10, 857–871 (1993).

N. Graham, D. C. Hood, “Modeling the dynamics of light adaptation: the merging of two traditions,” Vision Res. 32, 1373–1393 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Finkelstein, M. Harrison, D. C. Hood, “Sites of sensitivity control within a long-wavelength cone pathway,” Vision Res. 30, 1145–1158 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time-course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vision Res. 27, 1981–1996 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Finkelstein, D. C. Hood, “Cone system saturation: more than one stage of sensitivity loss,” Vision Res. 21, 319–328 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, D. R. Pepperberg, “The trailing edge of the photoresponse from human cones derived using a two-flash ERG paradigm,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 64–67.

D. C. Hood, M. A. Finkelstein, “Sensitivity to light,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Vol. 1, pp. 5-1–5-66.

D. C. Hood, “Retinal control of sensitivity,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. (to be published).

Hu, Q.

Q. Hu, S. A. Klein, T. Carney, “Can sinusoidal vernier acuity be predicted by contrast discrimination?” Vision Res. 33, 1241–1258 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hubel, D. H.

D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex,” J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215–243 (1968).

Humanski, R.

H. R. Wilson, R. Humanski, “Spatial frequency adaptation and contrast gain control,” Vision Res. 33, 1133–1149 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hurley, J. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, R. M.

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, “Basic correlates of the visual stimulus,” in Handbook of Experimental Psychology, S. S. Stevens, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1951), pp. 811–867.

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaplan, E.

K. Purpura, D. Tranchina, E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, “Light adaptation in the primate retina: analysis of changes in gain and dynamics of monkey retinal ganglion cells,” Visual Neurosci. 4, 75–93 (1990).
[PubMed]

Karwoski, C. J.

C. J. Karwoski, L. M. Proenza, “Transient adaptation and sensitization in the retina of Necturus,” J. Gen. Physiol. 76, 479–497 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Karwoski, D. A. Burkhardt, “Ganglion cell responses of the mudpuppy retina to flashing and moving stimuli,” Vision Res. 16, 1483–1495 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, D. H.

Kersten, D.

G. E. Legge, D. Kersten, “Light and dark bars: contrast discrimination,” Vision Res. 23, 473–483 (1983).
[Crossref]

Klein, S.

C. F. Stromeyer, S. Klein, B. M. Dawson, L. Spillmann, “Low spatial frequency channels in human vision: adaptation and masking,” Vision Res. 22, 225–233 (1982).
[Crossref]

Klein, S. A.

Q. Hu, S. A. Klein, T. Carney, “Can sinusoidal vernier acuity be predicted by contrast discrimination?” Vision Res. 33, 1241–1258 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klock, I. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kortum, P. T.

P. T. Kortum, W. S. Geisler, “Adaptation mechanisms in spatial vision. II. Flash thresholds and background adaptation,” Vision Res. 35, 1595–1609 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koshel, R. J.

M. M. Hayhoe, M. E. Levin, R. J. Koshel, “Subtractive processes in light adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 323–333 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozak, W.

P. O. Bishop, W. Kozak, G. J. Vakkur, “Some quantitative aspects of the cat’s eye: axis and plane of reference, visual field, co-ordinates and optics,” J. Physiol. (London) 163, 466–502 (1962).

Kraft, T. W.

T. W. Kraft, D. M. Schneeweis, J. L. Schnapf, “Visual transduction in human rod photoreceptors,” J. Physiol. (London) 464, 747–765 (1993).

Kremers, J.

T. Yeh, B. B. Lee, J. Kremers, “The time course of adaptation in macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 36, 913–931 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, J. Kremers, “Responses to pulses and sinusoids in macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 23, 3081–3096 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kuffler, S. W.

H. B. Barlow, R. Fitzhugh, S. W. Kuffler, “Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat’s retina during dark adaptation,” J. Physiol. (London) 137, 338–354 (1957).

Kulikowski, J. J.

J. J. Kulikowski, “What really limits vision? Conceptual limitations to the assessment of visual function and the role of interacting channels,” in Limits of Vision, J. J. Kulikowski, V. Walsh, I. J. Murray, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1991), Vol. 5, pp. 286–329.

Lakshminarayanan, V.

Lamb, T. D.

M. E. Breton, A. W. Schueller, T. D. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “Analysis of ERG a-wave amplification and kinetics in terms of the G-protein cascade of phototransduction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 295–309 (1994).

D. A. Baylor, A. L. Hodgkin, T. D. Lamb, “Reconstruction of the electrical responses of turtle cones to flashes and steps of light,” J. Physiol. (London) 242, 759–791 (1974).

Latch, M.

M. Latch, P. Lennie, “Rod–cone interaction in light adaptation,” J. Physiol. (London) 269, 517–534 (1977).

Lee, B. B.

B. B. Lee, D. M. Dacey, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Time course and cone specificity of adaptation in primate outer retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S1163 (1997).

T. Yeh, B. B. Lee, J. Kremers, “The time course of adaptation in macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 36, 913–931 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, J. Kremers, “Responses to pulses and sinusoids in macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 23, 3081–3096 (1994).
[Crossref]

Legge, G. E.

G. E. Legge, D. Kersten, “Light and dark bars: contrast discrimination,” Vision Res. 23, 473–483 (1983).
[Crossref]

LeGrand, Y.

Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour and Vision, 2nd ed. (Chapman and Hall, London, 1968).

Lehman, D.

D. Lehman, G. W. Beeler, D. H. Fender, “Changes in patterns of the human electroencephalogram during fluctuations of perception of stabilized images,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 335–343 (1965).

Lehmkuhle, S.

E. A. Essock, S. Lehmkuhle, J. Frascella, J. M. Enoch, “Temporal modulation of the background affects the sensitization response of X- and Y-cells in the dLGN of cat,” Vision Res. 25, 1007–1019 (1985).
[Crossref]

Lennie, P.

G. Sclar, J. H. R. Maunsell, P. Lennie, “Coding of image contrast in central visual pathways of the macaque monkey,” Vision Res. 30, 1–10 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Latch, P. Lennie, “Rod–cone interaction in light adaptation,” J. Physiol. (London) 269, 517–534 (1977).

C. Enroth-Cugell, P. Lennie, R. M. Shapley, “Surround contribution to light adaptation in cat retinal ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. (London) 247, 579–588 (1975).
[PubMed]

C. Enroth-Cugell, P. Lennie, “The control of retinal ganglion cell discharge by receptive field surrounds,” J. Physiol. (London) 247, 551–578 (1975).

P. Lennie, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Background configuration and rod threshold,” J. Physiol. (London) 233, 143–156 (1973).

P. Lennie, “Roles of M and P pathways,” in Contrast Sensitivity, R. Shapley, D. M.-K. Lam, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1993), pp. 201–213.

Lerea, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levi, D. M.

S. J. Waugh, D. M. Levi, “Orientation, masking, and vernier acuity for line targets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2305–2317 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. Yu, D. M. Levi, “Cortical components of the Westheimer function,” Vision Res. (to be published).

Levick, W. R.

H. B. Barlow, W. R. Levick, “Threshold setting by the surround of cat retinal ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. (London) 259, 193–208 (1976).

H. B. Barlow, W. R. Levick, “The Purkinje shift in the cat retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 196, 2P–3P (1968).

Levin, M. E.

M. M. Hayhoe, M. E. Levin, R. J. Koshel, “Subtractive processes in light adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 323–333 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maaseidvaag, F.

M. Alpern, F. Maaseidvaag, N. Ohba, “The kinetics of cone visual pigments in man,” Vision Res. 11, 539–549 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. I. A. MacLeod, D. R. Williams, W. Makous, “A visual nonlinearity fed by single cones,” Vision Res. 32, 347–363 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Cicerone, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, “The spread of adaptation in human foveal and parafoveal cone vision,” Vision Res. 30, 1603–1615 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Blick, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Rod threshold: influence of neighboring cones,” Vision Res. 18, 1611–1616 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. I. A. MacLeod, “Visual sensitivity,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 29, 369–645 (1978).
[Crossref]

P. Lennie, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Background configuration and rod threshold,” J. Physiol. (London) 233, 143–156 (1973).

J. Walraven, C. Enroth-Cugell, D. Hood, D. I. A. MacLeod, J. L. Schnapf, “The control of visual sensitivity: receptoral and postreceptoral processes,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, New York, 1990), pp. 53–101.

S. He, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Contrast-modulation flicker: dynamics and spatial resolution of the light adaptation process,” Vision Res. (to be published).

Makous, W.

A. C. Naiman, W. Makous, “Vernier acuity modeled by one-dimensional Fourier analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (Suppl.) 37, S734 (1996).

J. Yang, X. Qi, W. Makous, “Zero frequency masking and a model of contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 35, 1965–1978 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, W. Makous, “Modeling pedestal experiments with amplitude instead of contrast,” Vision Res. 35, 1979–1989 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, W. Makous, “Spatiotemporal separability in contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 24, 2569–2575 (1994).
[Crossref]

X. Qi, J. Yang, W. Makous, “Further evidence of a third temporal channel,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (Suppl.) 34, 780 (1993).

B. Chen, W. Makous, D. R. Williams, “Serial spatial filters in vision,” Vision Res. 33, 413–427 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. I. A. MacLeod, D. R. Williams, W. Makous, “A visual nonlinearity fed by single cones,” Vision Res. 32, 347–363 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Chen, W. Makous, “Light capture by human cones,” J. Physiol. (London) 414, 89–109 (1989).

M. B. Mandler, W. Makous, “A three channel model of temporal frequency perception,” Vision Res. 24, 1881–1887 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Buck, W. Makous, T. Piantanida, “Background visibility and increment thresholds,” Vision Res. 23, 1107–1113 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Makous, D. Teller, R. Boothe, “Binocular interaction in the dark,” Vision Res. 16, 473–476 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Makous, “Optics,” in Vision Research: a Practical Approach, J. G. Robson, R. H. S. Carpenter, eds. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, to be published).

W. Makous, R. K. Sanders, “Suppressive interactions between fused patterns,” in Visual Psychophysics and Physiology, J. C. Armington, J. Krauskopf, B. R. Wooten, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 167–179.

Makous, W. L.

S. L. Buck, D. R. Peeples, W. L. Makous, “Spatial patterns of rod–cone interaction,” Vision Res. 19, 775–782 (1979).
[Crossref]

Mandler, M. B.

M. B. Mandler, W. Makous, “A three channel model of temporal frequency perception,” Vision Res. 24, 1881–1887 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markoff, J. I.

Marks, L. E.

L. E. Marks, Sensory Processes: The New Psychophysics (Academic, New York, 1974).

Matthews, H. R.

G. L. Fain, H. R. Matthews, M. C. Cornwall, “Dark adaptation in vertebrate photoreceptors,” Trends Neurosci. 19, 502–507 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maunsell, J. H. R.

G. Sclar, J. H. R. Maunsell, P. Lennie, “Coding of image contrast in central visual pathways of the macaque monkey,” Vision Res. 30, 1–10 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meister, M.

J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. (London) 437, 681–713 (1990).

Menten, M. L.

L. Michaelis, M. L. Menten, “Die Kinetik der invertinwirkung,” Biochem. Z. 49, 333–369 (1913).

Michaelis, L.

L. Michaelis, M. L. Menten, “Die Kinetik der invertinwirkung,” Biochem. Z. 49, 333–369 (1913).

Milam, A. H.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morrone, M. C.

D. C. Burr, J. Ross, M. C. Morrone, “Local regulation of luminance gain,” Vision Res. 25, 717–727 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murakami, M.

K. T. Brown, K. Watanabe, M. Murakami, “The early and late receptor potentials of monkey cones and rods,” Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 457–482 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mustonen, J.

J. Rovamo, J. Mustonen, R. Näsänen, “Modelling contrast sensitivity as a function of retinal illuminance and grating area,” Vision Res. 34, 1301–1314 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nachmias, J.

N. Graham, J. Nachmias, “Detection of grating patterns containing two spatial frequencies: a comparison of single-channel and multiple channel models,” Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, J. G. Robson, “Spatial-frequency channels in human vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naiman, A. C.

A. C. Naiman, W. Makous, “Vernier acuity modeled by one-dimensional Fourier analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (Suppl.) 37, S734 (1996).

Naka, K. I.

K. I. Naka, W. A. H. Rushton, “S-potentials from colour units in the retina of the fish (Cyprinidae),” J. Physiol. (London) 185, 536–555 (1966).

Nakatani, K.

K. Nakatani, T. Tamura, K.-W. Yau, “Light adaptation in retinal rods of the rabbit and two other nonprimate mammals,” J. Gen. Physiol. 97, 413–435 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tamura, K. Nakatani, K.-W. Yau, “Light adaptation in cat retinal rods,” Science 245, 755–758 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakayama, K.

K. Nakayama, “Local adaptation in cat LGN cells: evidence for a surround antagonism,” Vision Res. 11, 501–509 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Näsänen, R.

J. Rovamo, J. Mustonen, R. Näsänen, “Modelling contrast sensitivity as a function of retinal illuminance and grating area,” Vision Res. 34, 1301–1314 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nunn, B. J.

J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. (London) 437, 681–713 (1990).

D. A. Baylor, B. J. Nunn, J. L. Schnapf, “Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. (London) 390, 145–160 (1987).

B. J. Nunn, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in retinal rods of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” Nature 299, 726–728 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohba, N.

M. Alpern, F. Maaseidvaag, N. Ohba, “The kinetics of cone visual pigments in man,” Vision Res. 11, 539–549 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olzak, L. A.

Østerberg, G.

G. Østerberg, “Topography of the layer of rods and cones in the human retina,” Acta Ophthalmol. 13, Suppl. 6, 1–103 (1935).

Packer, O. S.

O. S. Packer, D. R. Williams, “The quantum efficiency and directional sensitivity in peripheral primate photoreceptor mosaic,” presented at OSA 1996 Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., October 20–24 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).

Pantle, A.

A. Pantle, R. Sekuler, “Size-detecting mechanisms in human vision,” Science 162, 1146–1147 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peeples, D. R.

S. L. Buck, D. R. Peeples, W. L. Makous, “Spatial patterns of rod–cone interaction,” Vision Res. 19, 775–782 (1979).
[Crossref]

Penn, R. D.

R. D. Penn, W. A. Hagins, “Kinetics of the photocurrent of retinal rods,” Biophys. J. 12, 1073–1094 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pepperberg, D. R.

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, D. R. Pepperberg, “The trailing edge of the photoresponse from human cones derived using a two-flash ERG paradigm,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 64–67.

Petersen, M. R.

D. M. Dacey, M. R. Petersen, “Dendritic field size and morphology of midget and parasol ganglion cells of the human retina,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 9666–9670 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piantanida, T.

S. L. Buck, W. Makous, T. Piantanida, “Background visibility and increment thresholds,” Vision Res. 23, 1107–1113 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pirenne, M. H.

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, M. H. Pirenne, “Energy, quanta, and vision,” J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819–840 (1942).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pokorny, J.

B. B. Lee, D. M. Dacey, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Time course and cone specificity of adaptation in primate outer retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S1163 (1997).

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, J. Kremers, “Responses to pulses and sinusoids in macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 23, 3081–3096 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effect of field size on red–green color mixture equations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proenza, L. M.

C. J. Karwoski, L. M. Proenza, “Transient adaptation and sensitization in the retina of Necturus,” J. Gen. Physiol. 76, 479–497 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pugh, E. N.

M. E. Breton, A. W. Schueller, T. D. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “Analysis of ERG a-wave amplification and kinetics in terms of the G-protein cascade of phototransduction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 295–309 (1994).

E. N. Pugh, “Rhodopsin flash photolysis in man,” J. Physiol. (London) 248, 413–435 (1975).

M. Alpern, E. N. Pugh, “The density and photosensitivity of human rhodopsin in the living retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 237, 341–370 (1974).

D. Y. Teller, E. N. Pugh, “Linking propositions in color vision,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, New York, 1983), pp. 577–589.

Purpura, K.

K. Purpura, D. Tranchina, E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, “Light adaptation in the primate retina: analysis of changes in gain and dynamics of monkey retinal ganglion cells,” Visual Neurosci. 4, 75–93 (1990).
[PubMed]

Qi, X.

J. Yang, X. Qi, W. Makous, “Zero frequency masking and a model of contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 35, 1965–1978 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Qi, J. Yang, W. Makous, “Further evidence of a third temporal channel,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (Suppl.) 34, 780 (1993).

X. Qi, “Spatial summation and antagonism of foveal cone signals at different illuminances on the human retina,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, 1997).

Reuter, T.

K. Donner, D. Copenhagen, T. Reuter, “Weber and noise adaptation in the retina of the toad Bufo marinus,” J. Gen. Physiol. 95, 733–753 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robson, J. G.

M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, J. G. Robson, “Spatial-frequency channels in human vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, “Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).

C. Enroth-Cugell, J. G. Robson, “The contrast sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells of the cat,” J. Physiol. (London) 187, 517–552 (1966).

J. G. Robson, “Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity functions of the visual system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141–1142 (1966).
[Crossref]

Ross, J.

D. C. Burr, J. Ross, M. C. Morrone, “Local regulation of luminance gain,” Vision Res. 25, 717–727 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rovamo, J.

J. Rovamo, J. Mustonen, R. Näsänen, “Modelling contrast sensitivity as a function of retinal illuminance and grating area,” Vision Res. 34, 1301–1314 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudd, M. E.

M. E. Rudd, L. G. Brown, “Stochastic retinal mechanisms of light adaptation and gain control,” Spatial Vis. 10, 125–148 (1996).
[Crossref]

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton, G. H. Henry, “Bleaching and regeneration of cone pigments in man,” Vision Res. 8, 617–631 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. I. Naka, W. A. H. Rushton, “S-potentials from colour units in the retina of the fish (Cyprinidae),” J. Physiol. (London) 185, 536–555 (1966).

W. A. H. Rushton, “The sensitivity of rods under illumination,” J. Physiol. (London) 178, 141–160 (1965).

W. A. H. Rushton, “The Ferrier lecture: Visual adaptation,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 162, 20–46 (1965).
[Crossref]

W. A. H. Rushton, “Increment threshold and dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 104–109 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sachs, M. B.

Sakmann, B.

B. Sakmann, O. D. Creutzfeldt, H. Scheich, “An experimental comparison between the ganglion cell receptive field and the receptive field of the adaptation pool in the cat retina” Pfluegers Arch. Gesamte Physiol. Menschen Tiere 307, 133–137 (1969).
[Crossref]

Sanders, R. K.

W. Makous, R. K. Sanders, “Suppressive interactions between fused patterns,” in Visual Psychophysics and Physiology, J. C. Armington, J. Krauskopf, B. R. Wooten, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 167–179.

Saul, A. B.

A. B. Saul, M. S. Cynader, “Adaptation in single units in visual cortex: the tuning of aftereffects in the spatial domain,” Visual Neurosci. 2, 593–607 (1989).

Scheich, H.

B. Sakmann, O. D. Creutzfeldt, H. Scheich, “An experimental comparison between the ganglion cell receptive field and the receptive field of the adaptation pool in the cat retina” Pfluegers Arch. Gesamte Physiol. Menschen Tiere 307, 133–137 (1969).
[Crossref]

Schnapf, J. L.

T. W. Kraft, D. M. Schneeweis, J. L. Schnapf, “Visual transduction in human rod photoreceptors,” J. Physiol. (London) 464, 747–765 (1993).

J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. (London) 437, 681–713 (1990).

D. A. Baylor, B. J. Nunn, J. L. Schnapf, “Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. (London) 390, 145–160 (1987).

J. Walraven, C. Enroth-Cugell, D. Hood, D. I. A. MacLeod, J. L. Schnapf, “The control of visual sensitivity: receptoral and postreceptoral processes,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, New York, 1990), pp. 53–101.

Schneeweis, D. M.

T. W. Kraft, D. M. Schneeweis, J. L. Schnapf, “Visual transduction in human rod photoreceptors,” J. Physiol. (London) 464, 747–765 (1993).

Schueller, A. W.

M. E. Breton, A. W. Schueller, T. D. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “Analysis of ERG a-wave amplification and kinetics in terms of the G-protein cascade of phototransduction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 295–309 (1994).

Sclar, G.

G. Sclar, J. H. R. Maunsell, P. Lennie, “Coding of image contrast in central visual pathways of the macaque monkey,” Vision Res. 30, 1–10 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sekuler, R.

A. Pantle, R. Sekuler, “Size-detecting mechanisms in human vision,” Science 162, 1146–1147 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapley, R.

R. Shapley, C. Enroth-Cugell, “Visual adaptation and retinal gain controls,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. Osborne, G. Chader, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1984), Vol. 3, pp. 263–346.

Shapley, R. M.

K. Purpura, D. Tranchina, E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, “Light adaptation in the primate retina: analysis of changes in gain and dynamics of monkey retinal ganglion cells,” Visual Neurosci. 4, 75–93 (1990).
[PubMed]

C. Enroth-Cugell, P. Lennie, R. M. Shapley, “Surround contribution to light adaptation in cat retinal ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. (London) 247, 579–588 (1975).
[PubMed]

Shlaer, S.

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, M. H. Pirenne, “Energy, quanta, and vision,” J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819–840 (1942).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, M. V.

M. M. Hayhoe, M. V. Smith, “The role of spatial filtering in sensitivity regulation,” Vision Res. 29, 457–469 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

B. B. Lee, D. M. Dacey, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Time course and cone specificity of adaptation in primate outer retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S1163 (1997).

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, J. Kremers, “Responses to pulses and sinusoids in macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 23, 3081–3096 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effect of field size on red–green color mixture equations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snowden, R. J.

R. J. Snowden, “Adaptability of the visual system is inversely related to its sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 25–32 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. F. Hess, R. J. Snowden, “Temporal properties of human visual filters: number, shapes, and spatial covariation,” Vision Res. 32, 47–59 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solomon, J. A.

Sondhi, M. M.

Sperling, G.

Spillmann, L.

C. F. Stromeyer, S. Klein, B. M. Dawson, L. Spillmann, “Low spatial frequency channels in human vision: adaptation and masking,” Vision Res. 22, 225–233 (1982).
[Crossref]

Stiles, W.

G. Wyszecki, W. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, “Color vision: the approach through increment-threshold sensitivity,” Physics 45, 100–113 (1959).

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, “Separation of the ‘blue’ and ‘green’ mechanisms of foveal vision by measurements of increment thresholds,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 133, 418–434 (1946).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, B. F. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[Crossref]

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “Equivalent adaptation levels in localized retinal areas,” in Mechanisms of Colour Vision: Selected Papers of W. S. Stiles, F. R. S., with a New Introductory Essay, W. S. Stiles, ed. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 36–53.

Stromeyer, C. F.

C. F. Stromeyer, S. Klein, B. M. Dawson, L. Spillmann, “Low spatial frequency channels in human vision: adaptation and masking,” Vision Res. 22, 225–233 (1982).
[Crossref]

Sturr, J. F.

Tamura, T.

K. Nakatani, T. Tamura, K.-W. Yau, “Light adaptation in retinal rods of the rabbit and two other nonprimate mammals,” J. Gen. Physiol. 97, 413–435 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tamura, K. Nakatani, K.-W. Yau, “Light adaptation in cat retinal rods,” Science 245, 755–758 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teller, D.

W. Makous, D. Teller, R. Boothe, “Binocular interaction in the dark,” Vision Res. 16, 473–476 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teller, D. Y.

D. Y. Teller, “Linking propositions,” Vision Res. 24, 1233–1246 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Sturr, D. Y. Teller, “Sensitization by annular surrounds: dichoptic properties,” Vision Res. 13, 909–918 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Teller, E. N. Pugh, “Linking propositions in color vision,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, New York, 1983), pp. 577–589.

D. Y. Teller, “The domain of visual science,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, New York, 1990), pp. 11–21.

D. Y. Teller, “Locus questions in visual science,” in Visual Coding and Adaptability, C. S. Harris, ed. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1980), pp. 151–176.

Thomas, J. P.

J. P. Thomas, L. A. Olzak, “Contrast gain control and fine spatial discriminations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2392–2405 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. P. Thomas, “Model of the function of receptive fields in human vision,” Psychol. Rev. 77, 121–134 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tranchina, D.

K. Purpura, D. Tranchina, E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, “Light adaptation in the primate retina: analysis of changes in gain and dynamics of monkey retinal ganglion cells,” Visual Neurosci. 4, 75–93 (1990).
[PubMed]

Tulunay-Keesey, U.

Vakkur, G. J.

P. O. Bishop, W. Kozak, G. J. Vakkur, “Some quantitative aspects of the cat’s eye: axis and plane of reference, visual field, co-ordinates and optics,” J. Physiol. (London) 163, 466–502 (1962).

Valeton, J. M.

J. M. Valeton, N. D. van Norren, “Light adaptation of primate cones: an analysis based on extracellular data,” Vision Res. 23, 1539–1547 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van de Kraats, J.

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Norren, D.

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. C. Coolen, D. van Norren, “Kinetics of human cone photopigments explained with a Rushton–Henry model,” Biol. Cybern. 58, 123–128 (1988).
[Crossref]

van Norren, N. D.

J. M. Valeton, N. D. van Norren, “Light adaptation of primate cones: an analysis based on extracellular data,” Vision Res. 23, 1539–1547 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Trees, H. L.

H. L. Van Trees, Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory. Part I. Detection, Estimation, and Linear Modulation Theory (Wiley, New York, 1968).

von Wiegand, T. E.

D. C. Hood, N. Graham, T. E. von Wiegand, V. M. Chase, “Probed-sinewave paradigm: a test of models of light-adaptation dynamics,” Vision Res. 37, 1177–1191 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. von Wiegand, D. C. Hood, N. Graham, “Testing a computational model of light-adaptation dynamics,” Vision Res. 35, 3937–3051 (1995).
[Crossref]

Walraven, J.

J. Walraven, C. Enroth-Cugell, D. Hood, D. I. A. MacLeod, J. L. Schnapf, “The control of visual sensitivity: receptoral and postreceptoral processes,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, New York, 1990), pp. 53–101.

Watanabe, K.

K. T. Brown, K. Watanabe, M. Murakami, “The early and late receptor potentials of monkey cones and rods,” Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 457–482 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, A. B.

M. P. Eckstein, A. J. Ahumada, A. B. Watson, “Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. II. Effects of contrast gain control, background variations, and white noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2406–2419 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. B. Watson, J. A. Solomon, “A model of visual contrast gain control and pattern masking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2379–2391 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. B. Watson, A. J. Ahumada, “A hexagonal orthogonal-oriented pyramid as a model of image representation in visual cortex,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 97–106 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Vol. 1, pp. 6-1–6-43.

Waugh, S. J.

Werblin, F. S.

F. S. Werblin, “Control of retinal sensitivity. II. Lateral interactions at the outer plexiform layer,” J. Gen. Physiol. 63, 62–87 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in human cone vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139–154 (1967).

G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in the human retina during scotopic vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 881–894 (1965).

Whitten, D. N.

R. M. Boynton, D. N. Whitten, “Visual adaptation in monkey cones: recordings of late receptor potentials,” Science 170, 1423–1425 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiesel, T. N.

D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex,” J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215–243 (1968).

Williams, D. R.

B. Chen, W. Makous, D. R. Williams, “Serial spatial filters in vision,” Vision Res. 33, 413–427 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. I. A. MacLeod, D. R. Williams, W. Makous, “A visual nonlinearity fed by single cones,” Vision Res. 32, 347–363 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. S. Packer, D. R. Williams, “The quantum efficiency and directional sensitivity in peripheral primate photoreceptor mosaic,” presented at OSA 1996 Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., October 20–24 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).

Wilson, H. R.

H. R. Wilson, R. Humanski, “Spatial frequency adaptation and contrast gain control,” Vision Res. 33, 1133–1149 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Wilson, V. P. Ferrara, C. Yo, “Psychophysically motivated model for two-dimensional motion perception,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 79–97 (1992).

H. R. Wilson, “Responses of spatial mechanisms can explain hyperacuity,” Vision Res. 26, 453–469 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Wilson, D. J. Gelb, “Modified line element theory for spatial frequency and width discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 124–131 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Wilson, J. R. Bergen, “A four mechanism model for threshold spatial vision,” Vision Res. 19, 19–32 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, S.

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).

G. Wyszecki, W. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Yang, J.

J. Yang, X. Qi, W. Makous, “Zero frequency masking and a model of contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 35, 1965–1978 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, W. Makous, “Modeling pedestal experiments with amplitude instead of contrast,” Vision Res. 35, 1979–1989 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, W. Makous, “Spatiotemporal separability in contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 24, 2569–2575 (1994).
[Crossref]

X. Qi, J. Yang, W. Makous, “Further evidence of a third temporal channel,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (Suppl.) 34, 780 (1993).

Yau, K.-W.

K. Nakatani, T. Tamura, K.-W. Yau, “Light adaptation in retinal rods of the rabbit and two other nonprimate mammals,” J. Gen. Physiol. 97, 413–435 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tamura, K. Nakatani, K.-W. Yau, “Light adaptation in cat retinal rods,” Science 245, 755–758 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, T.

T. Yeh, B. B. Lee, J. Kremers, “The time course of adaptation in macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 36, 913–931 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yo, C.

H. R. Wilson, V. P. Ferrara, C. Yo, “Psychophysically motivated model for two-dimensional motion perception,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 79–97 (1992).

Yu, C.

C. Yu, D. M. Levi, “Cortical components of the Westheimer function,” Vision Res. (to be published).

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

G. Østerberg, “Topography of the layer of rods and cones in the human retina,” Acta Ophthalmol. 13, Suppl. 6, 1–103 (1935).

Annu. Rev. Psychol. (1)

D. I. A. MacLeod, “Visual sensitivity,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 29, 369–645 (1978).
[Crossref]

Biochem. Z. (1)

L. Michaelis, M. L. Menten, “Die Kinetik der invertinwirkung,” Biochem. Z. 49, 333–369 (1913).

Biol. Cybern. (1)

A. C. C. Coolen, D. van Norren, “Kinetics of human cone photopigments explained with a Rushton–Henry model,” Biol. Cybern. 58, 123–128 (1988).
[Crossref]

Biophys. J. (1)

R. D. Penn, W. A. Hagins, “Kinetics of the photocurrent of retinal rods,” Biophys. J. 12, 1073–1094 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. (2)

H. B. Barlow, “Optic nerve impulses and Weber’s law,” Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 539–546 (1965).
[Crossref]

K. T. Brown, K. Watanabe, M. Murakami, “The early and late receptor potentials of monkey cones and rods,” Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 457–482 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. (1)

D. Lehman, G. W. Beeler, D. H. Fender, “Changes in patterns of the human electroencephalogram during fluctuations of perception of stabilized images,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 335–343 (1965).

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

A. B. Watson, A. J. Ahumada, “A hexagonal orthogonal-oriented pyramid as a model of image representation in visual cortex,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 97–106 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

M. E. Breton, A. W. Schueller, T. D. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “Analysis of ERG a-wave amplification and kinetics in terms of the G-protein cascade of phototransduction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 295–309 (1994).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (Suppl.) (2)

X. Qi, J. Yang, W. Makous, “Further evidence of a third temporal channel,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (Suppl.) 34, 780 (1993).

A. C. Naiman, W. Makous, “Vernier acuity modeled by one-dimensional Fourier analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (Suppl.) 37, S734 (1996).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. (1)

B. B. Lee, D. M. Dacey, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Time course and cone specificity of adaptation in primate outer retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S1163 (1997).

J. Comp. Neurol. (2)

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gen. Physiol. (7)

M. Hollins, M. Alpern, “Dark adaptation and visual pigment regeneration in human cones,” J. Gen. Physiol. 62, 430–447 (1971).
[Crossref]

F. S. Werblin, “Control of retinal sensitivity. II. Lateral interactions at the outer plexiform layer,” J. Gen. Physiol. 63, 62–87 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Donner, D. Copenhagen, T. Reuter, “Weber and noise adaptation in the retina of the toad Bufo marinus,” J. Gen. Physiol. 95, 733–753 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Karwoski, L. M. Proenza, “Transient adaptation and sensitization in the retina of Necturus,” J. Gen. Physiol. 76, 479–497 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hecht, C. Haig, A. M. Chase, “The influence of light adaptation on subsequent dark adaptation of the eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831–850 (1937).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, M. H. Pirenne, “Energy, quanta, and vision,” J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819–840 (1942).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Nakatani, T. Tamura, K.-W. Yau, “Light adaptation in retinal rods of the rabbit and two other nonprimate mammals,” J. Gen. Physiol. 97, 413–435 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (10)

R. M. Jones, U. Tulunay-Keesey, “Phase selectivity of spatial frequency channels,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 66–70 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, J. G. Robson, “Spatial-frequency channels in human vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. I. Markoff, J. F. Sturr, “Spatial and luminance determinants of the increment threshold under monoptic and dichoptic viewing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1530–1537 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. H. Rushton, “Increment threshold and dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 104–109 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sperling, M. M. Sondhi, “Model for visual luminance discrimination and flicker detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1133–1145 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kelly, “Visual responses to time-dependent stimuli. I. Amplitude sensitivity measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 422–428 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. B. Barlow, “Retinal noise and absolute threshold,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 634–639 (1956).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effect of field size on red–green color mixture equations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Burbeck, D. H. Kelly, “Spatiotemporal characteristics of visual mechanisms: excitatory–inhibitory model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1121–1126 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Robson, “Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity functions of the visual system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141–1142 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (10)

S. J. Waugh, R. F. Hess, “Suprathreshold temporal-frequency discrimination in the fovea and the periphery,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1199–1212 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. Wu, S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, R. T. Eskew, J. He, “Rapid sensitivity changes on flickering backgrounds: tests of models of light adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2367–2378 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. A. Applegate, V. Lakshminarayanan, “Parametric representation of Stiles–Crawford functions: normal variation of peak location and directionality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1611–1623 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Waugh, D. M. Levi, “Orientation, masking, and vernier acuity for line targets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2305–2317 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. P. Thomas, L. A. Olzak, “Contrast gain control and fine spatial discriminations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2392–2405 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. M. Foley, “Human luminance pattern-vision mechanisms: masking experiments require a new model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1710–1719 (1994).
[Crossref]

H. R. Wilson, D. J. Gelb, “Modified line element theory for spatial frequency and width discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 124–131 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Snowden, “Adaptability of the visual system is inversely related to its sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 25–32 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. B. Watson, J. A. Solomon, “A model of visual contrast gain control and pattern masking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2379–2391 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. P. Eckstein, A. J. Ahumada, A. B. Watson, “Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. II. Effects of contrast gain control, background variations, and white noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2406–2419 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Physiol. (London) (31)

B. Chen, W. Makous, “Light capture by human cones,” J. Physiol. (London) 414, 89–109 (1989).

D. G. Albrecht, S. B. Farrar, D. B. Hamilton, “Spatial contrast adaptation characteristics of neurones recorded in the cat’s visual cortex,” J. Physiol. (London) 347, 713–739 (1984).

H. B. Barlow, W. R. Levick, “The Purkinje shift in the cat retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 196, 2P–3P (1968).

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, “Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).

C. Enroth-Cugell, J. G. Robson, “The contrast sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells of the cat,” J. Physiol. (London) 187, 517–552 (1966).

C. Blakemore, F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

D. A. Baylor, B. J. Nunn, J. L. Schnapf, “Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. (London) 390, 145–160 (1987).

D. A. Burkhardt, “Sensitization and centre–surround antagonism in Necturus retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 236, 593–610 (1974).

C. Enroth-Cugell, P. Lennie, R. M. Shapley, “Surround contribution to light adaptation in cat retinal ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. (London) 247, 579–588 (1975).
[PubMed]

H. B. Barlow, W. R. Levick, “Threshold setting by the surround of cat retinal ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. (London) 259, 193–208 (1976).

B. G. Cleland, A. W. Freeman, “Visual adaptation is highly localized in the cat’s retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 404, 591–611 (1988).

D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex,” J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215–243 (1968).

G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in the human retina during scotopic vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 881–894 (1965).

G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in human cone vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139–154 (1967).

P. Lennie, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Background configuration and rod threshold,” J. Physiol. (London) 233, 143–156 (1973).

M. Latch, P. Lennie, “Rod–cone interaction in light adaptation,” J. Physiol. (London) 269, 517–534 (1977).

E. N. Pugh, “Rhodopsin flash photolysis in man,” J. Physiol. (London) 248, 413–435 (1975).

T. W. Kraft, D. M. Schneeweis, J. L. Schnapf, “Visual transduction in human rod photoreceptors,” J. Physiol. (London) 464, 747–765 (1993).

G. S. Brindley, “The deformation phosphene and the funnelling of light into rods and cones,” J. Physiol. (London) 188, 24–25P (1966).

M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 217, 447–471 (1971).

M. Alpern, E. N. Pugh, “The density and photosensitivity of human rhodopsin in the living retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 237, 341–370 (1974).

K. I. Naka, W. A. H. Rushton, “S-potentials from colour units in the retina of the fish (Cyprinidae),” J. Physiol. (London) 185, 536–555 (1966).

D. A. Baylor, A. L. Hodgkin, T. D. Lamb, “Reconstruction of the electrical responses of turtle cones to flashes and steps of light,” J. Physiol. (London) 242, 759–791 (1974).

B. G. Cleland, C. Enroth-Cugell, “Quantitative aspects of sensitivity and summation in the cat retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 198, 17–38 (1968).

C. Enroth-Cugell, P. Lennie, “The control of retinal ganglion cell discharge by receptive field surrounds,” J. Physiol. (London) 247, 551–578 (1975).

H. B. Barlow, R. Fitzhugh, S. W. Kuffler, “Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat’s retina during dark adaptation,” J. Physiol. (London) 137, 338–354 (1957).

P. O. Bishop, W. Kozak, G. J. Vakkur, “Some quantitative aspects of the cat’s eye: axis and plane of reference, visual field, co-ordinates and optics,” J. Physiol. (London) 163, 466–502 (1962).

J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. (London) 437, 681–713 (1990).

G. L. Fain, “Sensitivity of toad rods: dependence on wave-length and background illumination,” J. Physiol. (London) 261, 71–101 (1976).

W. S. Geisler, “Effects of bleaching and backgrounds on the flash response of the cone system,” J. Physiol. (London) 312, 413–434 (1981).

W. A. H. Rushton, “The sensitivity of rods under illumination,” J. Physiol. (London) 178, 141–160 (1965).

Nature (1)

B. J. Nunn, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in retinal rods of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” Nature 299, 726–728 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Acta (1)

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

R. Fox, R. Check, “Binocular fusion: a test of the suppression theory,” Percept. Psychophys. 1, 331–334 (1966).
[Crossref]

Pfluegers Arch. Gesamte Physiol. Menschen Tiere (1)

B. Sakmann, O. D. Creutzfeldt, H. Scheich, “An experimental comparison between the ganglion cell receptive field and the receptive field of the adaptation pool in the cat retina” Pfluegers Arch. Gesamte Physiol. Menschen Tiere 307, 133–137 (1969).
[Crossref]

Physics (1)

W. S. Stiles, “Color vision: the approach through increment-threshold sensitivity,” Physics 45, 100–113 (1959).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

D. M. Dacey, M. R. Petersen, “Dendritic field size and morphology of midget and parasol ganglion cells of the human retina,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 9666–9670 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B (4)

B. H. Crawford, “The effect of field size and pattern on the change of visual sensitivity with time,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 129, 94–106 (1940).
[Crossref]

W. A. H. Rushton, “The Ferrier lecture: Visual adaptation,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 162, 20–46 (1965).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, B. F. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, “Separation of the ‘blue’ and ‘green’ mechanisms of foveal vision by measurements of increment thresholds,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 133, 418–434 (1946).
[Crossref]

Psychol. Rev. (1)

J. P. Thomas, “Model of the function of receptive fields in human vision,” Psychol. Rev. 77, 121–134 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

A. Pantle, R. Sekuler, “Size-detecting mechanisms in human vision,” Science 162, 1146–1147 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tamura, K. Nakatani, K.-W. Yau, “Light adaptation in cat retinal rods,” Science 245, 755–758 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, D. N. Whitten, “Visual adaptation in monkey cones: recordings of late receptor potentials,” Science 170, 1423–1425 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spatial Vis. (1)

M. E. Rudd, L. G. Brown, “Stochastic retinal mechanisms of light adaptation and gain control,” Spatial Vis. 10, 125–148 (1996).
[Crossref]

Trends Neurosci. (1)

G. L. Fain, H. R. Matthews, M. C. Cornwall, “Dark adaptation in vertebrate photoreceptors,” Trends Neurosci. 19, 502–507 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (49)

P. T. Kortum, W. S. Geisler, “Adaptation mechanisms in spatial vision. II. Flash thresholds and background adaptation,” Vision Res. 35, 1595–1609 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Hayhoe, M. E. Levin, R. J. Koshel, “Subtractive processes in light adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 323–333 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Finkelstein, M. Harrison, D. C. Hood, “Sites of sensitivity control within a long-wavelength cone pathway,” Vision Res. 30, 1145–1158 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sclar, J. H. R. Maunsell, P. Lennie, “Coding of image contrast in central visual pathways of the macaque monkey,” Vision Res. 30, 1–10 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Burr, J. Ross, M. C. Morrone, “Local regulation of luminance gain,” Vision Res. 25, 717–727 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Cicerone, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, “The spread of adaptation in human foveal and parafoveal cone vision,” Vision Res. 30, 1603–1615 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Adelson, “Saturation and adaptation in the rod system,” Vision Res. 22, 1299–1312 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time-course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vision Res. 27, 1981–1996 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Geisler, “Mechanisms of visual sensitivity: backgrounds and early dark adaptation,” Vision Res. 23, 1423–1432 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Phototransduction in human cones measured using the a-wave of the ERG,” Vision Res. 35, 2801–2810 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yeh, B. B. Lee, J. Kremers, “The time course of adaptation in macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 36, 913–931 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Alpern, F. Maaseidvaag, N. Ohba, “The kinetics of cone visual pigments in man,” Vision Res. 11, 539–549 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. H. Rushton, G. H. Henry, “Bleaching and regeneration of cone pigments in man,” Vision Res. 8, 617–631 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, N. Graham, T. E. von Wiegand, V. M. Chase, “Probed-sinewave paradigm: a test of models of light-adaptation dynamics,” Vision Res. 37, 1177–1191 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. von Wiegand, D. C. Hood, N. Graham, “Testing a computational model of light-adaptation dynamics,” Vision Res. 35, 3937–3051 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. F. Hess, R. J. Snowden, “Temporal properties of human visual filters: number, shapes, and spatial covariation,” Vision Res. 32, 47–59 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Wilson, “Responses of spatial mechanisms can explain hyperacuity,” Vision Res. 26, 453–469 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Mandler, W. Makous, “A three channel model of temporal frequency perception,” Vision Res. 24, 1881–1887 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, W. Makous, “Spatiotemporal separability in contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 24, 2569–2575 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Buck, D. R. Peeples, W. L. Makous, “Spatial patterns of rod–cone interaction,” Vision Res. 19, 775–782 (1979).
[Crossref]

N. Graham, J. Nachmias, “Detection of grating patterns containing two spatial frequencies: a comparison of single-channel and multiple channel models,” Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Hu, S. A. Klein, T. Carney, “Can sinusoidal vernier acuity be predicted by contrast discrimination?” Vision Res. 33, 1241–1258 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, X. Qi, W. Makous, “Zero frequency masking and a model of contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 35, 1965–1978 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, W. Makous, “Modeling pedestal experiments with amplitude instead of contrast,” Vision Res. 35, 1979–1989 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Graham, D. C. Hood, “Modeling the dynamics of light adaptation: the merging of two traditions,” Vision Res. 32, 1373–1393 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Wilson, J. R. Bergen, “A four mechanism model for threshold spatial vision,” Vision Res. 19, 19–32 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rovamo, J. Mustonen, R. Näsänen, “Modelling contrast sensitivity as a function of retinal illuminance and grating area,” Vision Res. 34, 1301–1314 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Teller, “Linking propositions,” Vision Res. 24, 1233–1246 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Sturr, D. Y. Teller, “Sensitization by annular surrounds: dichoptic properties,” Vision Res. 13, 909–918 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Hayhoe, M. V. Smith, “The role of spatial filtering in sensitivity regulation,” Vision Res. 29, 457–469 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Hayhoe, “Spatial interactions and models of adaptation,” Vision Res. 30, 957–965 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Wilson, R. Humanski, “Spatial frequency adaptation and contrast gain control,” Vision Res. 33, 1133–1149 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Blick, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Rod threshold: influence of neighboring cones,” Vision Res. 18, 1611–1616 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Bauman, A. B. Bonds, “Inhibitory refinement of spatial frequency selectivity in single cells of the cat striate cortex,” Vision Res. 31, 933–944 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Buck, W. Makous, T. Piantanida, “Background visibility and increment thresholds,” Vision Res. 23, 1107–1113 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. I. A. MacLeod, D. R. Williams, W. Makous, “A visual nonlinearity fed by single cones,” Vision Res. 32, 347–363 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Chen, W. Makous, D. R. Williams, “Serial spatial filters in vision,” Vision Res. 33, 413–427 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Essock, S. Lehmkuhle, J. Frascella, J. M. Enoch, “Temporal modulation of the background affects the sensitization response of X- and Y-cells in the dLGN of cat,” Vision Res. 25, 1007–1019 (1985).
[Crossref]

K. Nakayama, “Local adaptation in cat LGN cells: evidence for a surround antagonism,” Vision Res. 11, 501–509 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Karwoski, D. A. Burkhardt, “Ganglion cell responses of the mudpuppy retina to flashing and moving stimuli,” Vision Res. 16, 1483–1495 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Stromeyer, S. Klein, B. M. Dawson, L. Spillmann, “Low spatial frequency channels in human vision: adaptation and masking,” Vision Res. 22, 225–233 (1982).
[Crossref]

W. Makous, D. Teller, R. Boothe, “Binocular interaction in the dark,” Vision Res. 16, 473–476 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Finkelstein, D. C. Hood, “Cone system saturation: more than one stage of sensitivity loss,” Vision Res. 21, 319–328 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Legge, D. Kersten, “Light and dark bars: contrast discrimination,” Vision Res. 23, 473–483 (1983).
[Crossref]

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, J. Kremers, “Responses to pulses and sinusoids in macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 23, 3081–3096 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. T. Brown, “The electroretinogram: its components and their origins,” Vision Res. 8, 633–677 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1975).

J. M. Valeton, N. D. van Norren, “Light adaptation of primate cones: an analysis based on extracellular data,” Vision Res. 23, 1539–1547 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Visual Neurosci. (7)

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Human cone receptor activity: the leading edge of the a-wave and models of receptor activity,” Visual Neurosci. 10, 857–871 (1993).

A. B. Saul, M. S. Cynader, “Adaptation in single units in visual cortex: the tuning of aftereffects in the spatial domain,” Visual Neurosci. 2, 593–607 (1989).

D. J. Heeger, “Normalization of cell responses in cat striate cortex,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 181–197 (1992).
[PubMed]

J. D. Allison, V. A. Casagrande, E. J. Debruyn, A. B. Bonds, “Contrast adaptation in striate cortical neurons of the nocturnal primate bush baby,” Visual Neurosci. 10, 1129–1139 (1993).

D. A. Burkhardt, “The influence of center-surround antagonism on light adaptation in cones in the retina of the turtle,” Visual Neurosci. 12, 877–885 (1995).
[PubMed]

H. R. Wilson, V. P. Ferrara, C. Yo, “Psychophysically motivated model for two-dimensional motion perception,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 79–97 (1992).

K. Purpura, D. Tranchina, E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, “Light adaptation in the primate retina: analysis of changes in gain and dynamics of monkey retinal ganglion cells,” Visual Neurosci. 4, 75–93 (1990).
[PubMed]

Other (37)

D. B. Judd, “Basic correlates of the visual stimulus,” in Handbook of Experimental Psychology, S. S. Stevens, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1951), pp. 811–867.

Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour and Vision, 2nd ed. (Chapman and Hall, London, 1968).

O. S. Packer, D. R. Williams, “The quantum efficiency and directional sensitivity in peripheral primate photoreceptor mosaic,” presented at OSA 1996 Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., October 20–24 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).

G. Wyszecki, W. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

D. H. Kelly, “Flicker,” in Visual Psychophysics, Vol. VII/4 of Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson, L. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, New York, 1972), pp. 273–302.

E. Aulhorn, H. Harms, “Visual perimetry,” in Visual Psychophysics, Vol. VII/4 of Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, New York, 1972), pp. 102–145.

A. Arditi, “Binocular vision,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Vol. 1, pp. 23-1–23-41.

W. Makous, R. K. Sanders, “Suppressive interactions between fused patterns,” in Visual Psychophysics and Physiology, J. C. Armington, J. Krauskopf, B. R. Wooten, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 167–179.

C. Yu, D. M. Levi, “Cortical components of the Westheimer function,” Vision Res. (to be published).

A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Vol. 1, pp. 6-1–6-43.

S. He, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Contrast-modulation flicker: dynamics and spatial resolution of the light adaptation process,” Vision Res. (to be published).

X. Qi, “Spatial summation and antagonism of foveal cone signals at different illuminances on the human retina,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, 1997).

R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).

D. Y. Teller, E. N. Pugh, “Linking propositions in color vision,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, New York, 1983), pp. 577–589.

D. Y. Teller, “The domain of visual science,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, New York, 1990), pp. 11–21.

L. E. Marks, Sensory Processes: The New Psychophysics (Academic, New York, 1974).

H. L. Van Trees, Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory. Part I. Detection, Estimation, and Linear Modulation Theory (Wiley, New York, 1968).

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md., 1970).

D. Y. Teller, “Locus questions in visual science,” in Visual Coding and Adaptability, C. S. Harris, ed. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1980), pp. 151–176.

J. C. Armington, The Electroretinogram (Academic, New York, 1974).

H. Autrum, “The physiological basis of colour vision in honeybees,” in Colour Vision, A. V. S. de Reuck, J. Knight, eds. (Little, Brown, Boston, Mass., 1965), pp. 286–300.

N. V. S. Graham, Visual Pattern Analyzers (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1989).

R. Shapley, C. Enroth-Cugell, “Visual adaptation and retinal gain controls,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. Osborne, G. Chader, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1984), Vol. 3, pp. 263–346.

D. C. Hood, M. A. Finkelstein, “Sensitivity to light,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Vol. 1, pp. 5-1–5-66.

J. Walraven, C. Enroth-Cugell, D. Hood, D. I. A. MacLeod, J. L. Schnapf, “The control of visual sensitivity: receptoral and postreceptoral processes,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, New York, 1990), pp. 53–101.

D. C. Hood, “Retinal control of sensitivity,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. (to be published).

P. G. J. Barten, “Simple model for spatial frequency masking and contrast discrimination,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display VI, B. E. Rogowitz, J. P. Allebach, eds., Proc. SPIE2411, 142–158 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. G. J. Barten, “Physical model for the contrast sensitivity of the human eye,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display III, B. E. Rogowitz, ed., Proc. SPIE1666, 57–72 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. B. Bonds, “The encoding of cortical contrast gain control,” in Contrast Sensitivity, R. Shapley, D. M.-K. Lam, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1993), pp. 215–230.

G. T. Fechner, Elemente der Psychophysik (Breitkopf und Hertel, Leipzig, 1860).

M. Abramowitz, I. A. Stegun, eds., Handbook of Mathematical Tables with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables, Vol. 55 of Applied Mathematics (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1964).

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, D. R. Pepperberg, “The trailing edge of the photoresponse from human cones derived using a two-flash ERG paradigm,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 64–67.

W. Makous, “Optics,” in Vision Research: a Practical Approach, J. G. Robson, R. H. S. Carpenter, eds. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, to be published).

P. Lennie, “Roles of M and P pathways,” in Contrast Sensitivity, R. Shapley, D. M.-K. Lam, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1993), pp. 201–213.

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “Equivalent adaptation levels in localized retinal areas,” in Mechanisms of Colour Vision: Selected Papers of W. S. Stiles, F. R. S., with a New Introductory Essay, W. S. Stiles, ed. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 36–53.

J. J. Kulikowski, “What really limits vision? Conceptual limitations to the assessment of visual function and the role of interacting channels,” in Limits of Vision, J. J. Kulikowski, V. Walsh, I. J. Murray, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1991), Vol. 5, pp. 286–329.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hypothetical action spectra obtained with a constant energy stimulus. Successive curves represent stimuli differing tenfold in energy. This assumes that the response follows the Michaelis–Menton equation,8 which is simplified here to the form R=1/(1+1/I). The spectral sensitivity follows Eq. 6 of Baylor et al.9

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Westheimer effect42: threshold for a small, centered spot flashed on steady backgrounds of varying diameter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fourier spectrum of a disk.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fourier spectra of the test stimulus and the five smallest backgrounds in Westheimer’s experiment.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Westheimer effect at five background luminances.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sensitivity profiles of the temporal channels inferred by Mandler and Makous77 (left) and by Hess and Snowden79 (right).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reproduction of Fig. 11 from Werblin,119 showing (A) the subtractive nature of the surround in bipolar cells of the mudpuppy, and (B) linear portions of log intensity response curves.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Cross correlation of the spectrum of a disk of varying diameter.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Model by Yang and Makous a , b

Tables Icon

Table 2 Quantum Densities on the Human Retina and at the Receptor a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Photopic Conversion Table a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Scotopic Conversion Table a

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A=J1(2πf )πf=DJ1(4π/D)2π,
Q*=nηA(1-10-D).
R=aI-s,
ΔR+R=a(ΔI+I)-s.
ΔR=akΔI.
VVmax=11+I0In,
R=a log I-s;
s=log s,
R=a logIs,
A=14 logexp[1-(4πf )2]1/21+[1-(4πf )2]1/2-1.5077f-0.8353.

Metrics