Abstract

Individual variations in the spatial profile of macular pigment (MP) density were measured for 32 subjects. Peak density of MP measured with a 460-nm, 12-arcmin stimulus averaged 0.58, standard deviation (SD) =0.26, with a range of 0.175 to 1.39. To assess the symmetry of the MP distribution, MP density was measured on the horizontal and vertical meridians at ±1 deg eccentricity. The density varied by no more than 16% at these four locations, indicating a basically symmetric distribution. Based on a linear interpolation between measured locations, the width of the spatial distribution of MP at half the maximal density averaged 1.03 deg, SD=0.38, with a range of 0.25 to 1.9 deg. The average spatial profile of MP density across subjects was fitted with both an exponential and a Gaussian function. An exponential decay with eccentricity explained more variance in the data than did a Gaussian function. Assuming an exponential decay with eccentricity, once MP density has been measured in the center of the retina (denoted A), MP density at more eccentric locations (X, deg) can be predicted with a standardized equation (MP=A×10-0.42x). For individual cases, small deviations from an exponential function suggest the existence of minor flanking peaks or shoulders for 40% of the subjects. We also examined the temporal stability of the MP profile of four subjects over a time span of 4–14 months and for a single spatial location for ten subjects over a time span of 1–16 years. These longitudinal data show that differences in MP density among subjects are maintained over time, if dietary patterns are stable.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  33. Data in this table were collected from several laboratories using the same stimulus conditions. The earliest data (1978) were obtained at Brown University; the rest of the data were obtained at the University of New Hampshire and at the Schepens Eye Research Institute. Data from the latter two laboratories have been combined in other studies, and a comparison of the data from the two laboratories can be found in Ref. 23.
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  35. D. V. Crabtree, A. J. Adler, D. M. Snodderly, “Radial distribution of tocopherols in rhesus monkey retina and retinal pigment epithelium-choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 61–76 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  36. D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. D. M. Snodderly, G. J. Handelman, A. J. Adler, “Distribution of individual macular pigment carotenoids in central retina of macaque and squirrel monkeys,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 268–279 (1991).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

J. van De Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, J. Curran-Celentano, S. Judd, K. Fuld, N. I. Krinsky, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Sex differences in macular pigment optical density: relation to serum and dietary patterns,” Vision Res. 36, 2001–2012 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, D. M. Snodderly, “Iris color and macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 62, 715–720 (1996).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Cigarette smoking and retinal carotenoids: implications for age-related macular degeneration,” Vision Res. 36, 3003–3009 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Edwards, B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K.-J. Yeum, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl., 37, S914 (1996).

D. V. Crabtree, A. J. Adler, D. M. Snodderly, “Radial distribution of tocopherols in rhesus monkey retina and retinal pigment epithelium-choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 61–76 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995

D. M. Snodderly, “Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62 (Suppl.), 1448S–1461S (1995).

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, J. Curran-Celentano, “Macular pigment density in monozygotic twins,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 2531–2541 (1995).
[PubMed]

1992

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, “Interocular differences in macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 350–355 (1992).
[PubMed]

J. L. Nerger, C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. M. Snodderly, G. J. Handelman, A. J. Adler, “Distribution of individual macular pigment carotenoids in central retina of macaque and squirrel monkeys,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 268–279 (1991).
[PubMed]

P. G. Swan, J. E. Lovie-Kitchin, “Age-related maculopathy. II: The nature of the central visual field loss,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11, 59–70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

B. S. Zeffren, R. A. Applegate, A. Bradley, W. A. van Heuven, “Retinal fixation point location in the foveal avascular zone,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 2099–2105 (1990).
[PubMed]

1989

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 29, 663–673 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Geisler, “Sequential ideal-observer analysis of visual discriminations,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 267–314 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

G. Haegerstom-Portnoy, “Short-wavelength-sensitive-cone sensitivity loss with aging: a protective role for macular pigment?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2140–2144 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Weiter, F. Delori, K. Dorey, “Central sparing in annular macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 106, 286–292 (1988).
[PubMed]

J. P. Sarks, S. H. Sarks, M. C. Killingsworth, “Evolution of geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Eye 2, 552–577 (1988).
[PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–852 (1988).
[PubMed]

1987

R. A. Applegate, A. J. Adams, J. C. Cavender, F. Zisman, “Early color vision changes in age-related maculopathy,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1458–62 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Maudlin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: eyes whose fellow eye has exudative AMD,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1832–37 (1987).
[PubMed]

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density” (appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering) Vision Res. 27, 257–68 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Pease, A. J. Adams, E. Nuccio, “Optical density of human macular pigment,” Vision Res. 27, 705–710 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

J. D. Moreland, P. Bhatt, Retinal distribution of macular pigment, “Colour Vision Deficiencies” 7, 127 (1984).

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).
[PubMed]

1981

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

1977

R. E. Marc, H. G. Sperling, “Chromatic organization of primate cones,” Science 196, 454–456 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

J. Walraven, “Spatial characteristics of chromatic induction: the segregation of lateral effects from straylight artefacts,” Vision Res. 13, 1739–1753 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971

R. A. Bone, J. M. B. Sparrock, “Comparison of macular pigment densities in human eyes,” Vision Res. 11, 1057–1064 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966

G. S. Brindley, J. J. DuCroz, W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497–500 (1966).

1963

P. K. Brown, G. Wald, “Visual pigments in human and monkey retinas,” Nature 200, 37–43 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1955

1954

W. R. Miles, “Comparison of functional and structural areas in human fovea. I. Method of entoptic plotting,” J. Neurophysiol. 17, 22–36 (1954).
[PubMed]

Adams, A. J.

Adler, A. J.

D. V. Crabtree, A. J. Adler, D. M. Snodderly, “Radial distribution of tocopherols in rhesus monkey retina and retinal pigment epithelium-choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 61–76 (1996).
[PubMed]

D. M. Snodderly, G. J. Handelman, A. J. Adler, “Distribution of individual macular pigment carotenoids in central retina of macaque and squirrel monkeys,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 268–279 (1991).
[PubMed]

Alexander, K. R.

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 29, 663–673 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, R. A.

B. S. Zeffren, R. A. Applegate, A. Bradley, W. A. van Heuven, “Retinal fixation point location in the foveal avascular zone,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 2099–2105 (1990).
[PubMed]

R. A. Applegate, A. J. Adams, J. C. Cavender, F. Zisman, “Early color vision changes in age-related maculopathy,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1458–62 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auran, J. D.

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).
[PubMed]

Benzschawel, T.

Berendschot, T. T. J. M.

J. van De Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatt, P.

J. D. Moreland, P. Bhatt, Retinal distribution of macular pigment, “Colour Vision Deficiencies” 7, 127 (1984).

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–852 (1988).
[PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. M. B. Sparrock, “Comparison of macular pigment densities in human eyes,” Vision Res. 11, 1057–1064 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, A.

B. S. Zeffren, R. A. Applegate, A. Bradley, W. A. van Heuven, “Retinal fixation point location in the foveal avascular zone,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 2099–2105 (1990).
[PubMed]

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, J. J. DuCroz, W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497–500 (1966).

Brown, P. K.

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).
[PubMed]

P. K. Brown, G. Wald, “Visual pigments in human and monkey retinas,” Nature 200, 37–43 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cains, A.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavender, J. C.

Cicerone, C. M.

J. L. Nerger, C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crabtree, D. V.

D. V. Crabtree, A. J. Adler, D. M. Snodderly, “Radial distribution of tocopherols in rhesus monkey retina and retinal pigment epithelium-choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 61–76 (1996).
[PubMed]

Curran, S.

S. Curran, “Critical fusion flicker techniques in psychopharmacology,” in I. Hindmarch, P. D. Stonier, eds., Human Psychopharmacology: Methods and Measures (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1990), Vol. 3, pp. 21–38.

Curran-Celentano, J.

B. R. Hammond, J. Curran-Celentano, S. Judd, K. Fuld, N. I. Krinsky, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Sex differences in macular pigment optical density: relation to serum and dietary patterns,” Vision Res. 36, 2001–2012 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, J. Curran-Celentano, “Macular pigment density in monozygotic twins,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 2531–2541 (1995).
[PubMed]

Delori, F.

J. J. Weiter, F. Delori, K. Dorey, “Central sparing in annular macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 106, 286–292 (1988).
[PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).
[PubMed]

Donnelly, S. K.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density” (appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering) Vision Res. 27, 257–68 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dorey, K.

J. J. Weiter, F. Delori, K. Dorey, “Central sparing in annular macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 106, 286–292 (1988).
[PubMed]

DuCroz, J. J.

G. S. Brindley, J. J. DuCroz, W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497–500 (1966).

Edwards, R. B.

R. B. Edwards, B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K.-J. Yeum, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl., 37, S914 (1996).

Eisner, A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Maudlin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: eyes whose fellow eye has exudative AMD,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1832–37 (1987).
[PubMed]

Fernandez, L.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–852 (1988).
[PubMed]

Fishman, G. A.

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 29, 663–673 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fishman, M.

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 29, 663–673 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleming, S. A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Maudlin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: eyes whose fellow eye has exudative AMD,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1832–37 (1987).
[PubMed]

Fuld, K.

B. R. Hammond, J. Curran-Celentano, S. Judd, K. Fuld, N. I. Krinsky, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Sex differences in macular pigment optical density: relation to serum and dietary patterns,” Vision Res. 36, 2001–2012 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, D. M. Snodderly, “Iris color and macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 62, 715–720 (1996).

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, J. Curran-Celentano, “Macular pigment density in monozygotic twins,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 2531–2541 (1995).
[PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, “Interocular differences in macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 350–355 (1992).
[PubMed]

Geisler, W. S.

W. S. Geisler, “Sequential ideal-observer analysis of visual discriminations,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 267–314 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guth, S. L.

Haegerstom-Portnoy, G.

Hammond, B. R.

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Cigarette smoking and retinal carotenoids: implications for age-related macular degeneration,” Vision Res. 36, 3003–3009 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, D. M. Snodderly, “Iris color and macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 62, 715–720 (1996).

B. R. Hammond, J. Curran-Celentano, S. Judd, K. Fuld, N. I. Krinsky, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Sex differences in macular pigment optical density: relation to serum and dietary patterns,” Vision Res. 36, 2001–2012 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Edwards, B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K.-J. Yeum, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl., 37, S914 (1996).

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, J. Curran-Celentano, “Macular pigment density in monozygotic twins,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 2531–2541 (1995).
[PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, “Interocular differences in macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 350–355 (1992).
[PubMed]

Handelman, G. J.

D. M. Snodderly, G. J. Handelman, A. J. Adler, “Distribution of individual macular pigment carotenoids in central retina of macaque and squirrel monkeys,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 268–279 (1991).
[PubMed]

Hayhoe, M. M.

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurvich, L. M.

Jameson, D.

Johnson, E. J.

R. B. Edwards, B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K.-J. Yeum, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl., 37, S914 (1996).

Judd, S.

B. R. Hammond, J. Curran-Celentano, S. Judd, K. Fuld, N. I. Krinsky, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Sex differences in macular pigment optical density: relation to serum and dietary patterns,” Vision Res. 36, 2001–2012 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kilbride, P. E.

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 29, 663–673 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Killingsworth, M. C.

J. P. Sarks, S. H. Sarks, M. C. Killingsworth, “Evolution of geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Eye 2, 552–577 (1988).
[PubMed]

Klein, M. L.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Maudlin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: eyes whose fellow eye has exudative AMD,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1832–37 (1987).
[PubMed]

Kliegl, R.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density” (appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering) Vision Res. 27, 257–68 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Krinsky, N. I.

B. R. Hammond, J. Curran-Celentano, S. Judd, K. Fuld, N. I. Krinsky, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Sex differences in macular pigment optical density: relation to serum and dietary patterns,” Vision Res. 36, 2001–2012 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Edwards, B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K.-J. Yeum, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl., 37, S914 (1996).

Landrum, J. T.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–852 (1988).
[PubMed]

Lovie-Kitchin, J. E.

P. G. Swan, J. E. Lovie-Kitchin, “Age-related maculopathy. II: The nature of the central visual field loss,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11, 59–70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marc, R. E.

R. E. Marc, H. G. Sperling, “Chromatic organization of primate cones,” Science 196, 454–456 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massof, R. W.

Maudlin, W. M.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Maudlin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: eyes whose fellow eye has exudative AMD,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1832–37 (1987).
[PubMed]

Miles, W. R.

W. R. Miles, “Comparison of functional and structural areas in human fovea. I. Method of entoptic plotting,” J. Neurophysiol. 17, 22–36 (1954).
[PubMed]

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland, P. Bhatt, Retinal distribution of macular pigment, “Colour Vision Deficiencies” 7, 127 (1984).

Nerger, J. L.

J. L. Nerger, C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuccio, E.

P. L. Pease, A. J. Adams, E. Nuccio, “Optical density of human macular pigment,” Vision Res. 27, 705–710 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pease, P. L.

P. L. Pease, A. J. Adams, E. Nuccio, “Optical density of human macular pigment,” Vision Res. 27, 705–710 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ratliff, F.

F. Ratliff, “A discourse on edges,” in Visual Psychophysics and Physiology, J. C. Armington, J. Krauskopf, B. R. Wooten, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978).

Ruddock, K. H.

K. H. Ruddock, “Light transmission through the ocular media and macular pigment and its significance for psychophysical investigation,” in D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds., Handbook of Sensory Psychology, Vol. VII/4, Visual Psychophysics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, year).

Rushton, W. A. H.

G. S. Brindley, J. J. DuCroz, W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497–500 (1966).

Russell, R. M.

R. B. Edwards, B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K.-J. Yeum, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl., 37, S914 (1996).

Sarks, J. P.

J. P. Sarks, S. H. Sarks, M. C. Killingsworth, “Evolution of geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Eye 2, 552–577 (1988).
[PubMed]

Sarks, S. H.

J. P. Sarks, S. H. Sarks, M. C. Killingsworth, “Evolution of geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Eye 2, 552–577 (1988).
[PubMed]

Snodderly, D. M.

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Cigarette smoking and retinal carotenoids: implications for age-related macular degeneration,” Vision Res. 36, 3003–3009 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, J. Curran-Celentano, S. Judd, K. Fuld, N. I. Krinsky, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Sex differences in macular pigment optical density: relation to serum and dietary patterns,” Vision Res. 36, 2001–2012 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, D. M. Snodderly, “Iris color and macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 62, 715–720 (1996).

D. V. Crabtree, A. J. Adler, D. M. Snodderly, “Radial distribution of tocopherols in rhesus monkey retina and retinal pigment epithelium-choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 61–76 (1996).
[PubMed]

R. B. Edwards, B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K.-J. Yeum, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl., 37, S914 (1996).

D. M. Snodderly, “Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62 (Suppl.), 1448S–1461S (1995).

D. M. Snodderly, G. J. Handelman, A. J. Adler, “Distribution of individual macular pigment carotenoids in central retina of macaque and squirrel monkeys,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 268–279 (1991).
[PubMed]

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).
[PubMed]

Sparrock, J. M. B.

R. A. Bone, J. M. B. Sparrock, “Comparison of macular pigment densities in human eyes,” Vision Res. 11, 1057–1064 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sperling, H. G.

R. E. Marc, H. G. Sperling, “Chromatic organization of primate cones,” Science 196, 454–456 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stabell, B.

Stabell, U.

Swan, P. G.

P. G. Swan, J. E. Lovie-Kitchin, “Age-related maculopathy. II: The nature of the central visual field loss,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11, 59–70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tarsis, S. L.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–852 (1988).
[PubMed]

van De Kraats, J.

J. van De Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Heuven, W. A.

B. S. Zeffren, R. A. Applegate, A. Bradley, W. A. van Heuven, “Retinal fixation point location in the foveal avascular zone,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 2099–2105 (1990).
[PubMed]

van Norren, D.

J. van De Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wald, G.

P. K. Brown, G. Wald, “Visual pigments in human and monkey retinas,” Nature 200, 37–43 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walraven, J.

J. Walraven, “Spatial characteristics of chromatic induction: the segregation of lateral effects from straylight artefacts,” Vision Res. 13, 1739–1753 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiter, J. J.

J. J. Weiter, F. Delori, K. Dorey, “Central sparing in annular macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 106, 286–292 (1988).
[PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density” (appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering) Vision Res. 27, 257–68 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Cigarette smoking and retinal carotenoids: implications for age-related macular degeneration,” Vision Res. 36, 3003–3009 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, J. Curran-Celentano, S. Judd, K. Fuld, N. I. Krinsky, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Sex differences in macular pigment optical density: relation to serum and dietary patterns,” Vision Res. 36, 2001–2012 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeum, K.-J.

R. B. Edwards, B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K.-J. Yeum, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl., 37, S914 (1996).

Zeffren, B. S.

B. S. Zeffren, R. A. Applegate, A. Bradley, W. A. van Heuven, “Retinal fixation point location in the foveal avascular zone,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 2099–2105 (1990).
[PubMed]

Zisman, F.

Am. J. Clin. Nutr.

D. M. Snodderly, “Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62 (Suppl.), 1448S–1461S (1995).

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

J. J. Weiter, F. Delori, K. Dorey, “Central sparing in annular macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 106, 286–292 (1988).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Colour Vision Deficiencies

J. D. Moreland, P. Bhatt, Retinal distribution of macular pigment, “Colour Vision Deficiencies” 7, 127 (1984).

Exp. Eye Res.

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, D. M. Snodderly, “Iris color and macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 62, 715–720 (1996).

Eye

J. P. Sarks, S. H. Sarks, M. C. Killingsworth, “Evolution of geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Eye 2, 552–577 (1988).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Maudlin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: eyes whose fellow eye has exudative AMD,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1832–37 (1987).
[PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, “Interocular differences in macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 350–355 (1992).
[PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, J. Curran-Celentano, “Macular pigment density in monozygotic twins,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 2531–2541 (1995).
[PubMed]

B. S. Zeffren, R. A. Applegate, A. Bradley, W. A. van Heuven, “Retinal fixation point location in the foveal avascular zone,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 2099–2105 (1990).
[PubMed]

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).
[PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–852 (1988).
[PubMed]

D. V. Crabtree, A. J. Adler, D. M. Snodderly, “Radial distribution of tocopherols in rhesus monkey retina and retinal pigment epithelium-choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 61–76 (1996).
[PubMed]

D. M. Snodderly, G. J. Handelman, A. J. Adler, “Distribution of individual macular pigment carotenoids in central retina of macaque and squirrel monkeys,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 268–279 (1991).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl.

R. B. Edwards, B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K.-J. Yeum, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl., 37, S914 (1996).

J. Neurophysiol.

W. R. Miles, “Comparison of functional and structural areas in human fovea. I. Method of entoptic plotting,” J. Neurophysiol. 17, 22–36 (1954).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Physiol. (London)

G. S. Brindley, J. J. DuCroz, W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497–500 (1966).

Nature

P. K. Brown, G. Wald, “Visual pigments in human and monkey retinas,” Nature 200, 37–43 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.

P. G. Swan, J. E. Lovie-Kitchin, “Age-related maculopathy. II: The nature of the central visual field loss,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11, 59–70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Rev.

W. S. Geisler, “Sequential ideal-observer analysis of visual discriminations,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 267–314 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

R. E. Marc, H. G. Sperling, “Chromatic organization of primate cones,” Science 196, 454–456 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res.

J. L. Nerger, C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, J. Curran-Celentano, S. Judd, K. Fuld, N. I. Krinsky, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Sex differences in macular pigment optical density: relation to serum and dietary patterns,” Vision Res. 36, 2001–2012 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Cigarette smoking and retinal carotenoids: implications for age-related macular degeneration,” Vision Res. 36, 3003–3009 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van De Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density” (appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering) Vision Res. 27, 257–68 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Pease, A. J. Adams, E. Nuccio, “Optical density of human macular pigment,” Vision Res. 27, 705–710 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 29, 663–673 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. M. B. Sparrock, “Comparison of macular pigment densities in human eyes,” Vision Res. 11, 1057–1064 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Walraven, “Spatial characteristics of chromatic induction: the segregation of lateral effects from straylight artefacts,” Vision Res. 13, 1739–1753 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

F. Ratliff, “A discourse on edges,” in Visual Psychophysics and Physiology, J. C. Armington, J. Krauskopf, B. R. Wooten, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978).

K. H. Ruddock, “Light transmission through the ocular media and macular pigment and its significance for psychophysical investigation,” in D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds., Handbook of Sensory Psychology, Vol. VII/4, Visual Psychophysics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, year).

S. Curran, “Critical fusion flicker techniques in psychopharmacology,” in I. Hindmarch, P. D. Stonier, eds., Human Psychopharmacology: Methods and Measures (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1990), Vol. 3, pp. 21–38.

Data in this table were collected from several laboratories using the same stimulus conditions. The earliest data (1978) were obtained at Brown University; the rest of the data were obtained at the University of New Hampshire and at the Schepens Eye Research Institute. Data from the latter two laboratories have been combined in other studies, and a comparison of the data from the two laboratories can be found in Ref. 23.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of MP density measured along the horizontal (filled squares) and vertical (open circles) meridians. The close correspondence between the two curves suggests that MP density for this subject (RH) can be considered symmetric.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In the right panel, the mean data for our sample is described with a Gaussian function. In the left panel, the mean data for the sample is described as an exponential decay with eccentricity. The vertical lines in the left panel indicate the standard deviations of each point (the positive or negative deviations were omitted when the lines exceeded the range of the ordinate).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Residuals from the exponential curve fitting with associated standard deviation error bars (n=7). The positive deviation at 1 deg suggests the existence of a secondary peak in the MP spatial profile.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Data for subject DL showing the secondary peak between 0.5 and 1 deg (since this subject was very experienced, 8-min stimuli were used to obtain these exceptionally fine maps of his MP peaks). The smooth profile suggests that, although this secondary peak is small, it is a stable feature of the data. The dotted curve shows the best-fitting exponential.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of MP density measured with a 1-deg test centrally viewed and a 12-min test at a retinal locus of 0.5 deg nasal (Y=0.97X+0.06). The high correlation between the two (r=0.92) stimulus conditions provides evidence that MP density is determined at the edge of a centrally fixated stimulus.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of MP density measured in the center with a 12-min stimulus and the location where MP density is half this peak value (in cases where this location fell between measured points, a linear interpolation was used). Smokers are indicated by open squares. This graph shows the tendency of the MP density profile to widen as the center increases in density.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of subjects with relatively narrow MP distributions (PH and AA) with subjects who have broader MP distributions (SM and KB). These subjects are unlike most of our sample in that PH and AA have only slightly lower peak heights than SM and KB but their distributions are substantially narrower.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

MP distribution of four subjects measured over a time span of 4–14 months. The consistency in the shape of the distribution for each subject indicates that the methods used in this study are reliable and that the MP spatial profile is a relatively stable trait.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Descriptive Data for All Subjects

Tables Icon

Table 2 P Data Measured with a Central 1-deg Test a

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

MP=A×10-0.42x,

Metrics