Abstract

Perturbation methods provide one means for determining the imaging properties of a system that deviates slightly from a nominal system with known imaging properties. Perturbation methods are described for the case in which small changes are made to the profile of a physical surface in the system. The properties that must be known for the nominal system are discussed, and the low-order terms in the perturbation expansion are described. Examples illustrating these concepts are presented.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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