Abstract

The problem of imaging the optical absorption or fluorescence source distribution of a highly scattering medium probed by diffusive light is considered. An analytic solution to the image reconstruction problem for a continuous-wave source is presented.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring, G. Mueller, B. Chance, R. Alfano, S. Arridge, J. Beuthan, E. Gratton, M. Kaschke, B. Masters, S. Svanberg, P. van der Zee, eds., Institute Series of SPIE Optical Engineering (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1993).
  2. Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. Alfano, ed., Vol. 21F. OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994).
  3. L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight and absorbance imaging of biological media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Rebane, J. Feinberg, “Time-resolved holography,” Nature (London) 351, 378–380 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. M. Yoo, F. Liu, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging objects hidden in scattering media using an absorption technique,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1068–1070 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, “Image reconstruction of the interior of bodies that diffuse radiation,” Science 248, 990–993 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “New results for the development of infrared absorption imaging,” in Biomedical Image Processing, A. C. Bovik, W. E. Higgins eds., Proc. SPIE1245, 92–103 (1991).
  9. R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, R. Aronson, J. Lubowsky, “Imaging of subsurface regions of random media by remote sensing,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1431, 192–203 (1991).
  10. M. O'Leary, D. Boas, B. Chance, A. Yodh, “Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency-domain diffusing photon tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 426–429 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Schotland, J. Leigh, “Photon diffusion imaging,” Biophys. J. 61, 446–447 (1992).
  12. M. Ishii, J. Leigh, J. Schotland, “Photon diffusion imaging of model and biological systems,” in Optical Tomography: Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, ed., Proc. SPIE2389, 312–317 (1995).
  13. C. Gonatas, M. Ishii, J. Leigh, J. Schotland, “Optical diffusion imaging using a direct inversion method,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 4361–4368 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Yoo, Z. Zang, S. Ahmed, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging objects hidden in scattering media using a fluorescence–absorption technique,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1252–1254 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. Sevick-Muraca, C. Burch, “Origin of phosphorescence signals reemitted from tissues,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1928–1931 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  17. A. M. Cormack, “Representation of a function by its line integrals with some radiologic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2722–2727 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. N. Hounsfield, “Computerized transverse axial scanning tomography,” Br. J. Radiol. 46, 1016–1022 (1973).
  19. D. Kuhl, R. Edwards, “Image separation radioisotope scanning,” Radiology 80, 653–660 (1966).
  20. T. Budinger, G. Gullberg, “Emission computed tomography,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 21, 2–12 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Golub, C. Van Loan, Matrix Computations (Johns Hopkins U. Press, Baltimore, Md., 1989).

1995 (2)

C. Gonatas, M. Ishii, J. Leigh, J. Schotland, “Optical diffusion imaging using a direct inversion method,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 4361–4368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. O'Leary, D. Boas, B. Chance, A. Yodh, “Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency-domain diffusing photon tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 426–429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight and absorbance imaging of biological media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. Schotland, J. Leigh, “Photon diffusion imaging,” Biophys. J. 61, 446–447 (1992).

1991 (4)

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rebane, J. Feinberg, “Time-resolved holography,” Nature (London) 351, 378–380 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Yoo, F. Liu, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging objects hidden in scattering media using an absorption technique,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1068–1070 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yoo, Z. Zang, S. Ahmed, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging objects hidden in scattering media using a fluorescence–absorption technique,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1252–1254 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, “Image reconstruction of the interior of bodies that diffuse radiation,” Science 248, 990–993 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

T. Budinger, G. Gullberg, “Emission computed tomography,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 21, 2–12 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

G. N. Hounsfield, “Computerized transverse axial scanning tomography,” Br. J. Radiol. 46, 1016–1022 (1973).

1966 (1)

D. Kuhl, R. Edwards, “Image separation radioisotope scanning,” Radiology 80, 653–660 (1966).

1963 (1)

A. M. Cormack, “Representation of a function by its line integrals with some radiologic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2722–2727 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1917 (1)

J. Radon, “Uber die bestimmung von Funktionen durch ihre integralwerte langs gewisser Mannigfaltigkeiten,” Ber. Verh. Saechs. Akad. Wiss. Leipzig Math. Naturwiss. Kl. 69, 262–267 (1917).

Ahmed, S.

Alfano, R. R.

Aronson, R.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, R. Aronson, J. Lubowsky, “Imaging of subsurface regions of random media by remote sensing,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1431, 192–203 (1991).

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “New results for the development of infrared absorption imaging,” in Biomedical Image Processing, A. C. Bovik, W. E. Higgins eds., Proc. SPIE1245, 92–103 (1991).

Barbour, R. L.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, R. Aronson, J. Lubowsky, “Imaging of subsurface regions of random media by remote sensing,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1431, 192–203 (1991).

Benaron, D. A.

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight and absorbance imaging of biological media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D.

Budinger, T.

T. Budinger, G. Gullberg, “Emission computed tomography,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 21, 2–12 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Burch, C.

Chance, B.

Cope, M.

S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “New results for the development of infrared absorption imaging,” in Biomedical Image Processing, A. C. Bovik, W. E. Higgins eds., Proc. SPIE1245, 92–103 (1991).

Cormack, A. M.

A. M. Cormack, “Representation of a function by its line integrals with some radiologic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2722–2727 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “New results for the development of infrared absorption imaging,” in Biomedical Image Processing, A. C. Bovik, W. E. Higgins eds., Proc. SPIE1245, 92–103 (1991).

Edwards, R.

D. Kuhl, R. Edwards, “Image separation radioisotope scanning,” Radiology 80, 653–660 (1966).

Feinberg, J.

A. Rebane, J. Feinberg, “Time-resolved holography,” Nature (London) 351, 378–380 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Golub, G.

G. Golub, C. Van Loan, Matrix Computations (Johns Hopkins U. Press, Baltimore, Md., 1989).

Gonatas, C.

C. Gonatas, M. Ishii, J. Leigh, J. Schotland, “Optical diffusion imaging using a direct inversion method,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 4361–4368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Graber, H. L.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, R. Aronson, J. Lubowsky, “Imaging of subsurface regions of random media by remote sensing,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1431, 192–203 (1991).

Grunbaum, F. A.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, “Image reconstruction of the interior of bodies that diffuse radiation,” Science 248, 990–993 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullberg, G.

T. Budinger, G. Gullberg, “Emission computed tomography,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 21, 2–12 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. P.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hounsfield, G. N.

G. N. Hounsfield, “Computerized transverse axial scanning tomography,” Br. J. Radiol. 46, 1016–1022 (1973).

Ishii, M.

C. Gonatas, M. Ishii, J. Leigh, J. Schotland, “Optical diffusion imaging using a direct inversion method,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 4361–4368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ishii, J. Leigh, J. Schotland, “Photon diffusion imaging of model and biological systems,” in Optical Tomography: Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, ed., Proc. SPIE2389, 312–317 (1995).

Kohn, P.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, “Image reconstruction of the interior of bodies that diffuse radiation,” Science 248, 990–993 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhl, D.

D. Kuhl, R. Edwards, “Image separation radioisotope scanning,” Radiology 80, 653–660 (1966).

Leigh, J.

C. Gonatas, M. Ishii, J. Leigh, J. Schotland, “Optical diffusion imaging using a direct inversion method,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 4361–4368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Schotland, J. Leigh, “Photon diffusion imaging,” Biophys. J. 61, 446–447 (1992).

M. Ishii, J. Leigh, J. Schotland, “Photon diffusion imaging of model and biological systems,” in Optical Tomography: Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, ed., Proc. SPIE2389, 312–317 (1995).

Liu, C.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Lubowsky, J.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, R. Aronson, J. Lubowsky, “Imaging of subsurface regions of random media by remote sensing,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1431, 192–203 (1991).

O'Leary, M.

Radon, J.

J. Radon, “Uber die bestimmung von Funktionen durch ihre integralwerte langs gewisser Mannigfaltigkeiten,” Ber. Verh. Saechs. Akad. Wiss. Leipzig Math. Naturwiss. Kl. 69, 262–267 (1917).

Rebane, A.

A. Rebane, J. Feinberg, “Time-resolved holography,” Nature (London) 351, 378–380 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schotland, J.

C. Gonatas, M. Ishii, J. Leigh, J. Schotland, “Optical diffusion imaging using a direct inversion method,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 4361–4368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Schotland, J. Leigh, “Photon diffusion imaging,” Biophys. J. 61, 446–447 (1992).

M. Ishii, J. Leigh, J. Schotland, “Photon diffusion imaging of model and biological systems,” in Optical Tomography: Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, ed., Proc. SPIE2389, 312–317 (1995).

Sevick-Muraca, E.

Singer, J. R.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, “Image reconstruction of the interior of bodies that diffuse radiation,” Science 248, 990–993 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, D. K.

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight and absorbance imaging of biological media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Zee, P.

S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “New results for the development of infrared absorption imaging,” in Biomedical Image Processing, A. C. Bovik, W. E. Higgins eds., Proc. SPIE1245, 92–103 (1991).

Van Loan, C.

G. Golub, C. Van Loan, Matrix Computations (Johns Hopkins U. Press, Baltimore, Md., 1989).

Wang, L.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A.

Yoo, K.

Yoo, K. M.

Zang, Z.

Zhang, G.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zubelli, J. P.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, “Image reconstruction of the interior of bodies that diffuse radiation,” Science 248, 990–993 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ber. Verh. Saechs. Akad. Wiss. Leipzig Math. Naturwiss. Kl. (1)

J. Radon, “Uber die bestimmung von Funktionen durch ihre integralwerte langs gewisser Mannigfaltigkeiten,” Ber. Verh. Saechs. Akad. Wiss. Leipzig Math. Naturwiss. Kl. 69, 262–267 (1917).

Biophys. J. (1)

J. Schotland, J. Leigh, “Photon diffusion imaging,” Biophys. J. 61, 446–447 (1992).

Br. J. Radiol. (1)

G. N. Hounsfield, “Computerized transverse axial scanning tomography,” Br. J. Radiol. 46, 1016–1022 (1973).

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

T. Budinger, G. Gullberg, “Emission computed tomography,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 21, 2–12 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. M. Cormack, “Representation of a function by its line integrals with some radiologic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2722–2727 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

A. Rebane, J. Feinberg, “Time-resolved holography,” Nature (London) 351, 378–380 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

C. Gonatas, M. Ishii, J. Leigh, J. Schotland, “Optical diffusion imaging using a direct inversion method,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 4361–4368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (1)

D. Kuhl, R. Edwards, “Image separation radioisotope scanning,” Radiology 80, 653–660 (1966).

Science (3)

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, “Image reconstruction of the interior of bodies that diffuse radiation,” Science 248, 990–993 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight and absorbance imaging of biological media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring, G. Mueller, B. Chance, R. Alfano, S. Arridge, J. Beuthan, E. Gratton, M. Kaschke, B. Masters, S. Svanberg, P. van der Zee, eds., Institute Series of SPIE Optical Engineering (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1993).

Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. Alfano, ed., Vol. 21F. OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994).

S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “New results for the development of infrared absorption imaging,” in Biomedical Image Processing, A. C. Bovik, W. E. Higgins eds., Proc. SPIE1245, 92–103 (1991).

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, R. Aronson, J. Lubowsky, “Imaging of subsurface regions of random media by remote sensing,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1431, 192–203 (1991).

G. Golub, C. Van Loan, Matrix Computations (Johns Hopkins U. Press, Baltimore, Md., 1989).

M. Ishii, J. Leigh, J. Schotland, “Photon diffusion imaging of model and biological systems,” in Optical Tomography: Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, ed., Proc. SPIE2389, 312–317 (1995).

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