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M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for noninvasive measurements of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2331–2336 (1989); J. Fishkin and E. Gratton, “Propagation of photon-density waves in strongly scattering media containing an absorbing semi-infinite plane bounded by straight edge,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 127–140 (1993).

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A. Ishimaru, “Diffusion of light in turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2210–2215 (1989); “Diffusion of a pulse in densely distributed scatterers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1045–1050 (1978).

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A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978). Coefficients of the steady-state diffusion equation considered in this reference (Eqs. 9–14 and 9–16, p. 178) correspond to the time-dependent equation considered in Refs. 3 and 5.

J.-M. Kaltenbach and M. Kaschke, “Frequency and time domain modeling of light transport in random media,” in Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring, Vol. IS11 of Institute Series of SPIE Optical Engineering, G. Mueller, B. Chance, R. Alfano, S. Arridge, J. Beuthan, E. Gratton, M. Kaschke, B. Masters, S. Svanberg, and P. van der Zee, eds. (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1993), pp. 65–86.

M. Lax, “Phonon transport in GaAs at low temperatures,” Department of Physics, City College of New York, N.Y. 10031 (personal communication, 1995).

P. M. Morse and H. Feshbach, Methods of Theoretical Physics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1953), Vol. 1, p. 865.

This consistency condition implies that α=γ=β/2. Absorption was not considered in Refs. 7 and 8, so the parameters β and γ were undetermined. When these references were quoted, where α=1/3 was suggested, β and γ were assumed to satisfy the consistency condition.