Abstract

We measured, in the same observers, (1) the detectability, d, of a small rotational jump following adaptation to rotational motion and (2) the detectability of the same jump when superimposed on one of several background rotation speeds. Following 90 s of motion adaptation the detectability of the jump was impaired, and sensitivity slowly recovered over the course of 60 s. The detectability of the jump was also impaired by the background speed in a way consistent with a quadratic form of Weber's law. We propose that motion adaptation impairs the detectability of the small jump because it is as if an equivalent background speed has been superimposed on the display. We measured the equivalent background by finding the real background speed that produced the same d at each instant in the recovery from motion adaptation. The equivalent background started at approximately one to two thirds the speed of the adapting motion, declined rapidly, rose to a small peak at 30 s, then disappeared by 60 s. Since the equivalent background speed corresponds to the speed of the motion aftereffect, we have measured the time course of the motion aftereffect with objective psychophysics.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Anstis, “Motion perception in the frontal plane,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, Toronto, 1986), Vol. 1, pp. 16–1–16–27.
  2. M. T. Swanston and N. J. Wade, “A peculiar optical phenomenon,” Perception 23, 1107–1110 (1994).
  3. N. J. Wade, “A selective history of the study of visual motion aftereffects,” Perception 23, 1111–1134 (1994).
  4. W. A. Simpson, “Temporal summation of visual motion,” Vision Res. 34, 2547–2559 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. B. H. Crawford, “The change of visual sensitivity with time,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 123, 69–89 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  6. B. H. Crawford, “Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 134, 283–302 (1947).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. B. Blakemore and W. A. H. Rushton, “Adaptation and increment threshold in a rod monochromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 612–628 (1965).
  8. C. B. Blakemore and W. A. H. Rushton, “The rod increment threshold during dark adaptation in normal and rod monochromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 629–640 (1965).
  9. W. A. H. Rushton, “The Ferrier lecture: visual adaptation,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 162, 20–46 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  10. W. M. Siebert, Circuits, Signals, and Systems (McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1986), pp. 314–335.
  11. M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. H. Brown, “Visual sensitivity to differences in velocity,” Psychol. Bull. 58, 89–103 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. P. McKee, “A local mechanism for differential velocity detection,” Vision Res. 21, 491–500 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. B. De Bruyn and G. A. Orban, “Human velocity and direction discrimination measured with random dot patterns,” Vision Res. 28, 1323–1335 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. W. E. Hick, “The threshold for sudden changes in the velocity of a seen object,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 2, 33–41 (1950).
  16. J. M. Notterman and D. E. Page, “Weber’s law and the difference threshold for the velocity of a seen object,” Science 126, 652–653 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  17. W. A. Simpson and B. A. Finsten, “Pedestal effect in visual motion discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2555–2563 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. N. J. Watamaniuk, “Ideal observer for discrimination of the global direction of dynamic random-dot stimuli,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 16–28 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. G. Finley, “A high-speed point plotter for vision research,” Vision Res. 25, 1993–1997 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. R. Groner, M. T. Groner, P. Müller, W. F. Bischof, and V. Di Lollo, “On the confounding effects of phosphor persistence in oscilloscopic displays,” Vision Res. 33, 913–917 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. P. Werkhoven and J. J. Koenderink, “Reversed rotary motion perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1510–1516 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and I. T. Young, Signals and Systems (Prentice-Hall, Toronto, 1983), pp. 414–420.
  23. V. Gourevitch and E. Galanter, “A significance test for one-parameter isosensitivity functions,” Psychometrika 32, 25–33 (1967).
  24. D. Giaschi, R. Douglas, S. Marlin, and M. Cynader, “The time course of direction-selective adaptation in simple and complex cells in cat striate cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 70, 2024–2034 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  25. Ref. 1, p. 16–5.
  26. C. Bonnet and V. Pouthas, “Apparent size and duration of a movement after-effect,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 24, 275–281 (1972).
  27. P. Lavie and Z. Giora, “Spiral aftereffect durations following awakening from REM sleep and non-REM sleep,” Percept. Psychophys. 14, 19–20 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  28. D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Peninsula, Los Altos, Calif., 1988), pp. 121–126.
  29. M. Hershenson, “Linear and rotation motion aftereffects as a function of inspection duration,” Vision Res. 33, 1913–1919 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. R. Sekuler and A. Pantle, “A model for after-effects of seen movement,” Vision Res. 7, 427–439 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. M. M. Taylor, “Tracking the decay of the after-effect of seen rotary movement”, Percept. Mot. Skills 16, 119–129 (1963).
    [PubMed]
  32. G. Johansson, “The velocity of the motion after-effect,” Acta Psychol. 12, 19–24 (1956).
  33. V. Steiner, R. Blake, and D. Rose, “Interocular transfer of expansion, rotation, and translation motion aftereffects,” Perception 23, 1197–1202 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. N. A. MacMillan and C. D. Creelman, Detection Theory: A User's Guide (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1988), p. 357.
  35. S. D. Silvey, Statistical Inference (Chapman and Hall, New York, 1975).
  36. K. J. Rothman, Modern Epidemiology (Little, Brown, Toronto, 1986), Chap. 11, pp. 165–170.
  37. C. Mehta, StatXact-3 for Windows User Manual (Cytel Software Corp., Cambridge, Mass., 1995), Eqs. 9.37 and 9.38, pp. 220–221.

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

W. A. Simpson, “Temporal summation of visual motion,” Vision Res. 34, 2547–2559 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Steiner, R. Blake, and D. Rose, “Interocular transfer of expansion, rotation, and translation motion aftereffects,” Perception 23, 1197–1202 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (4)

M. Hershenson, “Linear and rotation motion aftereffects as a function of inspection duration,” Vision Res. 33, 1913–1919 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Giaschi, R. Douglas, S. Marlin, and M. Cynader, “The time course of direction-selective adaptation in simple and complex cells in cat striate cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 70, 2024–2034 (1993).
[PubMed]

R. Groner, M. T. Groner, P. Müller, W. F. Bischof, and V. Di Lollo, “On the confounding effects of phosphor persistence in oscilloscopic displays,” Vision Res. 33, 913–917 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. N. J. Watamaniuk, “Ideal observer for discrimination of the global direction of dynamic random-dot stimuli,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 16–28 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

B. De Bruyn and G. A. Orban, “Human velocity and direction discrimination measured with random dot patterns,” Vision Res. 28, 1323–1335 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

G. Finley, “A high-speed point plotter for vision research,” Vision Res. 25, 1993–1997 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

S. P. McKee, “A local mechanism for differential velocity detection,” Vision Res. 21, 491–500 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

P. Lavie and Z. Giora, “Spiral aftereffect durations following awakening from REM sleep and non-REM sleep,” Percept. Psychophys. 14, 19–20 (1973).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

R. Sekuler and A. Pantle, “A model for after-effects of seen movement,” Vision Res. 7, 427–439 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (3)

C. B. Blakemore and W. A. H. Rushton, “Adaptation and increment threshold in a rod monochromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 612–628 (1965).

C. B. Blakemore and W. A. H. Rushton, “The rod increment threshold during dark adaptation in normal and rod monochromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 629–640 (1965).

W. A. H. Rushton, “The Ferrier lecture: visual adaptation,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 162, 20–46 (1965).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

R. H. Brown, “Visual sensitivity to differences in velocity,” Psychol. Bull. 58, 89–103 (1961).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

J. M. Notterman and D. E. Page, “Weber’s law and the difference threshold for the velocity of a seen object,” Science 126, 652–653 (1957).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

1947 (1)

B. H. Crawford, “Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 134, 283–302 (1947).
[Crossref]

1937 (1)

B. H. Crawford, “The change of visual sensitivity with time,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 123, 69–89 (1937).
[Crossref]

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

Bischof, W. F.

R. Groner, M. T. Groner, P. Müller, W. F. Bischof, and V. Di Lollo, “On the confounding effects of phosphor persistence in oscilloscopic displays,” Vision Res. 33, 913–917 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blake, R.

V. Steiner, R. Blake, and D. Rose, “Interocular transfer of expansion, rotation, and translation motion aftereffects,” Perception 23, 1197–1202 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blakemore, C. B.

C. B. Blakemore and W. A. H. Rushton, “The rod increment threshold during dark adaptation in normal and rod monochromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 629–640 (1965).

C. B. Blakemore and W. A. H. Rushton, “Adaptation and increment threshold in a rod monochromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 612–628 (1965).

Brown, R. H.

R. H. Brown, “Visual sensitivity to differences in velocity,” Psychol. Bull. 58, 89–103 (1961).
[Crossref]

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, “Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 134, 283–302 (1947).
[Crossref]

B. H. Crawford, “The change of visual sensitivity with time,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 123, 69–89 (1937).
[Crossref]

Cynader, M.

D. Giaschi, R. Douglas, S. Marlin, and M. Cynader, “The time course of direction-selective adaptation in simple and complex cells in cat striate cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 70, 2024–2034 (1993).
[PubMed]

De Bruyn, B.

B. De Bruyn and G. A. Orban, “Human velocity and direction discrimination measured with random dot patterns,” Vision Res. 28, 1323–1335 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Lollo, V.

R. Groner, M. T. Groner, P. Müller, W. F. Bischof, and V. Di Lollo, “On the confounding effects of phosphor persistence in oscilloscopic displays,” Vision Res. 33, 913–917 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Douglas, R.

D. Giaschi, R. Douglas, S. Marlin, and M. Cynader, “The time course of direction-selective adaptation in simple and complex cells in cat striate cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 70, 2024–2034 (1993).
[PubMed]

Finley, G.

G. Finley, “A high-speed point plotter for vision research,” Vision Res. 25, 1993–1997 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Finsten, B. A.

Giaschi, D.

D. Giaschi, R. Douglas, S. Marlin, and M. Cynader, “The time course of direction-selective adaptation in simple and complex cells in cat striate cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 70, 2024–2034 (1993).
[PubMed]

Giora, Z.

P. Lavie and Z. Giora, “Spiral aftereffect durations following awakening from REM sleep and non-REM sleep,” Percept. Psychophys. 14, 19–20 (1973).
[Crossref]

Groner, M. T.

R. Groner, M. T. Groner, P. Müller, W. F. Bischof, and V. Di Lollo, “On the confounding effects of phosphor persistence in oscilloscopic displays,” Vision Res. 33, 913–917 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Groner, R.

R. Groner, M. T. Groner, P. Müller, W. F. Bischof, and V. Di Lollo, “On the confounding effects of phosphor persistence in oscilloscopic displays,” Vision Res. 33, 913–917 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hershenson, M.

M. Hershenson, “Linear and rotation motion aftereffects as a function of inspection duration,” Vision Res. 33, 1913–1919 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koenderink, J. J.

Lavie, P.

P. Lavie and Z. Giora, “Spiral aftereffect durations following awakening from REM sleep and non-REM sleep,” Percept. Psychophys. 14, 19–20 (1973).
[Crossref]

Marlin, S.

D. Giaschi, R. Douglas, S. Marlin, and M. Cynader, “The time course of direction-selective adaptation in simple and complex cells in cat striate cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 70, 2024–2034 (1993).
[PubMed]

McKee, S. P.

S. P. McKee, “A local mechanism for differential velocity detection,” Vision Res. 21, 491–500 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, P.

R. Groner, M. T. Groner, P. Müller, W. F. Bischof, and V. Di Lollo, “On the confounding effects of phosphor persistence in oscilloscopic displays,” Vision Res. 33, 913–917 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Notterman, J. M.

J. M. Notterman and D. E. Page, “Weber’s law and the difference threshold for the velocity of a seen object,” Science 126, 652–653 (1957).
[Crossref]

Orban, G. A.

B. De Bruyn and G. A. Orban, “Human velocity and direction discrimination measured with random dot patterns,” Vision Res. 28, 1323–1335 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Page, D. E.

J. M. Notterman and D. E. Page, “Weber’s law and the difference threshold for the velocity of a seen object,” Science 126, 652–653 (1957).
[Crossref]

Pantle, A.

R. Sekuler and A. Pantle, “A model for after-effects of seen movement,” Vision Res. 7, 427–439 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rose, D.

V. Steiner, R. Blake, and D. Rose, “Interocular transfer of expansion, rotation, and translation motion aftereffects,” Perception 23, 1197–1202 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rushton, W. A. H.

C. B. Blakemore and W. A. H. Rushton, “Adaptation and increment threshold in a rod monochromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 612–628 (1965).

C. B. Blakemore and W. A. H. Rushton, “The rod increment threshold during dark adaptation in normal and rod monochromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 629–640 (1965).

W. A. H. Rushton, “The Ferrier lecture: visual adaptation,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 162, 20–46 (1965).
[Crossref]

Sekuler, R.

R. Sekuler and A. Pantle, “A model for after-effects of seen movement,” Vision Res. 7, 427–439 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simpson, W. A.

Steiner, V.

V. Steiner, R. Blake, and D. Rose, “Interocular transfer of expansion, rotation, and translation motion aftereffects,” Perception 23, 1197–1202 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

Watamaniuk, S. N. J.

Werkhoven, P.

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

D. Giaschi, R. Douglas, S. Marlin, and M. Cynader, “The time course of direction-selective adaptation in simple and complex cells in cat striate cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 70, 2024–2034 (1993).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Physiol. (London) (2)

C. B. Blakemore and W. A. H. Rushton, “Adaptation and increment threshold in a rod monochromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 612–628 (1965).

C. B. Blakemore and W. A. H. Rushton, “The rod increment threshold during dark adaptation in normal and rod monochromat,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 629–640 (1965).

Opt. Acta (1)

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

P. Lavie and Z. Giora, “Spiral aftereffect durations following awakening from REM sleep and non-REM sleep,” Percept. Psychophys. 14, 19–20 (1973).
[Crossref]

Perception (1)

V. Steiner, R. Blake, and D. Rose, “Interocular transfer of expansion, rotation, and translation motion aftereffects,” Perception 23, 1197–1202 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B (2)

B. H. Crawford, “The change of visual sensitivity with time,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 123, 69–89 (1937).
[Crossref]

B. H. Crawford, “Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 134, 283–302 (1947).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B (1)

W. A. H. Rushton, “The Ferrier lecture: visual adaptation,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 162, 20–46 (1965).
[Crossref]

Psychol. Bull. (1)

R. H. Brown, “Visual sensitivity to differences in velocity,” Psychol. Bull. 58, 89–103 (1961).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. M. Notterman and D. E. Page, “Weber’s law and the difference threshold for the velocity of a seen object,” Science 126, 652–653 (1957).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (7)

S. P. McKee, “A local mechanism for differential velocity detection,” Vision Res. 21, 491–500 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. De Bruyn and G. A. Orban, “Human velocity and direction discrimination measured with random dot patterns,” Vision Res. 28, 1323–1335 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hershenson, “Linear and rotation motion aftereffects as a function of inspection duration,” Vision Res. 33, 1913–1919 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sekuler and A. Pantle, “A model for after-effects of seen movement,” Vision Res. 7, 427–439 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Finley, “A high-speed point plotter for vision research,” Vision Res. 25, 1993–1997 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Groner, M. T. Groner, P. Müller, W. F. Bischof, and V. Di Lollo, “On the confounding effects of phosphor persistence in oscilloscopic displays,” Vision Res. 33, 913–917 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. Simpson, “Temporal summation of visual motion,” Vision Res. 34, 2547–2559 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (16)

D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Peninsula, Los Altos, Calif., 1988), pp. 121–126.

M. M. Taylor, “Tracking the decay of the after-effect of seen rotary movement”, Percept. Mot. Skills 16, 119–129 (1963).
[PubMed]

G. Johansson, “The velocity of the motion after-effect,” Acta Psychol. 12, 19–24 (1956).

N. A. MacMillan and C. D. Creelman, Detection Theory: A User's Guide (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1988), p. 357.

S. D. Silvey, Statistical Inference (Chapman and Hall, New York, 1975).

K. J. Rothman, Modern Epidemiology (Little, Brown, Toronto, 1986), Chap. 11, pp. 165–170.

C. Mehta, StatXact-3 for Windows User Manual (Cytel Software Corp., Cambridge, Mass., 1995), Eqs. 9.37 and 9.38, pp. 220–221.

W. E. Hick, “The threshold for sudden changes in the velocity of a seen object,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 2, 33–41 (1950).

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and I. T. Young, Signals and Systems (Prentice-Hall, Toronto, 1983), pp. 414–420.

V. Gourevitch and E. Galanter, “A significance test for one-parameter isosensitivity functions,” Psychometrika 32, 25–33 (1967).

Ref. 1, p. 16–5.

C. Bonnet and V. Pouthas, “Apparent size and duration of a movement after-effect,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 24, 275–281 (1972).

W. M. Siebert, Circuits, Signals, and Systems (McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1986), pp. 314–335.

S. Anstis, “Motion perception in the frontal plane,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, Toronto, 1986), Vol. 1, pp. 16–1–16–27.

M. T. Swanston and N. J. Wade, “A peculiar optical phenomenon,” Perception 23, 1107–1110 (1994).

N. J. Wade, “A selective history of the study of visual motion aftereffects,” Perception 23, 1111–1134 (1994).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thresholds for detecting a speed step of linear motion. From left to right are replotted data from Hick,15 Notterman and Page,16 and De Bruyn and Orban.14 For the Hick data the average of the step increments and decrements is plotted. The De Bruyn and Orban data are for random dots. The top row shows the fit of Weber's law, Eq. (4). The middle row shows the residuals. The U-shaped pattern in the residuals shows that one needs a quadratic component to fit the data. The bottom row shows the fit of Weber's law with quadratic component, Eq. (5). Note the different scales on the plots.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The equivalent background computation is shown graphically. The same observer has produced results for the motion adaptation and increment detection experiments. The detectability, d , of a small motion jump is plotted as a function of time after adaptation and as a function of the background speed upon which it is superimposed. The equivalent background speed is the background speed producing the same d at any given point in the recovery from adaptation time course. The equivalent background at t1 is b1 and at t2 is b2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The top row shows a scale diagram of the pattern used. The diagram is reversed contrast: In the experiments the lines were bright on a dark background. The middle row shows the plan of the recovery from motion adaptation experiment. The observer adapted to a clockwise rotating pattern for 90 s. Then it stopped rotating, and the observer experienced the counterclockwise equivalent background or motion aftereffect (MAE) shown. Periodically, a small counterclockwise impulsive rotation was presented for detection. The bottom row shows the plan of the increment detection experiment. The observer adapted to 90 s of counterclockwise rotation. The pattern continued rotating at this same background speed throughout the experiment. Periodically, an impulsive rotation increment was added to the background speed for detection.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Increment detection experiment for observers WA and AN. d for the detection of an impulsive speed increment of fixed size (0.34 deg of rotation) is plotted as a function of the background speed. Error bars represent the 95% confidence intervals computed by the method of Gourevitch and Galanter.23 The curves are least-squares fits of Eq. (6).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Recovery from adaptation experiment for observers WA and AN. d for the detection of impulsive rotation of fixed size (0.34 deg of rotation) is plotted as a function of the time elapsed from the offset of the adapting speed. Error bars represent the 95% confidence intervals computed by the method of Gourevitch and Galanter.23 The curves are least-squares fits of Eq. (13).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Recovery from adaptation experiment for observers WA and AN. Unsmoothed proportions of hits and false alarms are plotted for adaptation to a stationary display (no adapt) and adaptation to 30.8-deg s-1 rotation (adapt).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Equivalent background speed at each moment in the time course of the recovery from motion adaptation experiment for observers WA and AN. Basically, it is the background speed in Fig. 4 yielding the same d as that obtained in Fig. 5 at each moment (see the text for details). For reference, the adaptation speed was 30.8 deg s-1. The curves are least-squares fits of Eq. (14).

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

v(t)=v+Δvδ(t-T),
v(t)=v+Δvu(t-T),
d=(v+Δv+n)-(v+n)σ=Δvσ.
Δvthresh=σ0+kv.
Δvthresh=σ0+k1v+k2v2,
d=Δvσ0+k1v+k2v2,
d(t)=Δvσ0+k1veq(t)+k2veq2(t).
veq(t)=[d(t)]2k12-4[d(t)]2k2σ0+4d(t)k2Δv-d(t)k12d(t)k2.
d=Z[p(hit)]-Z[p(falsealarm)],
count(i)=count(i-1)+count(i)+count(i+1),
d=Δvσ0+kv,
d=a[1-exp(-bt)],
d(t)=a[1-exp(-bt)]-c exp{-[(t-d)/2e]2}-f exp{-[(t-g)/2h2]},
veq(t)=a exp(-bt)+c exp{-[(t-d)/2e]2}+f exp{-[(t-g)/2h]2}.
numberoffalsealarmsnumberofstationarystimuli.
(1-π)n=1-k/100.
UCL=1-1-k1001/n.
k100=1-n-1nn.
k100=1-2n-12nn.
LCL=1-k1001/n.

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