Abstract

We have reconstructed in-line (or Gabor) x-ray holograms at 40–50-nm resolution from a complex biological specimen. The holograms were recorded as a relief pattern on photoresist with use of 1.89-nm, soft x rays from the X1A undulator beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We have improved the resolution and the fidelity and simplified the experiment compared with earlier work by employing a special atomic-force microscope to examine and digitize the holograms. Following digitization the holograms were reconstructed numerically, allowing both the absorptive and phase-shifting properties of the reconstructed object to be mapped. A comparison of the reconstructed images with images obtained from visible light and transmission electron microscopes has been made to confirm the validity of the x-ray holographic technique. The method offers promise as a technique for soft-x-ray microscopy and diffraction tomography of dry and frozen hydrated specimens and for microscopy with pulsed x-ray sources.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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1995 (5)

H. Winick, “The linac coherent light source (lcls)—a fourth generation light source using the slac,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 75, 1–8 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, M. Howells, “Soft x-ray microscopy,” Q. Rev. Biophys. QRB 28, 33–130 (1995). Also available as Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory report LBL-36371.
[Crossref]

A. D. Stead, R. A. Cotton, J. G. Duckett, J. A. Goode, A. M. Page, T. W. Ford, “The use of soft x rays to study the ultrastructure of living biological material,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 5, 52–64 (1995).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, S. Lindaas, S. Williams, “Exposure strategies for PMMA from in situXANES spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1477–1483 (1995).
[Crossref]

B. F. McEwen, K. H. Downing, R. M. Glaeser, “The relevance of dose-fractionation in tomography of radiation-sensitive specimens,” Ultramicroscopy 60, 357–373 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. E. Griffith, H. M. Marchman, L. C. Hopkins, “Edge position measurement with a scanning probe microscope,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 3567–3570 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

G. Koren, F. Polack, D. Joyeux, “Iterative algorithms for twin-image elimination in in-line holography using finite-support constraints,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 423–433 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. Williams, X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, J. van’t Hof, S. S. Lamm, “Measurements of wet metaphase chromosomes in the scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” J. Microsc. 170, 155–165 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, D. Kern, M. Howells, “High-resolution imaging by Fourier transform x-ray holography,” Science 256, 1009–1012 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

Y. Ochiai, M. Baba, H. Watanabe, S. Matsui, “Ten nanometer resolution nanolithography using newly developed 50-kV electron beam direct writing system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. B 30, 3266–3271 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

C. Jacobsen, M. Howells, J. Kirz, S. Rothman, “X-ray holographic microscopy using photoresists,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1847–1861 (1990).
[Crossref]

H. Rarback, C. Buckley, H. Ade, F. Camilo, R. DiGennaro, S. Hellman, M. Howells, N. Iskander, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Krinsky, S. Lindaas, I. McNulty, M. Oversluizen, S. Rothman, D. Sayre, M. Sharnoff, D. Shu, “Coherent radiation for x-ray imaging—the soft x-ray undulator and the X1A beamline at the NSLS,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 274–296 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

A. G. Michette, “X-ray microscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 51, 1525–1606 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (3)

M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, R. Feder, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “X-ray holograms at improved resolution: a study of zymogen granules,” Science 238, 514–517 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of x-ray holography with an x-ray laser,” Science 238, 517–519 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Becker, P. Seyfried, H. Siegert, “Translation stage for a scanning x-ray optical interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 207–211 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

1983 (1)

M. J. Simpson, A. G. Michette, “The effects of manufacturing inaccuracies on the imaging properties of Fresnel zone plates,” Opt. Acta 30, 1455–1462 (1983) (now J. Mod. Opt.).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

J. C. Solem, G. C. Baldwin, “Microholography of living organisms,” Science 218, 229–235 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

J. R. Fienup, “Iterative method applied to image reconstruction and computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 19, 297–305 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

V. V. Aristov, G. A. Ivanova, “On the possibility of utilizing holographic schemes in x-ray microscopy,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 12, 19–24 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

R. M. Glaeser, K. A. Taylor, “Radiation damage relative to transmission electron microscopy of biological specimens at low temperature: a review,” J. Microsc. 112, 127–138 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Transmission microscopy of unmodified biological materials: comparative radiation dosages with electrons and ultrasoft x-ray photons,” Ultramicroscopy 2, 337–341 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (3)

G. A. Tyler, B. J. Thompson, “Fraunhofer holography applied to particle size analysis: a reassessment,” Opt. Acta 23, 685–700 (1976).
[Crossref]

R. Hegerl, W. Hoppe, “Influence of electron noise on three-dimensional image reconstruction,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 31, 1717–1721 (1976).

E. Spiller, R. Feder, J. Topalian, D. Eastman, W. Gudat, D. Sayre, “X-ray microscopy of biological objects with carbon Kαand with synchrotron radiation,” Science 191, 1172–1174 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

R. J. Hawryluk, H. I. Smith, A. Soares, A. M. Hawryluk, “Energy dissipation in a thin polymer film by electron scattering: experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2528–2537 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

S. Aoki, S. Kikuta, “X-ray holographic microscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 1385–1392 (1974).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).

1969 (1)

1952 (1)

1948 (1)

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature (London) 161, 777–778 (1948).
[Crossref]

Ade, H.

H. Rarback, C. Buckley, H. Ade, F. Camilo, R. DiGennaro, S. Hellman, M. Howells, N. Iskander, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Krinsky, S. Lindaas, I. McNulty, M. Oversluizen, S. Rothman, D. Sayre, M. Sharnoff, D. Shu, “Coherent radiation for x-ray imaging—the soft x-ray undulator and the X1A beamline at the NSLS,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 274–296 (1990).
[Crossref]

Anderson, E.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, D. Kern, M. Howells, “High-resolution imaging by Fourier transform x-ray holography,” Science 256, 1009–1012 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, H. Chapman, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, M. Rivers, S. Wang, S. Williams, S. Wirick, X. Zhang, “The X-1A scanning transmission x-ray microscope: optics and instrumentation,” in X-Ray Microscopy IV, V. V. Aristov, A. I. Erko, eds. (Bogorovski Pechatnik, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 1994), pp. 304–321.

Anderson, E. H.

I. McNulty, J. E. Trebes, J. M. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy, C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1992).
[Crossref]

Aoki, S.

S. Aoki, S. Kikuta, “X-ray holographic microscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 1385–1392 (1974).
[Crossref]

Aristov, V. V.

V. V. Aristov, G. A. Ivanova, “On the possibility of utilizing holographic schemes in x-ray microscopy,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 12, 19–24 (1979).
[Crossref]

Baba, M.

Y. Ochiai, M. Baba, H. Watanabe, S. Matsui, “Ten nanometer resolution nanolithography using newly developed 50-kV electron beam direct writing system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. B 30, 3266–3271 (1991).
[Crossref]

Baez, A. V.

Baldwin, G. C.

J. C. Solem, G. C. Baldwin, “Microholography of living organisms,” Science 218, 229–235 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, P.

P. Becker, P. Seyfried, H. Siegert, “Translation stage for a scanning x-ray optical interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 207–211 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bernstein, A.

D. Joyeux, S. Lowenthal, F. Polack, A. Bernstein, “X-ray microscopy by holography at LURE,” in X-Ray Microscopy II, Vol. 56 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, D. Sayre, M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds. (Springer, Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 246–252.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980).

Brase, J. M.

I. McNulty, J. E. Trebes, J. M. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy, C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1992).
[Crossref]

Brown, S. B.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of x-ray holography with an x-ray laser,” Science 238, 517–519 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Browne, M. T.

M. T. Browne, “Aspects of nanopositioning in stage design for scanning x-ray microscopes,” in X-Ray Microscopy III, Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, A. G. Michette, G. R. Morrison, C. J. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 355–358.
[Crossref]

Buckley, C.

H. Rarback, C. Buckley, H. Ade, F. Camilo, R. DiGennaro, S. Hellman, M. Howells, N. Iskander, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Krinsky, S. Lindaas, I. McNulty, M. Oversluizen, S. Rothman, D. Sayre, M. Sharnoff, D. Shu, “Coherent radiation for x-ray imaging—the soft x-ray undulator and the X1A beamline at the NSLS,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 274–296 (1990).
[Crossref]

Burckhardt, C. B.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971).

Camilo, F.

H. Rarback, C. Buckley, H. Ade, F. Camilo, R. DiGennaro, S. Hellman, M. Howells, N. Iskander, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Krinsky, S. Lindaas, I. McNulty, M. Oversluizen, S. Rothman, D. Sayre, M. Sharnoff, D. Shu, “Coherent radiation for x-ray imaging—the soft x-ray undulator and the X1A beamline at the NSLS,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 274–296 (1990).
[Crossref]

Campbell, E. M.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of x-ray holography with an x-ray laser,” Science 238, 517–519 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chapman, H.

C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, H. Chapman, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, M. Rivers, S. Wang, S. Williams, S. Wirick, X. Zhang, “The X-1A scanning transmission x-ray microscope: optics and instrumentation,” in X-Ray Microscopy IV, V. V. Aristov, A. I. Erko, eds. (Bogorovski Pechatnik, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 1994), pp. 304–321.

Chetwynd, D. G.

S. T. Smith, D. G. Chetwynd, Foundations of Ultraprecision Mechanism Design (Gordon & Breach, Reading, U.K., 1992).

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971).

Cotton, R. A.

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I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, D. Kern, M. Howells, “High-resolution imaging by Fourier transform x-ray holography,” Science 256, 1009–1012 (1992).
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C. Jacobsen, M. Howells, J. Kirz, S. Rothman, “X-ray holographic microscopy using photoresists,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1847–1861 (1990).
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M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, R. Feder, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “X-ray holograms at improved resolution: a study of zymogen granules,” Science 238, 514–517 (1987).
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C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, M. Howells, R. Feder, D. Sayre, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Progress in high resolution x-ray holographic microscopy,” in X-Ray Microscopy II, Vol. 56 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, D. Sayre, M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds. (Springer, Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 253–262.

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C. Jacobsen, S. Lindaas, M. R. Howells, “X-ray holography using photoresists: high resolution lensless imaging,” in X-Ray Microscopy III, Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, A. G. Michette, G. R. Morrison, C. J. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 244–250.
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S. Williams, X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, J. van’t Hof, S. S. Lamm, “Measurements of wet metaphase chromosomes in the scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” J. Microsc. 170, 155–165 (1993).
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I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, D. Kern, M. Howells, “High-resolution imaging by Fourier transform x-ray holography,” Science 256, 1009–1012 (1992).
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C. Jacobsen, M. Howells, J. Kirz, S. Rothman, “X-ray holographic microscopy using photoresists,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1847–1861 (1990).
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M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, R. Feder, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “X-ray holograms at improved resolution: a study of zymogen granules,” Science 238, 514–517 (1987).
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C. Jacobsen, S. Lindaas, M. R. Howells, “X-ray holography using photoresists: high resolution lensless imaging,” in X-Ray Microscopy III, Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, A. G. Michette, G. R. Morrison, C. J. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 244–250.
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C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, M. Howells, R. Feder, D. Sayre, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Progress in high resolution x-ray holographic microscopy,” in X-Ray Microscopy II, Vol. 56 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, D. Sayre, M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds. (Springer, Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 253–262.

C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, H. Chapman, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, M. Rivers, S. Wang, S. Williams, S. Wirick, X. Zhang, “The X-1A scanning transmission x-ray microscope: optics and instrumentation,” in X-Ray Microscopy IV, V. V. Aristov, A. I. Erko, eds. (Bogorovski Pechatnik, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 1994), pp. 304–321.

I. McNulty, J. E. Trebes, J. M. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy, C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1992).
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Jacobsen, C. J.

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S. P. Williams, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, X. Zhang, J. van’t Hof, S. Lamm, “Radiation damage to chromosomes in the scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy; C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds. Proc. SPIE1741, 318–324 (1992).
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Kern, D.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, D. Kern, M. Howells, “High-resolution imaging by Fourier transform x-ray holography,” Science 256, 1009–1012 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. McNulty, J. E. Trebes, J. M. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy, C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1992).
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D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Transmission microscopy of unmodified biological materials: comparative radiation dosages with electrons and ultrasoft x-ray photons,” Ultramicroscopy 2, 337–341 (1977).
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Kincaid, B. M.

M. R. Howells, B. M. Kincaid, “The properties of undulator radiation,” in New Directions in Research with Third-Generation Soft X-ray Synchrotron Radiation Sources, A. S. Schlachter, F. J. Wuilleumier, eds. (Kluwer, London, 1994), Vol. E 254, pp. 315–358.
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Kirz, J.

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, M. Howells, “Soft x-ray microscopy,” Q. Rev. Biophys. QRB 28, 33–130 (1995). Also available as Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory report LBL-36371.
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S. Williams, X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, J. van’t Hof, S. S. Lamm, “Measurements of wet metaphase chromosomes in the scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” J. Microsc. 170, 155–165 (1993).
[Crossref]

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, D. Kern, M. Howells, “High-resolution imaging by Fourier transform x-ray holography,” Science 256, 1009–1012 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rarback, C. Buckley, H. Ade, F. Camilo, R. DiGennaro, S. Hellman, M. Howells, N. Iskander, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Krinsky, S. Lindaas, I. McNulty, M. Oversluizen, S. Rothman, D. Sayre, M. Sharnoff, D. Shu, “Coherent radiation for x-ray imaging—the soft x-ray undulator and the X1A beamline at the NSLS,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 274–296 (1990).
[Crossref]

C. Jacobsen, M. Howells, J. Kirz, S. Rothman, “X-ray holographic microscopy using photoresists,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1847–1861 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, R. Feder, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “X-ray holograms at improved resolution: a study of zymogen granules,” Science 238, 514–517 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Howells, M. A. Iarocci, J. Kirz, “Experiments in x-ray holographic microscopy using synchrotron radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 2171–2178 (1986).
[Crossref]

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Transmission microscopy of unmodified biological materials: comparative radiation dosages with electrons and ultrasoft x-ray photons,” Ultramicroscopy 2, 337–341 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Williams, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, X. Zhang, J. van’t Hof, S. Lamm, “Radiation damage to chromosomes in the scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy; C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds. Proc. SPIE1741, 318–324 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, M. Howells, R. Feder, D. Sayre, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Progress in high resolution x-ray holographic microscopy,” in X-Ray Microscopy II, Vol. 56 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, D. Sayre, M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds. (Springer, Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 253–262.

C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, H. Chapman, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, M. Rivers, S. Wang, S. Williams, S. Wirick, X. Zhang, “The X-1A scanning transmission x-ray microscope: optics and instrumentation,” in X-Ray Microscopy IV, V. V. Aristov, A. I. Erko, eds. (Bogorovski Pechatnik, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 1994), pp. 304–321.

Koren, G.

Krinsky, S.

H. Rarback, C. Buckley, H. Ade, F. Camilo, R. DiGennaro, S. Hellman, M. Howells, N. Iskander, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Krinsky, S. Lindaas, I. McNulty, M. Oversluizen, S. Rothman, D. Sayre, M. Sharnoff, D. Shu, “Coherent radiation for x-ray imaging—the soft x-ray undulator and the X1A beamline at the NSLS,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 274–296 (1990).
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Lamm, S.

S. P. Williams, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, X. Zhang, J. van’t Hof, S. Lamm, “Radiation damage to chromosomes in the scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy; C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds. Proc. SPIE1741, 318–324 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lamm, S. S.

S. Williams, X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, J. van’t Hof, S. S. Lamm, “Measurements of wet metaphase chromosomes in the scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” J. Microsc. 170, 155–165 (1993).
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Levesque, R.

I. McNulty, J. E. Trebes, J. M. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy, C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1992).
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Lin, L. H.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971).

Lindaas, S.

X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, S. Lindaas, S. Williams, “Exposure strategies for PMMA from in situXANES spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1477–1483 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Williams, X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, J. van’t Hof, S. S. Lamm, “Measurements of wet metaphase chromosomes in the scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” J. Microsc. 170, 155–165 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. Rarback, C. Buckley, H. Ade, F. Camilo, R. DiGennaro, S. Hellman, M. Howells, N. Iskander, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Krinsky, S. Lindaas, I. McNulty, M. Oversluizen, S. Rothman, D. Sayre, M. Sharnoff, D. Shu, “Coherent radiation for x-ray imaging—the soft x-ray undulator and the X1A beamline at the NSLS,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 274–296 (1990).
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C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, H. Chapman, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, M. Rivers, S. Wang, S. Williams, S. Wirick, X. Zhang, “The X-1A scanning transmission x-ray microscope: optics and instrumentation,” in X-Ray Microscopy IV, V. V. Aristov, A. I. Erko, eds. (Bogorovski Pechatnik, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 1994), pp. 304–321.

C. Jacobsen, S. Lindaas, M. R. Howells, “X-ray holography using photoresists: high resolution lensless imaging,” in X-Ray Microscopy III, Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, A. G. Michette, G. R. Morrison, C. J. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 244–250.
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R. A. London, J. E. Trebes, C. J. Jacobsen, “Role of x-ray induced damage in biological microimaging,” in Soft X-ray Microscopy, C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 333–340 (1992).
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Lowenthal, S.

D. Joyeux, S. Lowenthal, F. Polack, A. Bernstein, “X-ray microscopy by holography at LURE,” in X-Ray Microscopy II, Vol. 56 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, D. Sayre, M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds. (Springer, Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 246–252.

Marchman, H. M.

J. E. Griffith, H. M. Marchman, L. C. Hopkins, “Edge position measurement with a scanning probe microscope,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 3567–3570 (1994).
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McEwen, B. F.

B. F. McEwen, K. H. Downing, R. M. Glaeser, “The relevance of dose-fractionation in tomography of radiation-sensitive specimens,” Ultramicroscopy 60, 357–373 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McNulty, I.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, D. Kern, M. Howells, “High-resolution imaging by Fourier transform x-ray holography,” Science 256, 1009–1012 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rarback, C. Buckley, H. Ade, F. Camilo, R. DiGennaro, S. Hellman, M. Howells, N. Iskander, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Krinsky, S. Lindaas, I. McNulty, M. Oversluizen, S. Rothman, D. Sayre, M. Sharnoff, D. Shu, “Coherent radiation for x-ray imaging—the soft x-ray undulator and the X1A beamline at the NSLS,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 274–296 (1990).
[Crossref]

I. McNulty, J. E. Trebes, J. M. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy, C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1992).
[Crossref]

McQuaid, K.

M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, R. Feder, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “X-ray holograms at improved resolution: a study of zymogen granules,” Science 238, 514–517 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, M. Howells, R. Feder, D. Sayre, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Progress in high resolution x-ray holographic microscopy,” in X-Ray Microscopy II, Vol. 56 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, D. Sayre, M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds. (Springer, Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 253–262.

Michette, A. G.

A. G. Michette, “X-ray microscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 51, 1525–1606 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. J. Simpson, A. G. Michette, “The effects of manufacturing inaccuracies on the imaging properties of Fresnel zone plates,” Opt. Acta 30, 1455–1462 (1983) (now J. Mod. Opt.).
[Crossref]

A. G. Michette, Optical Systems for Soft X Rays (Plenum, New York, 1986).
[Crossref]

Nilson, D. G.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of x-ray holography with an x-ray laser,” Science 238, 517–519 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ochiai, Y.

Y. Ochiai, M. Baba, H. Watanabe, S. Matsui, “Ten nanometer resolution nanolithography using newly developed 50-kV electron beam direct writing system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. B 30, 3266–3271 (1991).
[Crossref]

Oversluizen, M.

H. Rarback, C. Buckley, H. Ade, F. Camilo, R. DiGennaro, S. Hellman, M. Howells, N. Iskander, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Krinsky, S. Lindaas, I. McNulty, M. Oversluizen, S. Rothman, D. Sayre, M. Sharnoff, D. Shu, “Coherent radiation for x-ray imaging—the soft x-ray undulator and the X1A beamline at the NSLS,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 274–296 (1990).
[Crossref]

Page, A. M.

A. D. Stead, R. A. Cotton, J. G. Duckett, J. A. Goode, A. M. Page, T. W. Ford, “The use of soft x rays to study the ultrastructure of living biological material,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 5, 52–64 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. D. Stead, R. A. Cotton, A. M. Page, M. D. Dooley, T. W. Ford, “Visualization of the effects of electron microscopy fixatives on the structure of hydrated epidermal hairs of tomato (Lycopersicum peruvianum) as revealed by soft x-ray contact microscopy,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy, C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 351–362 (1992).
[Crossref]

Pine, J.

J. R. Gilbert, J. Pine, “Imaging and etching: soft x-ray microscopy on whole wet cells,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy, C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 402–408 (1992).
[Crossref]

Polack, F.

G. Koren, F. Polack, D. Joyeux, “Iterative algorithms for twin-image elimination in in-line holography using finite-support constraints,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 423–433 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. Joyeux, S. Lowenthal, F. Polack, A. Bernstein, “X-ray microscopy by holography at LURE,” in X-Ray Microscopy II, Vol. 56 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, D. Sayre, M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds. (Springer, Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 246–252.

D. Joyeux, F. Polack, “Progress in optical reconstruction of submicron x-ray holograms,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, Vol. 2 of OSA Proceedings Series, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 295–302.

Rarback, H.

H. Rarback, C. Buckley, H. Ade, F. Camilo, R. DiGennaro, S. Hellman, M. Howells, N. Iskander, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Krinsky, S. Lindaas, I. McNulty, M. Oversluizen, S. Rothman, D. Sayre, M. Sharnoff, D. Shu, “Coherent radiation for x-ray imaging—the soft x-ray undulator and the X1A beamline at the NSLS,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 274–296 (1990).
[Crossref]

Rivers, M.

C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, H. Chapman, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, M. Rivers, S. Wang, S. Williams, S. Wirick, X. Zhang, “The X-1A scanning transmission x-ray microscope: optics and instrumentation,” in X-Ray Microscopy IV, V. V. Aristov, A. I. Erko, eds. (Bogorovski Pechatnik, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 1994), pp. 304–321.

Rosen, M. D.

Rothman, S.

C. Jacobsen, M. Howells, J. Kirz, S. Rothman, “X-ray holographic microscopy using photoresists,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1847–1861 (1990).
[Crossref]

H. Rarback, C. Buckley, H. Ade, F. Camilo, R. DiGennaro, S. Hellman, M. Howells, N. Iskander, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Krinsky, S. Lindaas, I. McNulty, M. Oversluizen, S. Rothman, D. Sayre, M. Sharnoff, D. Shu, “Coherent radiation for x-ray imaging—the soft x-ray undulator and the X1A beamline at the NSLS,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 274–296 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, R. Feder, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “X-ray holograms at improved resolution: a study of zymogen granules,” Science 238, 514–517 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, M. Howells, R. Feder, D. Sayre, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Progress in high resolution x-ray holographic microscopy,” in X-Ray Microscopy II, Vol. 56 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, D. Sayre, M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds. (Springer, Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 253–262.

Sarid, D.

D. Sarid, Scanning Force Microscopy (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1991).

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).

Sayre, D.

H. Rarback, C. Buckley, H. Ade, F. Camilo, R. DiGennaro, S. Hellman, M. Howells, N. Iskander, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Krinsky, S. Lindaas, I. McNulty, M. Oversluizen, S. Rothman, D. Sayre, M. Sharnoff, D. Shu, “Coherent radiation for x-ray imaging—the soft x-ray undulator and the X1A beamline at the NSLS,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 274–296 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Transmission microscopy of unmodified biological materials: comparative radiation dosages with electrons and ultrasoft x-ray photons,” Ultramicroscopy 2, 337–341 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Spiller, R. Feder, J. Topalian, D. Eastman, W. Gudat, D. Sayre, “X-ray microscopy of biological objects with carbon Kαand with synchrotron radiation,” Science 191, 1172–1174 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, M. Howells, R. Feder, D. Sayre, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Progress in high resolution x-ray holographic microscopy,” in X-Ray Microscopy II, Vol. 56 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, D. Sayre, M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds. (Springer, Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 253–262.

Seyfried, P.

P. Becker, P. Seyfried, H. Siegert, “Translation stage for a scanning x-ray optical interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 207–211 (1987).
[Crossref]

Sharnoff, M.

H. Rarback, C. Buckley, H. Ade, F. Camilo, R. DiGennaro, S. Hellman, M. Howells, N. Iskander, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Krinsky, S. Lindaas, I. McNulty, M. Oversluizen, S. Rothman, D. Sayre, M. Sharnoff, D. Shu, “Coherent radiation for x-ray imaging—the soft x-ray undulator and the X1A beamline at the NSLS,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 274–296 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shu, D.

H. Rarback, C. Buckley, H. Ade, F. Camilo, R. DiGennaro, S. Hellman, M. Howells, N. Iskander, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Krinsky, S. Lindaas, I. McNulty, M. Oversluizen, S. Rothman, D. Sayre, M. Sharnoff, D. Shu, “Coherent radiation for x-ray imaging—the soft x-ray undulator and the X1A beamline at the NSLS,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 274–296 (1990).
[Crossref]

Siegert, H.

P. Becker, P. Seyfried, H. Siegert, “Translation stage for a scanning x-ray optical interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 207–211 (1987).
[Crossref]

Simpson, M. J.

M. J. Simpson, A. G. Michette, “The effects of manufacturing inaccuracies on the imaging properties of Fresnel zone plates,” Opt. Acta 30, 1455–1462 (1983) (now J. Mod. Opt.).
[Crossref]

Smith, H. I.

R. J. Hawryluk, H. I. Smith, A. Soares, A. M. Hawryluk, “Energy dissipation in a thin polymer film by electron scattering: experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2528–2537 (1975).
[Crossref]

Smith, S. T.

S. T. Smith, D. G. Chetwynd, Foundations of Ultraprecision Mechanism Design (Gordon & Breach, Reading, U.K., 1992).

Soares, A.

R. J. Hawryluk, H. I. Smith, A. Soares, A. M. Hawryluk, “Energy dissipation in a thin polymer film by electron scattering: experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2528–2537 (1975).
[Crossref]

Solem, J. C.

J. C. Solem, “Imaging biological specimens with high-intensity soft x rays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1551–1565 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. C. Solem, G. C. Baldwin, “Microholography of living organisms,” Science 218, 229–235 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spiller, E.

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Transmission microscopy of unmodified biological materials: comparative radiation dosages with electrons and ultrasoft x-ray photons,” Ultramicroscopy 2, 337–341 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Spiller, R. Feder, J. Topalian, D. Eastman, W. Gudat, D. Sayre, “X-ray microscopy of biological objects with carbon Kαand with synchrotron radiation,” Science 191, 1172–1174 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stead, A. D.

A. D. Stead, R. A. Cotton, J. G. Duckett, J. A. Goode, A. M. Page, T. W. Ford, “The use of soft x rays to study the ultrastructure of living biological material,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 5, 52–64 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. D. Stead, R. A. Cotton, A. M. Page, M. D. Dooley, T. W. Ford, “Visualization of the effects of electron microscopy fixatives on the structure of hydrated epidermal hairs of tomato (Lycopersicum peruvianum) as revealed by soft x-ray contact microscopy,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy, C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 351–362 (1992).
[Crossref]

Stone, G. F.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of x-ray holography with an x-ray laser,” Science 238, 517–519 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szoke, H.

I. McNulty, J. E. Trebes, J. M. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy, C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1992).
[Crossref]

Taylor, K. A.

R. M. Glaeser, K. A. Taylor, “Radiation damage relative to transmission electron microscopy of biological specimens at low temperature: a review,” J. Microsc. 112, 127–138 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, B. J.

G. A. Tyler, B. J. Thompson, “Fraunhofer holography applied to particle size analysis: a reassessment,” Opt. Acta 23, 685–700 (1976).
[Crossref]

Topalian, J.

E. Spiller, R. Feder, J. Topalian, D. Eastman, W. Gudat, D. Sayre, “X-ray microscopy of biological objects with carbon Kαand with synchrotron radiation,” Science 191, 1172–1174 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trebes, J. E.

R. A. London, M. D. Rosen, J. E. Trebes, “Wavelength choice for soft x-ray laser holography of biological samples,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3397–3404 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of x-ray holography with an x-ray laser,” Science 238, 517–519 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. McNulty, J. E. Trebes, J. M. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy, C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. A. London, J. E. Trebes, C. J. Jacobsen, “Role of x-ray induced damage in biological microimaging,” in Soft X-ray Microscopy, C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 333–340 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tyler, G. A.

G. A. Tyler, B. J. Thompson, “Fraunhofer holography applied to particle size analysis: a reassessment,” Opt. Acta 23, 685–700 (1976).
[Crossref]

van’t Hof, J.

S. Williams, X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, J. van’t Hof, S. S. Lamm, “Measurements of wet metaphase chromosomes in the scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” J. Microsc. 170, 155–165 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. P. Williams, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, X. Zhang, J. van’t Hof, S. Lamm, “Radiation damage to chromosomes in the scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy; C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds. Proc. SPIE1741, 318–324 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, H. Chapman, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, M. Rivers, S. Wang, S. Williams, S. Wirick, X. Zhang, “The X-1A scanning transmission x-ray microscope: optics and instrumentation,” in X-Ray Microscopy IV, V. V. Aristov, A. I. Erko, eds. (Bogorovski Pechatnik, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 1994), pp. 304–321.

Watanabe, H.

Y. Ochiai, M. Baba, H. Watanabe, S. Matsui, “Ten nanometer resolution nanolithography using newly developed 50-kV electron beam direct writing system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. B 30, 3266–3271 (1991).
[Crossref]

Whelan, D. A.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of x-ray holography with an x-ray laser,” Science 238, 517–519 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, S.

X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, S. Lindaas, S. Williams, “Exposure strategies for PMMA from in situXANES spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1477–1483 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Williams, X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, J. van’t Hof, S. S. Lamm, “Measurements of wet metaphase chromosomes in the scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” J. Microsc. 170, 155–165 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, H. Chapman, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, M. Rivers, S. Wang, S. Williams, S. Wirick, X. Zhang, “The X-1A scanning transmission x-ray microscope: optics and instrumentation,” in X-Ray Microscopy IV, V. V. Aristov, A. I. Erko, eds. (Bogorovski Pechatnik, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 1994), pp. 304–321.

Williams, S. P.

S. P. Williams, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, X. Zhang, J. van’t Hof, S. Lamm, “Radiation damage to chromosomes in the scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy; C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds. Proc. SPIE1741, 318–324 (1992).
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Winick, H.

H. Winick, “The linac coherent light source (lcls)—a fourth generation light source using the slac,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 75, 1–8 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wirick, S.

C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, H. Chapman, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, M. Rivers, S. Wang, S. Williams, S. Wirick, X. Zhang, “The X-1A scanning transmission x-ray microscope: optics and instrumentation,” in X-Ray Microscopy IV, V. V. Aristov, A. I. Erko, eds. (Bogorovski Pechatnik, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 1994), pp. 304–321.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980).

Yorkey, T. J.

I. McNulty, J. E. Trebes, J. M. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy, C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, S. Lindaas, S. Williams, “Exposure strategies for PMMA from in situXANES spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1477–1483 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Williams, X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, J. van’t Hof, S. S. Lamm, “Measurements of wet metaphase chromosomes in the scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” J. Microsc. 170, 155–165 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, H. Chapman, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, M. Rivers, S. Wang, S. Williams, S. Wirick, X. Zhang, “The X-1A scanning transmission x-ray microscope: optics and instrumentation,” in X-Ray Microscopy IV, V. V. Aristov, A. I. Erko, eds. (Bogorovski Pechatnik, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 1994), pp. 304–321.

S. P. Williams, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, X. Zhang, J. van’t Hof, S. Lamm, “Radiation damage to chromosomes in the scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” in Soft X-Ray Microscopy; C. Jacobsen, J. Trebes, eds. Proc. SPIE1741, 318–324 (1992).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (1)

V. V. Aristov, G. A. Ivanova, “On the possibility of utilizing holographic schemes in x-ray microscopy,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 12, 19–24 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. J. Hawryluk, H. I. Smith, A. Soares, A. M. Hawryluk, “Energy dissipation in a thin polymer film by electron scattering: experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2528–2537 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

H. Winick, “The linac coherent light source (lcls)—a fourth generation light source using the slac,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 75, 1–8 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc. (2)

S. Williams, X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, J. van’t Hof, S. S. Lamm, “Measurements of wet metaphase chromosomes in the scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” J. Microsc. 170, 155–165 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. M. Glaeser, K. A. Taylor, “Radiation damage relative to transmission electron microscopy of biological specimens at low temperature: a review,” J. Microsc. 112, 127–138 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. E. Griffith, H. M. Marchman, L. C. Hopkins, “Edge position measurement with a scanning probe microscope,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 3567–3570 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, S. Lindaas, S. Williams, “Exposure strategies for PMMA from in situXANES spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1477–1483 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. (2)

A. D. Stead, R. A. Cotton, J. G. Duckett, J. A. Goode, A. M. Page, T. W. Ford, “The use of soft x rays to study the ultrastructure of living biological material,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 5, 52–64 (1995).
[Crossref]

H. Rarback, C. Buckley, H. Ade, F. Camilo, R. DiGennaro, S. Hellman, M. Howells, N. Iskander, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Krinsky, S. Lindaas, I. McNulty, M. Oversluizen, S. Rothman, D. Sayre, M. Sharnoff, D. Shu, “Coherent radiation for x-ray imaging—the soft x-ray undulator and the X1A beamline at the NSLS,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 274–296 (1990).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Aoki, S. Kikuta, “X-ray holographic microscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 1385–1392 (1974).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. Ochiai, M. Baba, H. Watanabe, S. Matsui, “Ten nanometer resolution nanolithography using newly developed 50-kV electron beam direct writing system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. B 30, 3266–3271 (1991).
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Opt. Acta (2)

M. J. Simpson, A. G. Michette, “The effects of manufacturing inaccuracies on the imaging properties of Fresnel zone plates,” Opt. Acta 30, 1455–1462 (1983) (now J. Mod. Opt.).
[Crossref]

G. A. Tyler, B. J. Thompson, “Fraunhofer holography applied to particle size analysis: a reassessment,” Opt. Acta 23, 685–700 (1976).
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Opt. Eng. (1)

J. R. Fienup, “Iterative method applied to image reconstruction and computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 19, 297–305 (1980).
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Optik (Stuttgart) (1)

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).

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J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, M. Howells, “Soft x-ray microscopy,” Q. Rev. Biophys. QRB 28, 33–130 (1995). Also available as Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory report LBL-36371.
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A. G. Michette, “X-ray microscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 51, 1525–1606 (1988).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. Becker, P. Seyfried, H. Siegert, “Translation stage for a scanning x-ray optical interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 207–211 (1987).
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Science (5)

E. Spiller, R. Feder, J. Topalian, D. Eastman, W. Gudat, D. Sayre, “X-ray microscopy of biological objects with carbon Kαand with synchrotron radiation,” Science 191, 1172–1174 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Solem, G. C. Baldwin, “Microholography of living organisms,” Science 218, 229–235 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, R. Feder, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “X-ray holograms at improved resolution: a study of zymogen granules,” Science 238, 514–517 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of x-ray holography with an x-ray laser,” Science 238, 517–519 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, D. Kern, M. Howells, “High-resolution imaging by Fourier transform x-ray holography,” Science 256, 1009–1012 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (2)

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Transmission microscopy of unmodified biological materials: comparative radiation dosages with electrons and ultrasoft x-ray photons,” Ultramicroscopy 2, 337–341 (1977).
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Z. Naturforsch. Teil A (1)

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic showing parameters used in our discussion on Gabor holography. The top schematic (A) illustrates the recording scheme, while the bottom diagram (B) shows the reconstruction layout. The hologram is formed by recording the fringes of the interference between the scattered wave and the incident wave. The reconstructed images are formed in this case by using the hologram as a diffracting structure illuminated by the original reference beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of one bending element from the stage. When used in the whole stage the hinge is designed to translate along F without rotation. Table 1 lists the hinge dimensions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Custom stage built for the atomic force microscope (AFM). The inner stage is the fast (x) axis. The two piezos are oriented orthogonal to each other. A, B, and C are through holes for the tripod-mounted cantilever deflection sensing unit, while S is the mounting hole for the z piezo.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of our custom AFM’s interface. Forces acting on the probe tip cause the cantilever to bend, which is monitored by a sensor. The signal is then used in the z-drive feedback, which regulates the sample–tip force.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gabor hologram from a 12-μm-diameter gold wire. The plots show the average of the 30 lines outlined in the image. Fringes are visible out to the edge of the field of view. The plots show a fringe positioning accuracy of <0.1 μm and a height resolution of approximately 1 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical layout of the X1A beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The numbers correspond to the distance in meters from the optical element to the undulator center, which has a horizontal source size of 390 μm and a vertical source size of 18 μm (both rms half-widths). In the horizontal plane (A), the exit slit (width dh) of a spherical grating monochromator is used as a spatial filter for coherent illumination of the hologram located a distance lh = 1.98 m away. In the vertical plane (B), a cylindrical mirror produces a vertical source of height dv = 23 μm at a distance lv = 7.63 m downstream of the sample.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The photoresist used to record the hologram is rigidly mounted to the specimen support by using a spacer to set the specimen-to-hologram distance z.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Line trace across the edge of a reconstructed hologram of a diatom with each pixel indicated by a hatch mark. We take as a measure of our resolution the distance it takes to go from 20% to 80% of the maximum amplitude. This distance is 1 or 2 pixels, each of which is 31 nm. The ripples are due to twin-image noise and are expected from theoretical calculations (see the text).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Visible-light micrograph (top) and reconstructed x-ray hologram (bottom) of a critical point dried NIL8 hamster neural fibroblast that was grown in culture on a film supported by a gold mesh. Much of the cell is out of this field of view; the nucleus is beyond the upper right boundary of this image. Many intercellular organelles are shown at the upper right corners, and further structures are shown within the pseudopod at center right in the images. The boxed areas are shown in greater detail in visible-light, x-ray holographic, and transmission electron micrographs as follows: A: Fig. 10; B: Fig. 11; C: Fig. 12; and D: Fig. 13.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Visible-light, x-ray holographic, and transmission electron micrographs of a long protrusion from the NIL8 cell shown in region A of Fig. 9. The x-ray image shows clearly the organelles at upper right in the image, and the very small tendril at lower left, which is difficult to see in the visible-light micrograph.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Visible-light, x-ray holographic, and transmission electron micrographs of the edge of the NIL8 cell at region B of Fig. 9. The x-ray image resolves the edge structures from this region as well as internal voids that are difficult to visualize in the visible-light micrograph.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Visible-light, x-ray holographic, and transmission electron micrographs of an organelle at region C in the middle of the NIL8 cell pseudopod of Fig. 9. This area is well within the pseudopod in a region where the x-ray holographic technique should have trouble working well. However, the x-ray hologram reconstructs well and clearly shows structure not easily visualized in the visible-light image.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Visible-light, x-ray holographic, and transmission electron micrographs of the edge of the NIL8 cell at region D of Fig. 9.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Design Values for the Aluminum Stage’s Flexure Dimensionsa

Equations (13)

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Δ s λ z 2 x 0 = λ 2 ( N . A . ) = δ t .
N = ( 2 x 0 ) 2 λ z = 4 ( N . A . ) 2 z λ = λ z Δ s 2 ,
λ Δ λ > x 0 2 2 λ z = ( N . A . ) 2 z 2 λ = N 8 .
w c > x 0 = ( N . A . ) z .
t d = T η R 0 ( D D 0 ) γ = k D γ ,
h = l 2 4 E I ( l 3 + L 2 ) F ,
ψ ( x i , y i : z ) = - ψ 0 ( x , y : 0 ) g ( x , y ) × h ( x i - x , y i - y : z ) d x d y .
h ( x i - x , y i - y : z ) = i λ exp ( - i 2 π r / λ ) r cos θ ,
ψ ( x i , y i : z ) = F - 1 { G ( f x , f y ) H ( f x , f y : z ) } ,
H ( f x , f y : z ) = exp [ - i 2 π z λ ( 1 - f x 2 - f y 2 ) 1 / 2 ] = exp ( - i 2 π z λ ) exp [ i π λ z ( f x 2 + f y 2 ) + i π λ 3 z 4 ( f x 2 + f y 2 ) 2 + ] .
H ( f x , f y : z ) exp [ i π λ z ( f x 2 + f y 2 ) ] .
t ( x , y ) = t 0 - k [ I ( x , y ) ] γ ,
I ( x , y ) = [ t 0 - t ( x , y ) k ] 1 / γ .

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