Abstract

Patients with central retinal vein occlusion who later develop iris neovascularization show changes in the amplitude, the timing, and the sensitivity of the electroretinogram b wave. We determined the extent to which rod photoreceptor dysfunction contributes to these changes by recording single-flash electroretinograms from both eyes of 52 patients with unilateral central retinal vein occlusion and fitting the leading edges of a waves with a model of rod phototransduction. Eyes with central retinal vein occlusion showed reductions in photoreceptor gain but no changes in photoreceptor amplitude when compared with the fellow eyes. The reductions were larger in eyes that developed iris neovascularization and were predictive of this complication. Photoreceptor gain reductions accounted for only part of the b-wave timing delays and sensitivity loss; the remainder is attributed to functional loss in the inner nuclear layer.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. A. Klein, J. H. Olwin, “A survey of the pathogenesis of retinal venous occlusion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 56, 207–247 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. S. Hayreh, “Retinal vein occlusion,” Ind. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 109–132 (1994).
  3. S. S. Hayreh, P. Rojas, P. Podhajsky, P. Montague, R. F. Woolson, “Ocular neovascularization with retinal vascular occlusion III. Incidence of ocular neovascularization with retinal vein occlusion,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 488–506 (1983).
  4. M. A. Johnson, T. J. McPhee, “Electroretinographic findings in iris neovascularization due to acute central retinal vein occlusion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 806–814 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. A. Johnson, S. Marcus, M. J. Elman, T. J. McPhee, “Neovascularization in central retinal vein occlusion: electroretinographic findings,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 348–352 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “A quantitative measure of the electrical activity of human rod photoreceptors using electroretinography,” Vis. Neurosci. 5, 379–387 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “The a-wave of the human ERG and rod receptor function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 2070–2081 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  8. M. E. Breton, D. Montzka, “Empirical limits of rod photocurrent component response in the electroretinogram,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 79, 337–361 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. D. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “A quantitative account of the activation steps involved in phototransduction in amphibian photoreceptors,” J. Physiol. (London) 499, 719–758 (1992).
  10. A. V. Cideciyan, S. G. Jacobson, “Negative electroretinograms in retinitis pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 3253–3263 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  11. D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Light adaptation of human rod receptors: the leading edge of the human a-wave and models of rod receptor activity,” Vis. Res. 33, 1605–1618 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Rod phototransduction in retinitis pigmentosa: estimation and interpretation of parameters derived from the rod a-wave,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2948–2961 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  13. M. E. Breton, A. Schueller, T. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “Analysis of ERG a-wave amplification and kinetics in terms of the G-protein cascade of phototransduction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 295–309 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  14. D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “A computational model of the amplitude and implicit time of the b-wave of the human ERG,” Vis. Neurosci. 8, 107–126 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. M. Green, J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Krieger, New York, 1974), pp. 45–49.
  16. R. Sabates, T. Hirose, J. W. McMeel, “Electroretinography in the prognosis and classification of central retinal vein occlusion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 101, 232–235 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. A. Johnson, “B/A-wave amplitude ratios in retinal vascular disease,” in Principles and Practice of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision, J. Heckenlively, G. Arden, eds. (Mosby-Year Book, St. Louis, Mo., 1991), pp. 531–536.
  18. R. A. Linsenmeier, R. H. Steinberg, “Effects of hypoxia on potassium homeostasis and pigment epithelial cells in the cat retina,” J. Gen. Physiol. 84, 945–970 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. W. Flower, A. Patz, “The effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on retinal ischemia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 10, 605–616 (1971).
    [PubMed]

1994 (3)

S. S. Hayreh, “Retinal vein occlusion,” Ind. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 109–132 (1994).

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Rod phototransduction in retinitis pigmentosa: estimation and interpretation of parameters derived from the rod a-wave,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2948–2961 (1994).
[PubMed]

M. E. Breton, A. Schueller, T. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “Analysis of ERG a-wave amplification and kinetics in terms of the G-protein cascade of phototransduction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 295–309 (1994).
[PubMed]

1993 (3)

A. V. Cideciyan, S. G. Jacobson, “Negative electroretinograms in retinitis pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 3253–3263 (1993).
[PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Light adaptation of human rod receptors: the leading edge of the human a-wave and models of rod receptor activity,” Vis. Res. 33, 1605–1618 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Johnson, T. J. McPhee, “Electroretinographic findings in iris neovascularization due to acute central retinal vein occlusion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 806–814 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

M. E. Breton, D. Montzka, “Empirical limits of rod photocurrent component response in the electroretinogram,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 79, 337–361 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “A quantitative account of the activation steps involved in phototransduction in amphibian photoreceptors,” J. Physiol. (London) 499, 719–758 (1992).

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “A computational model of the amplitude and implicit time of the b-wave of the human ERG,” Vis. Neurosci. 8, 107–126 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “A quantitative measure of the electrical activity of human rod photoreceptors using electroretinography,” Vis. Neurosci. 5, 379–387 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “The a-wave of the human ERG and rod receptor function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 2070–2081 (1990).
[PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. A. Johnson, S. Marcus, M. J. Elman, T. J. McPhee, “Neovascularization in central retinal vein occlusion: electroretinographic findings,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 348–352 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

R. A. Linsenmeier, R. H. Steinberg, “Effects of hypoxia on potassium homeostasis and pigment epithelial cells in the cat retina,” J. Gen. Physiol. 84, 945–970 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

R. Sabates, T. Hirose, J. W. McMeel, “Electroretinography in the prognosis and classification of central retinal vein occlusion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 101, 232–235 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Hayreh, P. Rojas, P. Podhajsky, P. Montague, R. F. Woolson, “Ocular neovascularization with retinal vascular occlusion III. Incidence of ocular neovascularization with retinal vein occlusion,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 488–506 (1983).

1971 (1)

R. W. Flower, A. Patz, “The effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on retinal ischemia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 10, 605–616 (1971).
[PubMed]

1956 (1)

B. A. Klein, J. H. Olwin, “A survey of the pathogenesis of retinal venous occlusion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 56, 207–247 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Birch, D. G.

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Rod phototransduction in retinitis pigmentosa: estimation and interpretation of parameters derived from the rod a-wave,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2948–2961 (1994).
[PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Light adaptation of human rod receptors: the leading edge of the human a-wave and models of rod receptor activity,” Vis. Res. 33, 1605–1618 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “A computational model of the amplitude and implicit time of the b-wave of the human ERG,” Vis. Neurosci. 8, 107–126 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “The a-wave of the human ERG and rod receptor function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 2070–2081 (1990).
[PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “A quantitative measure of the electrical activity of human rod photoreceptors using electroretinography,” Vis. Neurosci. 5, 379–387 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breton, M. E.

M. E. Breton, A. Schueller, T. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “Analysis of ERG a-wave amplification and kinetics in terms of the G-protein cascade of phototransduction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 295–309 (1994).
[PubMed]

M. E. Breton, D. Montzka, “Empirical limits of rod photocurrent component response in the electroretinogram,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 79, 337–361 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cideciyan, A. V.

A. V. Cideciyan, S. G. Jacobson, “Negative electroretinograms in retinitis pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 3253–3263 (1993).
[PubMed]

Elman, M. J.

M. A. Johnson, S. Marcus, M. J. Elman, T. J. McPhee, “Neovascularization in central retinal vein occlusion: electroretinographic findings,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 348–352 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flower, R. W.

R. W. Flower, A. Patz, “The effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on retinal ischemia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 10, 605–616 (1971).
[PubMed]

Green, D. M.

D. M. Green, J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Krieger, New York, 1974), pp. 45–49.

Hayreh, S. S.

S. S. Hayreh, “Retinal vein occlusion,” Ind. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 109–132 (1994).

S. S. Hayreh, P. Rojas, P. Podhajsky, P. Montague, R. F. Woolson, “Ocular neovascularization with retinal vascular occlusion III. Incidence of ocular neovascularization with retinal vein occlusion,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 488–506 (1983).

Hirose, T.

R. Sabates, T. Hirose, J. W. McMeel, “Electroretinography in the prognosis and classification of central retinal vein occlusion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 101, 232–235 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hood, D. C.

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Rod phototransduction in retinitis pigmentosa: estimation and interpretation of parameters derived from the rod a-wave,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2948–2961 (1994).
[PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Light adaptation of human rod receptors: the leading edge of the human a-wave and models of rod receptor activity,” Vis. Res. 33, 1605–1618 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “A computational model of the amplitude and implicit time of the b-wave of the human ERG,” Vis. Neurosci. 8, 107–126 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “The a-wave of the human ERG and rod receptor function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 2070–2081 (1990).
[PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “A quantitative measure of the electrical activity of human rod photoreceptors using electroretinography,” Vis. Neurosci. 5, 379–387 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobson, S. G.

A. V. Cideciyan, S. G. Jacobson, “Negative electroretinograms in retinitis pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 3253–3263 (1993).
[PubMed]

Johnson, M. A.

M. A. Johnson, T. J. McPhee, “Electroretinographic findings in iris neovascularization due to acute central retinal vein occlusion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 806–814 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Johnson, S. Marcus, M. J. Elman, T. J. McPhee, “Neovascularization in central retinal vein occlusion: electroretinographic findings,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 348–352 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Johnson, “B/A-wave amplitude ratios in retinal vascular disease,” in Principles and Practice of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision, J. Heckenlively, G. Arden, eds. (Mosby-Year Book, St. Louis, Mo., 1991), pp. 531–536.

Klein, B. A.

B. A. Klein, J. H. Olwin, “A survey of the pathogenesis of retinal venous occlusion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 56, 207–247 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Lamb, T.

M. E. Breton, A. Schueller, T. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “Analysis of ERG a-wave amplification and kinetics in terms of the G-protein cascade of phototransduction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 295–309 (1994).
[PubMed]

Lamb, T. D.

T. D. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “A quantitative account of the activation steps involved in phototransduction in amphibian photoreceptors,” J. Physiol. (London) 499, 719–758 (1992).

Linsenmeier, R. A.

R. A. Linsenmeier, R. H. Steinberg, “Effects of hypoxia on potassium homeostasis and pigment epithelial cells in the cat retina,” J. Gen. Physiol. 84, 945–970 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcus, S.

M. A. Johnson, S. Marcus, M. J. Elman, T. J. McPhee, “Neovascularization in central retinal vein occlusion: electroretinographic findings,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 348–352 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMeel, J. W.

R. Sabates, T. Hirose, J. W. McMeel, “Electroretinography in the prognosis and classification of central retinal vein occlusion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 101, 232–235 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPhee, T. J.

M. A. Johnson, T. J. McPhee, “Electroretinographic findings in iris neovascularization due to acute central retinal vein occlusion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 806–814 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Johnson, S. Marcus, M. J. Elman, T. J. McPhee, “Neovascularization in central retinal vein occlusion: electroretinographic findings,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 348–352 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montague, P.

S. S. Hayreh, P. Rojas, P. Podhajsky, P. Montague, R. F. Woolson, “Ocular neovascularization with retinal vascular occlusion III. Incidence of ocular neovascularization with retinal vein occlusion,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 488–506 (1983).

Montzka, D.

M. E. Breton, D. Montzka, “Empirical limits of rod photocurrent component response in the electroretinogram,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 79, 337–361 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Olwin, J. H.

B. A. Klein, J. H. Olwin, “A survey of the pathogenesis of retinal venous occlusion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 56, 207–247 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Patz, A.

R. W. Flower, A. Patz, “The effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on retinal ischemia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 10, 605–616 (1971).
[PubMed]

Podhajsky, P.

S. S. Hayreh, P. Rojas, P. Podhajsky, P. Montague, R. F. Woolson, “Ocular neovascularization with retinal vascular occlusion III. Incidence of ocular neovascularization with retinal vein occlusion,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 488–506 (1983).

Pugh, E. N.

M. E. Breton, A. Schueller, T. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “Analysis of ERG a-wave amplification and kinetics in terms of the G-protein cascade of phototransduction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 295–309 (1994).
[PubMed]

T. D. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “A quantitative account of the activation steps involved in phototransduction in amphibian photoreceptors,” J. Physiol. (London) 499, 719–758 (1992).

Rojas, P.

S. S. Hayreh, P. Rojas, P. Podhajsky, P. Montague, R. F. Woolson, “Ocular neovascularization with retinal vascular occlusion III. Incidence of ocular neovascularization with retinal vein occlusion,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 488–506 (1983).

Sabates, R.

R. Sabates, T. Hirose, J. W. McMeel, “Electroretinography in the prognosis and classification of central retinal vein occlusion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 101, 232–235 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schueller, A.

M. E. Breton, A. Schueller, T. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “Analysis of ERG a-wave amplification and kinetics in terms of the G-protein cascade of phototransduction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 295–309 (1994).
[PubMed]

Steinberg, R. H.

R. A. Linsenmeier, R. H. Steinberg, “Effects of hypoxia on potassium homeostasis and pigment epithelial cells in the cat retina,” J. Gen. Physiol. 84, 945–970 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swets, J. A.

D. M. Green, J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Krieger, New York, 1974), pp. 45–49.

Woolson, R. F.

S. S. Hayreh, P. Rojas, P. Podhajsky, P. Montague, R. F. Woolson, “Ocular neovascularization with retinal vascular occlusion III. Incidence of ocular neovascularization with retinal vein occlusion,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 488–506 (1983).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. S. Hayreh, P. Rojas, P. Podhajsky, P. Montague, R. F. Woolson, “Ocular neovascularization with retinal vascular occlusion III. Incidence of ocular neovascularization with retinal vein occlusion,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 488–506 (1983).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (4)

M. A. Johnson, T. J. McPhee, “Electroretinographic findings in iris neovascularization due to acute central retinal vein occlusion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 806–814 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Johnson, S. Marcus, M. J. Elman, T. J. McPhee, “Neovascularization in central retinal vein occlusion: electroretinographic findings,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 348–352 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Klein, J. H. Olwin, “A survey of the pathogenesis of retinal venous occlusion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 56, 207–247 (1956).
[CrossRef]

R. Sabates, T. Hirose, J. W. McMeel, “Electroretinography in the prognosis and classification of central retinal vein occlusion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 101, 232–235 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doc. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. E. Breton, D. Montzka, “Empirical limits of rod photocurrent component response in the electroretinogram,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 79, 337–361 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ind. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. S. Hayreh, “Retinal vein occlusion,” Ind. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 109–132 (1994).

Invest. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. W. Flower, A. Patz, “The effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on retinal ischemia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 10, 605–616 (1971).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (4)

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “The a-wave of the human ERG and rod receptor function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 2070–2081 (1990).
[PubMed]

A. V. Cideciyan, S. G. Jacobson, “Negative electroretinograms in retinitis pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 3253–3263 (1993).
[PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Rod phototransduction in retinitis pigmentosa: estimation and interpretation of parameters derived from the rod a-wave,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2948–2961 (1994).
[PubMed]

M. E. Breton, A. Schueller, T. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “Analysis of ERG a-wave amplification and kinetics in terms of the G-protein cascade of phototransduction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 295–309 (1994).
[PubMed]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

R. A. Linsenmeier, R. H. Steinberg, “Effects of hypoxia on potassium homeostasis and pigment epithelial cells in the cat retina,” J. Gen. Physiol. 84, 945–970 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

T. D. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, “A quantitative account of the activation steps involved in phototransduction in amphibian photoreceptors,” J. Physiol. (London) 499, 719–758 (1992).

Vis. Neurosci. (2)

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “A quantitative measure of the electrical activity of human rod photoreceptors using electroretinography,” Vis. Neurosci. 5, 379–387 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “A computational model of the amplitude and implicit time of the b-wave of the human ERG,” Vis. Neurosci. 8, 107–126 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vis. Res. (1)

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Light adaptation of human rod receptors: the leading edge of the human a-wave and models of rod receptor activity,” Vis. Res. 33, 1605–1618 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. A. Johnson, “B/A-wave amplitude ratios in retinal vascular disease,” in Principles and Practice of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision, J. Heckenlively, G. Arden, eds. (Mosby-Year Book, St. Louis, Mo., 1991), pp. 531–536.

D. M. Green, J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Krieger, New York, 1974), pp. 45–49.

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