Abstract

The techniques of laser Doppler and time-varying speckle can both be used to measure velocities. The two techniques have developed separately, and there has been little interchange of ideas between them. The essential equivalence of the two techniques for measuring line-of-sight velocities is demonstrated, and ways in which the two techniques might learn from each other are suggested.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. P. N. Pusey, “Photon correlation study of laser speckle produced by a moving rough surface,” J. Phys. D 9, 1399–1409 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. B. Abbiss, T. W. Chubb, E. R. Pike, “Laser Doppler anemometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 249–261 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. T. J. H. Essex, P. O. Byrne, “A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin,” J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189–194 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Nilsson, A. Jakobsson, K. Wårdell, “Tissue perfusion monitoring and imaging by coherent light scattering,” in Bioptics: Optics in Biomedicine and Environmental Sciences, O. D. Soares, A. V. Scheggi, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1524, 90–109 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Blood flow observed by time-varying laser speckle,” Opt. Lett. 10, 104–106 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Aizu, K. Ogino, T. Koyama, N. Takai, T. Asakura, “Evaluation of retinal blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Jpn. Soc. Laser Med. 8, 89–90 (1987).
  14. J. Ohtsubo, T. Asakura, “Velocity measurement of a diffuse object by using time-varying speckle,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 523–529 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. F. Fercher, “Velocity measurement by first-order statistics of time-differentiated laser speckles,” Opt. Commun. 33, 129–135 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Yamamoto, H. Ikawa, T. Ohura, “Evaluation of blood flow by laser speckle image sensing. Part 1,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5321–5325 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. B. Ruth, “Superposition of two dynamic speckle patterns: an application to non-contact blood flow measurements,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 257–273 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Ruth, “Non-contact blood flow determination using a laser speckle method,” Opt. Laser Technol. 20, 309–316 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Takai, T. Iwai, T. Ushizaka, T. Asakura, “Velocity measurement of the diffuse object based on time-differentiated speckle intensity fluctuations,” Opt. Commun. 30, 287–292 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326–329 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. D. Briers, S. Webster, “Quasi real-time digital version of single-exposure speckle photography for full-field monitoring of velocity or flow fields,” Opt. Commun. 116, 36–42 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, A. E. Ennos, “Recording of in-plane surface displacement by double-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Acta 17, 883–898 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Aizu, H. Ambar, T. Yamamoto, T. Asakura, “Measurements of flow velocity in a microscopic region using dynamic laser speckles based on the photon correlation,” Opt. Commun. 72, 269–273 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Aizu, T. Asakura, “Bio-speckle phenomena and their application to the evaluation of blood flow,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 205–219 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Fujii, T. Asakura, T. Okamoto, “Detection properties of an optical fiber probe for laser speckle velocimetry,” Opt. Commun. 55, 393–398 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  26. B. Ruth, “Superposition of two dynamic speckle patterns,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 2421–2436 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. Ruth, “Measuring the steady-state value and the dynamics of the skin blood flow using the non-contact laser speckle method,” Med. Eng. Phys. 16, 105–111 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M. D. Stern, “In vivoevaluation of microcirculation by coherent light scattering,” Nature (London) 254, 56–58 (March6, 1975).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. E. Riva, B. L. Petrig, R. D. Shonat, C. J. Pournaras, “Scattering process in LDV from retinal vessels,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1078–1083 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. D. Stern, “Laser Doppler velocimetry in blood and multiply scattering fluids: theory,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1968–1986 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. H. W. Jentink, F. F. M. de Mul, R. G. A. M. Hermsen, R. Graaff, J. Greve, “Monte Carlo simulations of laser Doppler blood flow measurements in tissue,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2371–2381 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  32. N. Konishi, H. Fujii, “Real-time visualization of retinal microcirculation by laser flowgraphy,” Opt. Eng. 34, 753–757 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S. N. Ma, Q. Lin, “Laser speckle velocimetry: using modulated dynamic speckle to measure velocity of moving diffusers,” Appl. Opt. 25, 22–25 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. T. Yoshimura, “Statistical properties of dynamic speckles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1032–1054 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  35. H. Breyer, W. Staude, “The differential speckle velocimetry—a method to measure the velocity of random patterns,” Opt. Commun. 73, 422–428 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (2)

J. D. Briers, S. Webster, “Quasi real-time digital version of single-exposure speckle photography for full-field monitoring of velocity or flow fields,” Opt. Commun. 116, 36–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Konishi, H. Fujii, “Real-time visualization of retinal microcirculation by laser flowgraphy,” Opt. Eng. 34, 753–757 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

B. Ruth, “Measuring the steady-state value and the dynamics of the skin blood flow using the non-contact laser speckle method,” Med. Eng. Phys. 16, 105–111 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

B. Ruth, “Superposition of two dynamic speckle patterns,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 2421–2436 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

H. W. Jentink, F. F. M. de Mul, R. G. A. M. Hermsen, R. Graaff, J. Greve, “Monte Carlo simulations of laser Doppler blood flow measurements in tissue,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2371–2381 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aizu, T. Asakura, “Bio-speckle phenomena and their application to the evaluation of blood flow,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 205–219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. H. Essex, P. O. Byrne, “A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin,” J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189–194 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (3)

Y. Aizu, H. Ambar, T. Yamamoto, T. Asakura, “Measurements of flow velocity in a microscopic region using dynamic laser speckles based on the photon correlation,” Opt. Commun. 72, 269–273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Riva, B. L. Petrig, R. D. Shonat, C. J. Pournaras, “Scattering process in LDV from retinal vessels,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1078–1083 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Breyer, W. Staude, “The differential speckle velocimetry—a method to measure the velocity of random patterns,” Opt. Commun. 73, 422–428 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

B. Ruth, “Non-contact blood flow determination using a laser speckle method,” Opt. Laser Technol. 20, 309–316 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

Y. Aizu, K. Ogino, T. Koyama, N. Takai, T. Asakura, “Evaluation of retinal blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Jpn. Soc. Laser Med. 8, 89–90 (1987).

B. Ruth, “Superposition of two dynamic speckle patterns: an application to non-contact blood flow measurements,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 257–273 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Yamamoto, H. Ikawa, T. Ohura, “Evaluation of blood flow by laser speckle image sensing. Part 1,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5321–5325 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

1985 (3)

1981 (1)

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326–329 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. F. Fercher, “Velocity measurement by first-order statistics of time-differentiated laser speckles,” Opt. Commun. 33, 129–135 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

N. Takai, T. Iwai, T. Ushizaka, T. Asakura, “Velocity measurement of the diffuse object based on time-differentiated speckle intensity fluctuations,” Opt. Commun. 30, 287–292 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. D. Briers, “The statistics of fluctuating speckle patterns produced by a mixture of moving and stationary scatterers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 10, 364–366 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

P. N. Pusey, “Photon correlation study of laser speckle produced by a moving rough surface,” J. Phys. D 9, 1399–1409 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Ohtsubo, T. Asakura, “Velocity measurement of a diffuse object by using time-varying speckle,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 523–529 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

J. D. Briers, “Wavelength dependence of intensity fluctuations in laser speckle patterns from biological specimens,” Opt. Commun. 13, 324–326 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Stern, “In vivoevaluation of microcirculation by coherent light scattering,” Nature (London) 254, 56–58 (March6, 1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. B. Abbiss, T. W. Chubb, E. R. Pike, “Laser Doppler anemometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 249–261 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, A. E. Ennos, “Recording of in-plane surface displacement by double-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Acta 17, 883–898 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Abbiss, J. B.

J. B. Abbiss, T. W. Chubb, E. R. Pike, “Laser Doppler anemometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 249–261 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Aizu, Y.

Y. Aizu, T. Asakura, “Bio-speckle phenomena and their application to the evaluation of blood flow,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 205–219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aizu, H. Ambar, T. Yamamoto, T. Asakura, “Measurements of flow velocity in a microscopic region using dynamic laser speckles based on the photon correlation,” Opt. Commun. 72, 269–273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aizu, K. Ogino, T. Koyama, N. Takai, T. Asakura, “Evaluation of retinal blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Jpn. Soc. Laser Med. 8, 89–90 (1987).

Ambar, H.

Y. Aizu, H. Ambar, T. Yamamoto, T. Asakura, “Measurements of flow velocity in a microscopic region using dynamic laser speckles based on the photon correlation,” Opt. Commun. 72, 269–273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Archbold, E.

E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, A. E. Ennos, “Recording of in-plane surface displacement by double-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Acta 17, 883–898 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Asakura, T.

Y. Aizu, T. Asakura, “Bio-speckle phenomena and their application to the evaluation of blood flow,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 205–219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aizu, H. Ambar, T. Yamamoto, T. Asakura, “Measurements of flow velocity in a microscopic region using dynamic laser speckles based on the photon correlation,” Opt. Commun. 72, 269–273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aizu, K. Ogino, T. Koyama, N. Takai, T. Asakura, “Evaluation of retinal blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Jpn. Soc. Laser Med. 8, 89–90 (1987).

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, T. Okamoto, “Detection properties of an optical fiber probe for laser speckle velocimetry,” Opt. Commun. 55, 393–398 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Blood flow observed by time-varying laser speckle,” Opt. Lett. 10, 104–106 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Takai, T. Iwai, T. Ushizaka, T. Asakura, “Velocity measurement of the diffuse object based on time-differentiated speckle intensity fluctuations,” Opt. Commun. 30, 287–292 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Ohtsubo, T. Asakura, “Velocity measurement of a diffuse object by using time-varying speckle,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 523–529 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Breyer, H.

H. Breyer, W. Staude, “The differential speckle velocimetry—a method to measure the velocity of random patterns,” Opt. Commun. 73, 422–428 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Briers, J. D.

J. D. Briers, S. Webster, “Quasi real-time digital version of single-exposure speckle photography for full-field monitoring of velocity or flow fields,” Opt. Commun. 116, 36–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326–329 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Briers, “The statistics of fluctuating speckle patterns produced by a mixture of moving and stationary scatterers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 10, 364–366 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Briers, “Wavelength dependence of intensity fluctuations in laser speckle patterns from biological specimens,” Opt. Commun. 13, 324–326 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Briers, “Laser speckle techniques in biology and medicine,” in Microscopy, Holography, and Interferometry in Biomedicine, A. F. Fercher, A. Lewis, H. Podbielska, H. Schneckenburger, T. Wilson, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2083, 238–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brosnan, S. J.

H. Komine, S. J. Brosnan, A. B. Litton, E. A. Stappaerts, “Real-time Doppler global velocimetry,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, January 1991 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991), Paper AIAA-91-0337.

Burch, J. M.

E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, A. E. Ennos, “Recording of in-plane surface displacement by double-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Acta 17, 883–898 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, P. O.

T. J. H. Essex, P. O. Byrne, “A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin,” J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189–194 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chubb, T. W.

J. B. Abbiss, T. W. Chubb, E. R. Pike, “Laser Doppler anemometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 249–261 (1974).
[CrossRef]

de Mul, F. F. M.

Ennos, A. E.

E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, A. E. Ennos, “Recording of in-plane surface displacement by double-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Acta 17, 883–898 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Essex, T. J. H.

T. J. H. Essex, P. O. Byrne, “A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin,” J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189–194 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326–329 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, “Velocity measurement by first-order statistics of time-differentiated laser speckles,” Opt. Commun. 33, 129–135 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, H.

N. Konishi, H. Fujii, “Real-time visualization of retinal microcirculation by laser flowgraphy,” Opt. Eng. 34, 753–757 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Yamamoto, H. Ikawa, T. Ohura, “Evaluation of blood flow by laser speckle image sensing. Part 1,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5321–5325 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, T. Okamoto, “Detection properties of an optical fiber probe for laser speckle velocimetry,” Opt. Commun. 55, 393–398 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Blood flow observed by time-varying laser speckle,” Opt. Lett. 10, 104–106 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer, Heidelberg/Berlin, 1984), pp. 9–75.

Graaff, R.

Greve, J.

Hermsen, R. G. A. M.

Ikawa, H.

Iwai, T.

N. Takai, T. Iwai, T. Ushizaka, T. Asakura, “Velocity measurement of the diffuse object based on time-differentiated speckle intensity fluctuations,” Opt. Commun. 30, 287–292 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jakobsson, A.

G. Nilsson, A. Jakobsson, K. Wårdell, “Tissue perfusion monitoring and imaging by coherent light scattering,” in Bioptics: Optics in Biomedicine and Environmental Sciences, O. D. Soares, A. V. Scheggi, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1524, 90–109 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jentink, H. W.

Komine, H.

H. Komine, S. J. Brosnan, A. B. Litton, E. A. Stappaerts, “Real-time Doppler global velocimetry,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, January 1991 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991), Paper AIAA-91-0337.

Konishi, N.

N. Konishi, H. Fujii, “Real-time visualization of retinal microcirculation by laser flowgraphy,” Opt. Eng. 34, 753–757 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

Y. Aizu, K. Ogino, T. Koyama, N. Takai, T. Asakura, “Evaluation of retinal blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Jpn. Soc. Laser Med. 8, 89–90 (1987).

Lin, Q.

Litton, A. B.

H. Komine, S. J. Brosnan, A. B. Litton, E. A. Stappaerts, “Real-time Doppler global velocimetry,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, January 1991 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991), Paper AIAA-91-0337.

Ma, S. N.

Nilsson, G.

G. Nilsson, A. Jakobsson, K. Wårdell, “Tissue perfusion monitoring and imaging by coherent light scattering,” in Bioptics: Optics in Biomedicine and Environmental Sciences, O. D. Soares, A. V. Scheggi, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1524, 90–109 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nohira, K.

Ogino, K.

Y. Aizu, K. Ogino, T. Koyama, N. Takai, T. Asakura, “Evaluation of retinal blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Jpn. Soc. Laser Med. 8, 89–90 (1987).

Ohtsubo, J.

J. Ohtsubo, T. Asakura, “Velocity measurement of a diffuse object by using time-varying speckle,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 523–529 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ohura, T.

Okamoto, T.

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, T. Okamoto, “Detection properties of an optical fiber probe for laser speckle velocimetry,” Opt. Commun. 55, 393–398 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Petrig, B. L.

Pike, E. R.

J. B. Abbiss, T. W. Chubb, E. R. Pike, “Laser Doppler anemometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 249–261 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Pournaras, C. J.

Pusey, P. N.

P. N. Pusey, “Photon correlation study of laser speckle produced by a moving rough surface,” J. Phys. D 9, 1399–1409 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Riva, C. E.

Ruth, B.

B. Ruth, “Measuring the steady-state value and the dynamics of the skin blood flow using the non-contact laser speckle method,” Med. Eng. Phys. 16, 105–111 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ruth, “Superposition of two dynamic speckle patterns,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 2421–2436 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Ruth, “Non-contact blood flow determination using a laser speckle method,” Opt. Laser Technol. 20, 309–316 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. Ruth, “Superposition of two dynamic speckle patterns: an application to non-contact blood flow measurements,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 257–273 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shintomi, Y.

Shonat, R. D.

Stappaerts, E. A.

H. Komine, S. J. Brosnan, A. B. Litton, E. A. Stappaerts, “Real-time Doppler global velocimetry,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, January 1991 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991), Paper AIAA-91-0337.

Staude, W.

H. Breyer, W. Staude, “The differential speckle velocimetry—a method to measure the velocity of random patterns,” Opt. Commun. 73, 422–428 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stern, M. D.

M. D. Stern, “Laser Doppler velocimetry in blood and multiply scattering fluids: theory,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1968–1986 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Stern, “In vivoevaluation of microcirculation by coherent light scattering,” Nature (London) 254, 56–58 (March6, 1975).
[CrossRef]

Takai, N.

Y. Aizu, K. Ogino, T. Koyama, N. Takai, T. Asakura, “Evaluation of retinal blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Jpn. Soc. Laser Med. 8, 89–90 (1987).

N. Takai, T. Iwai, T. Ushizaka, T. Asakura, “Velocity measurement of the diffuse object based on time-differentiated speckle intensity fluctuations,” Opt. Commun. 30, 287–292 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ushizaka, T.

N. Takai, T. Iwai, T. Ushizaka, T. Asakura, “Velocity measurement of the diffuse object based on time-differentiated speckle intensity fluctuations,” Opt. Commun. 30, 287–292 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wårdell, K.

G. Nilsson, A. Jakobsson, K. Wårdell, “Tissue perfusion monitoring and imaging by coherent light scattering,” in Bioptics: Optics in Biomedicine and Environmental Sciences, O. D. Soares, A. V. Scheggi, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1524, 90–109 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Webster, S.

J. D. Briers, S. Webster, “Quasi real-time digital version of single-exposure speckle photography for full-field monitoring of velocity or flow fields,” Opt. Commun. 116, 36–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

Y. Aizu, H. Ambar, T. Yamamoto, T. Asakura, “Measurements of flow velocity in a microscopic region using dynamic laser speckles based on the photon correlation,” Opt. Commun. 72, 269–273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

Yoshimura, T.

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Biomed. Eng. (1)

T. J. H. Essex, P. O. Byrne, “A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin,” J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189–194 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jpn. Soc. Laser Med. (1)

Y. Aizu, K. Ogino, T. Koyama, N. Takai, T. Asakura, “Evaluation of retinal blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Jpn. Soc. Laser Med. 8, 89–90 (1987).

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

B. Ruth, “Superposition of two dynamic speckle patterns,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 2421–2436 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Ruth, “Superposition of two dynamic speckle patterns: an application to non-contact blood flow measurements,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 257–273 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

P. N. Pusey, “Photon correlation study of laser speckle produced by a moving rough surface,” J. Phys. D 9, 1399–1409 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Med. Eng. Phys. (1)

B. Ruth, “Measuring the steady-state value and the dynamics of the skin blood flow using the non-contact laser speckle method,” Med. Eng. Phys. 16, 105–111 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (London) (1)

M. D. Stern, “In vivoevaluation of microcirculation by coherent light scattering,” Nature (London) 254, 56–58 (March6, 1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, A. E. Ennos, “Recording of in-plane surface displacement by double-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Acta 17, 883–898 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (8)

Y. Aizu, H. Ambar, T. Yamamoto, T. Asakura, “Measurements of flow velocity in a microscopic region using dynamic laser speckles based on the photon correlation,” Opt. Commun. 72, 269–273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Takai, T. Iwai, T. Ushizaka, T. Asakura, “Velocity measurement of the diffuse object based on time-differentiated speckle intensity fluctuations,” Opt. Commun. 30, 287–292 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326–329 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Briers, S. Webster, “Quasi real-time digital version of single-exposure speckle photography for full-field monitoring of velocity or flow fields,” Opt. Commun. 116, 36–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Michelson interferometer with a moving mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Doppler broadening (homodyne) and a separate heterodyne Doppler signal.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Different Methods of Utilizing the Statistics of Time-Varying Speckle

Equations (7)

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ν = c c - 2 u ν .
δ ν = ν - ν = ν [ c c - 2 u - 1 ] = ν 2 u c - 2 u ;
δ ν = ν 2 u c .
u = δ ν λ 2 .
δ ν = ν 2 u c ,
σ = I .
σ / I < 1 ,

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