Abstract

Psychophysical experiments, with a new paradigm but in broad conformity with classical results on glare, were used to estimate the scattering in the eye. Combining the data with those from a companion experiment [ J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1411– 1416 ( 1995)] using objective double-pass measurements of the retinal image in the same subjects permitted a synthesis of the complete point-spread function. Results were obtained on two young subjects and one older one with more prominent scatter but normal visual acuity. This permitted the derivation of performance parameters of the eyes, such as the Strehl ratio and cumulative light functions. When the scattering was more prominent, we were able to characterize performance losses that manifested themselves in changes in absolute and contrast detection thresholds.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Santamaría, P. Artal, J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical–digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Liang, G. Westheimer, “Optical performance of human eyes derived from double-pass measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1411–1416 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. L. Holladay, “Action of a light source in the field of view in lowering visibility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1 (1927).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The effect of a light glaring source on extrafoveal vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 122, 255–280 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. A. Fry, M. Alpern, “The effect of a peripheral glare source upon the apparent brightness of an object,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 189–195 (1953).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. J. Vos, “On mechanisms of glare,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1962).
  7. W. A. H. Rushton, R. W. Gubisch, “Glare: its measurement by cone threshold and by the bleaching of cone pigments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 104–110 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. R. Wooten, G. A. Geri, “Psychophysical determination of intraocular light scatter as a function of wavelength,” Vision Res. 27, 1291–1298 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light profiles of the foveal image of a point source,” Vision Res. 16, 215–219 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. G. Westheimer, J. Liang, “Evaluating diffusion of light in the eye by objective means,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2652–2657 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  11. G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in human cone vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139–154 (1967).
  12. G. Westheimer, “The oscilloscopic view: retinal illuminance and contrast of point and line targets,” Vision Res. 25, 1097–1103 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. deWaard, T. J. T. P. vandenBerg, P. T. V. M. deJong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Walraven, “Spatial characteristics of chromatic induction: the segregation of lateral effects from straylight artifacts,” Vision Res. 13, 1739–1753 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

G. Westheimer, J. Liang, “Evaluating diffusion of light in the eye by objective means,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2652–2657 (1994).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. deWaard, T. J. T. P. vandenBerg, P. T. V. M. deJong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

B. R. Wooten, G. A. Geri, “Psychophysical determination of intraocular light scatter as a function of wavelength,” Vision Res. 27, 1291–1298 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Santamaría, P. Artal, J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical–digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

G. Westheimer, “The oscilloscopic view: retinal illuminance and contrast of point and line targets,” Vision Res. 25, 1097–1103 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light profiles of the foveal image of a point source,” Vision Res. 16, 215–219 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

J. Walraven, “Spatial characteristics of chromatic induction: the segregation of lateral effects from straylight artifacts,” Vision Res. 13, 1739–1753 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in human cone vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139–154 (1967).

1966 (1)

W. A. H. Rushton, R. W. Gubisch, “Glare: its measurement by cone threshold and by the bleaching of cone pigments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 104–110 (1966).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

1937 (1)

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The effect of a light glaring source on extrafoveal vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 122, 255–280 (1937).
[Crossref]

1927 (1)

Alpern, M.

Artal, P.

Bescós, J.

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The effect of a light glaring source on extrafoveal vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 122, 255–280 (1937).
[Crossref]

deJong, P. T. V. M.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. deWaard, T. J. T. P. vandenBerg, P. T. V. M. deJong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[Crossref]

deWaard, P. W. T.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. deWaard, T. J. T. P. vandenBerg, P. T. V. M. deJong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[Crossref]

Fry, G. A.

Geri, G. A.

B. R. Wooten, G. A. Geri, “Psychophysical determination of intraocular light scatter as a function of wavelength,” Vision Res. 27, 1291–1298 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gubisch, R. W.

W. A. H. Rushton, R. W. Gubisch, “Glare: its measurement by cone threshold and by the bleaching of cone pigments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 104–110 (1966).
[Crossref]

Holladay, L. L.

IJspeert, J. K.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. deWaard, T. J. T. P. vandenBerg, P. T. V. M. deJong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[Crossref]

Liang, J.

J. Liang, G. Westheimer, “Optical performance of human eyes derived from double-pass measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1411–1416 (1995).
[Crossref]

G. Westheimer, J. Liang, “Evaluating diffusion of light in the eye by objective means,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2652–2657 (1994).
[PubMed]

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton, R. W. Gubisch, “Glare: its measurement by cone threshold and by the bleaching of cone pigments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 104–110 (1966).
[Crossref]

Santamaría, J.

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The effect of a light glaring source on extrafoveal vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 122, 255–280 (1937).
[Crossref]

van Meeteren, A.

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light profiles of the foveal image of a point source,” Vision Res. 16, 215–219 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

vandenBerg, T. J. T. P.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. deWaard, T. J. T. P. vandenBerg, P. T. V. M. deJong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light profiles of the foveal image of a point source,” Vision Res. 16, 215–219 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Vos, “On mechanisms of glare,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1962).

Walraven, J.

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light profiles of the foveal image of a point source,” Vision Res. 16, 215–219 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Walraven, “Spatial characteristics of chromatic induction: the segregation of lateral effects from straylight artifacts,” Vision Res. 13, 1739–1753 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Westheimer, G.

J. Liang, G. Westheimer, “Optical performance of human eyes derived from double-pass measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1411–1416 (1995).
[Crossref]

G. Westheimer, J. Liang, “Evaluating diffusion of light in the eye by objective means,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2652–2657 (1994).
[PubMed]

G. Westheimer, “The oscilloscopic view: retinal illuminance and contrast of point and line targets,” Vision Res. 25, 1097–1103 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in human cone vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139–154 (1967).

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Wooten, G. A. Geri, “Psychophysical determination of intraocular light scatter as a function of wavelength,” Vision Res. 27, 1291–1298 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

G. Westheimer, J. Liang, “Evaluating diffusion of light in the eye by objective means,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2652–2657 (1994).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in human cone vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139–154 (1967).

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B (1)

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The effect of a light glaring source on extrafoveal vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 122, 255–280 (1937).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (5)

B. R. Wooten, G. A. Geri, “Psychophysical determination of intraocular light scatter as a function of wavelength,” Vision Res. 27, 1291–1298 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light profiles of the foveal image of a point source,” Vision Res. 16, 215–219 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, “The oscilloscopic view: retinal illuminance and contrast of point and line targets,” Vision Res. 25, 1097–1103 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. deWaard, T. J. T. P. vandenBerg, P. T. V. M. deJong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Walraven, “Spatial characteristics of chromatic induction: the segregation of lateral effects from straylight artifacts,” Vision Res. 13, 1739–1753 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. J. Vos, “On mechanisms of glare,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1962).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram illustrating the principle underlying the psychophysical procedure. (a) For a normalized circularly symmetrical PSF f(r), the fraction of the total flux that falls into the annular zone in the image plane bounded by r1 and r2 is given by Eq. (1); (b) an annular glare source (shaded area) bounded by r1 and r2 is given uniform illumination of height unity. Each element of area rdrdθ (black area) contributes f(r)rdrdθ to the light intensity at the center of the image of the annulus. The total intensity at this image point, as the fraction of the intensity at each point in the target annulus, is given by Eq. (2). Thus if one can compare the retinal illuminance at the center of the annulus with that of the target annulus, one also knows the fraction of the total light from a point source that is spread into an annular zone of the same dimension in the image plane. Distances and light intensities in the object and image planes are taken to be related by constant factors, which have been omitted in this exposition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental arrangement for the psychophysical experiment. A large field, BI, 20 deg in outer diameter, of high uniform luminance, was viewed by the observer through a beam splitter, B, and a neutral-density wedge, ND. Seen superimposed was a small flashing point source, L, produced by imaging of a compact, dc-fed filament lamp onto a plane where the beam was intercepted by an episcotister, E, allowing light to pass for 100 ms every second. The intensity of this source was controlled by filters of fixed density. Settings of the neutral wedge (controlling the luminance of the background) were adjusted by the observer to place the flashing test point at threshold under two conditions: (A) when the test flash was superimposed on the uniform background and (B) when the test flash was in the center of circular obscuring disks of fixed diameters (see inset above diagram). AP, artificial pupil.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Log-increment threshold versus log-background luminance data for subject VL. Log (ΔI), in relative units, refers to the three intensity levels of the flashing test stimulus. Log (I), also in relative units, indicates the field luminances at threshold. The stimulus was seen on an unobscured 20-deg field (open triangles) and in the center of a black obscuring disk of diameter 30′ (open squares), 60′ (open circles), 120′ (filled triangles), 240′ (filled squares), and 360′ (filled circles). The horizontal shift needed for curves to be superimposed is the measure of the intensity of the light scattered by the annuli into the center.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Percentage of total light from a PSF that falls into annular zones in the image plane, with inner and outer radii as indicated. H, data calculated with Holladay’s formula; S-C, data obtained from the Stiles–Crawford formula; F-A, data derived with the Fry–Alpern formula; V, data from Vos’s formula. Y and O are the experimental data from the present study for the two young observers (average) and the older observer (GW), respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PSF’s. Estimates from double-pass measurements that are good to a radius of 7′ (a) normalized to peaks and (b) normalized to the volume under the function. Ideal diffraction-limited eye with 3.5-mm pupil (circles); young eyes (squares); subject GW, age 69 (triangles).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Point-spread functions of young eyes (crosses) and of subject GW, age 69 (triangles) scaled so that the volumes under the curves are equal and their correct relative peak heights can be seen.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cumulative light spread of radially symmetrical PSF’s showing the fraction of total light flux in the image as a function of radius in the image plane. Ideal diffraction-limited eye with 3.5-mm pupil (circles); subject JL, age 30 (squares); subject GW, age 69 (triangles).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Analysis of retinal light spread when a young and an older subject are shown a small black disk on a uniform bright field (diagrams are schematic). (a) PSF for the young subject (dotted–dashed curve), the older subject (solid curve), and the target dimension (solid vertical lines); (b) light distribution on the retina of the young subject (dotted–dashed curve) and the older subject (solid curve) for a dark object on a light background. The height in the middle of (b) is proportional to the fraction of the volume of the PSF that falls outside the area intercepted by the target in (a). The Weber fraction of the light distributions in (b) are given by the value for the cumulative light spread for the PSF’s as delimited by the target disk (see text for details).

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Psychophysical Measurements of Retinal Illuminance in the Center of Dark Disks as a Fraction of the Illuminance of the Annular Surrounda

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Table 2 Proportion of Total Light Flux from a Point Source Falling into Annular Zones of the Retinal Image of Given Inner and Outer Radiia

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Table 3 Parameters Used to Synthesize the Eye’s PSFa

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Table 4 Proportion of Total Light from a Point Source Falling in Annular Zones of the Image with Given Inner and Outer Radiia

Equations (5)

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E ( r 1 , r 2 ) = r 1 r 2 f ( r ) 2 π r d r .
I ( r 1 , r 2 ) = r 1 r 2 f ( r ) 2 π r d r .
S = S 1 ( 1 - E ) ,
L eq ( θ ) = A E θ n ,
Φ ( θ 1 , θ 2 ) = A 2 π θ 2 θ 1 sin θ θ n d θ .

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