Abstract

Chromatic-discrimination thresholds were measured for light mixtures lying along individually determined tritan axes and an axis of constant short-wavelength-sensitive- (S-) cone stimulation for 30 color-normal observers (age range 22–77 years). The stimulus was a foveally viewed 2°, circular bipartite field consisting of a standard and a test light. Heterochromatic flicker photometry was used to equate the retinal illuminance of the stimuli at 120 Td for all observers. All stimuli were presented in Maxwellian view. Age-related losses in chromatic discrimination depended on the level of cone stimulation. At relatively lower levels of S- and long-wavelength-sensitive (L-) cone stimulation, discrimination thresholds were elevated for older relative to younger observers. As the level of simulation increased for these two cone types, thresholds converged, on average, for all observers. Application of a model of chromatic discrimination mediated by an S-cone pathway suggests that there is no significant age-related change in Weber fractions and that age-related losses in chromatic discrimination are due, at least in part, to spontaneous neural noise arising in the pathway and/or neural changes that multiplicatively scale all incident light.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. G. Gilbert, “Age changes in color matching,” J. Gerontol. 12, 210–215 (1957).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Lakowski, “Is the deterioration of colour discrimination with age due to lens or retinal changes?” Die Farbe 11, 69–86 (1962).
  3. Y. Ohta, H. Kato, “Colour perception changes with age,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies III, Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 345–352 (1976).
  4. G. Verriest, “Further studies on acquired deficiency of color discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 185–195 (1963).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).
    [PubMed]
  6. K. Knoblauch, F. Saunders, M. Kusuda, R. Hynes, M. Podor, K. E. Higgins, F. M. de Monasterio, “Age and illuminance effects in the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1441–1448 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. D. Moreland, “Matching range and age in a blue-green equation,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 129–134.
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “S-cone discrimination sensitivity and performance on arrangement tests,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 293–302.
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Birch, Diagnosis of Defective Colour Vision (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1993), Chap. 6.
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    [CrossRef]
  11. V. C. Smith, J. A. M. van Everdingen, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of arrangement tests at reduced levels of illlumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 177–185.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, M. Plach, N. Utlaut, E. Switkes, “Sites of age-related sensitivity loss in a shortwave cone pathway,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 355–363 (1992).
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  16. We estimated the difference in density of the ocular media at 530 nm between the youngest and the oldest observers in our study by first calculating densities at 400 nm for these observers, using the linear regression equation of Werner [“Development of scotopic sensitivity and the absorption spectrum of the human ocular media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 247–258 (1982)]. Then by scaling the density of the media for the standard observer of van Norren and Vos [“Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974)] at 530 nm by the ratio of densities calculated for 400 nm, we predict that the change in density for middle-wavelength lights across the age range of subjects used in this experiment would be of the order of 0.15 log unit.
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  17. G. Verriest, “La variation de la courbe spectrale photopique d’efficacité limineuse relative chez les sujets normaux,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 107–126 (1970).
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  18. J. M. Kraft, J. S. Werner, “Spectral efficiency across the life span: flicker photometry and brightness matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1213–1221 (1994).
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  19. R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
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  21. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, T. Yeh, “Pigment tests evaluated by a model of chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1773–1784 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Miyahara, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “How surrounds affect chromaticity discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 545–553 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vision Res. 33, 1835–1845 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. I. A. MacLeod, “Visual sensitivity,” Ann. Rev. Psychol. 29, 613–645 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. S. Geisler, “Adaptation, afterimages and cone saturation,” Vision Res. 18, 279–289 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vision Res. 27, 1981–1987 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density difference in the aging human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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1994 (1)

1993 (3)

1992 (1)

1987 (4)

M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vision Res. 27, 1981–1987 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of foveal cone pigments at older age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 985–991 (1987).
[PubMed]

K. Knoblauch, F. Saunders, M. Kusuda, R. Hynes, M. Podor, K. E. Higgins, F. M. de Monasterio, “Age and illuminance effects in the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1441–1448 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density difference in the aging human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).
[PubMed]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

D. I. A. MacLeod, “Visual sensitivity,” Ann. Rev. Psychol. 29, 613–645 (1978).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Geisler, “Adaptation, afterimages and cone saturation,” Vision Res. 18, 279–289 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

Y. Ohta, H. Kato, “Colour perception changes with age,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies III, Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 345–352 (1976).

1970 (1)

G. Verriest, “La variation de la courbe spectrale photopique d’efficacité limineuse relative chez les sujets normaux,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 107–126 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1963 (1)

1962 (1)

R. Lakowski, “Is the deterioration of colour discrimination with age due to lens or retinal changes?” Die Farbe 11, 69–86 (1962).

1957 (1)

J. G. Gilbert, “Age changes in color matching,” J. Gerontol. 12, 210–215 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1952 (1)

Benimoff, N. I.

M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vision Res. 27, 1981–1987 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Birch, J.

J. Birch, Diagnosis of Defective Colour Vision (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1993), Chap. 6.

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

de Monasterio, F. M.

Eisner, A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

Fishman, M.

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density difference in the aging human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleming, S. A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

Geisler, W. S.

W. S. Geisler, “Adaptation, afterimages and cone saturation,” Vision Res. 18, 279–289 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbert, J. G.

J. G. Gilbert, “Age changes in color matching,” J. Gerontol. 12, 210–215 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayhoe, M. M.

M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vision Res. 27, 1981–1987 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, K. E.

Hood, D. C.

M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vision Res. 27, 1981–1987 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hutman, L. P.

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density difference in the aging human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hynes, R.

Kambe, N.

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kato, H.

Y. Ohta, H. Kato, “Colour perception changes with age,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies III, Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 345–352 (1976).

Keunen, J. E. E.

J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of foveal cone pigments at older age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 985–991 (1987).
[PubMed]

Kilbride, P. E.

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density difference in the aging human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, M. L.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

Knoblauch, K.

Kraft, J. M.

Kudo, H.

H. Kudo, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of screening tests for S-cone discrimination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 119–127.
[CrossRef]

Kusuda, M.

Lakowski, R.

R. Lakowski, “Is the deterioration of colour discrimination with age due to lens or retinal changes?” Die Farbe 11, 69–86 (1962).

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. I. A. MacLeod, “Visual sensitivity,” Ann. Rev. Psychol. 29, 613–645 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, J.

J. Marshall, “Ageing changes in human cones,” in XXIII Concilium Ophthalmologicum, Kyoto, K. Shimizu, J. A. Oosterhuis, eds. (Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978), pp. 375–378.

Mauldin, W. M.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

Miyahara, E.

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland, “Matching range and age in a blue-green equation,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 129–134.
[CrossRef]

Ohta, Y.

Y. Ohta, H. Kato, “Colour perception changes with age,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies III, Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 345–352 (1976).

Pass, A. S.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).
[PubMed]

Plach, M.

Podor, M.

Pokorny, J.

E. Miyahara, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “How surrounds affect chromaticity discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 545–553 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, T. Yeh, “Pigment tests evaluated by a model of chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1773–1784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vision Res. 33, 1835–1845 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).
[PubMed]

H. Kudo, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of screening tests for S-cone discrimination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 119–127.
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, J. A. M. van Everdingen, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of arrangement tests at reduced levels of illlumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 177–185.
[CrossRef]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “S-cone discrimination sensitivity and performance on arrangement tests,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 293–302.
[CrossRef]

J. A. M. van Everdingen, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of tritan screening tests as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 167–175.
[CrossRef]

Powell, I.

Read, J. S.

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density difference in the aging human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, F.

Schefrin, B. E.

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, T. Yeh, “Pigment tests evaluated by a model of chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1773–1784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Miyahara, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “How surrounds affect chromaticity discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 545–553 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vision Res. 33, 1835–1845 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).
[PubMed]

J. A. M. van Everdingen, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of tritan screening tests as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 167–175.
[CrossRef]

H. Kudo, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of screening tests for S-cone discrimination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 119–127.
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, J. A. M. van Everdingen, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of arrangement tests at reduced levels of illlumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 177–185.
[CrossRef]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “S-cone discrimination sensitivity and performance on arrangement tests,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 293–302.
[CrossRef]

Switkes, E.

Utlaut, N.

van Everdingen, J. A. M.

V. C. Smith, J. A. M. van Everdingen, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of arrangement tests at reduced levels of illlumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 177–185.
[CrossRef]

J. A. M. van Everdingen, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of tritan screening tests as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 167–175.
[CrossRef]

van Meel, G. J.

J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of foveal cone pigments at older age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 985–991 (1987).
[PubMed]

van Norren, D.

J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of foveal cone pigments at older age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 985–991 (1987).
[PubMed]

Verriest, G.

G. Verriest, “La variation de la courbe spectrale photopique d’efficacité limineuse relative chez les sujets normaux,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 107–126 (1970).
[CrossRef]

G. Verriest, “Further studies on acquired deficiency of color discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 185–195 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, W. D.

Yeh, T.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, T. Yeh, “Pigment tests evaluated by a model of chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1773–1784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vision Res. 33, 1835–1845 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “S-cone discrimination sensitivity and performance on arrangement tests,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 293–302.
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).
[PubMed]

Ann. Rev. Psychol. (1)

D. I. A. MacLeod, “Visual sensitivity,” Ann. Rev. Psychol. 29, 613–645 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Color Res. Appl. (1)

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Colour Vision Deficiencies III, Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol (1)

Y. Ohta, H. Kato, “Colour perception changes with age,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies III, Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 345–352 (1976).

Die Farbe (1)

R. Lakowski, “Is the deterioration of colour discrimination with age due to lens or retinal changes?” Die Farbe 11, 69–86 (1962).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of foveal cone pigments at older age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 985–991 (1987).
[PubMed]

J. Gerontol. (1)

J. G. Gilbert, “Age changes in color matching,” J. Gerontol. 12, 210–215 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. (1)

G. Verriest, “La variation de la courbe spectrale photopique d’efficacité limineuse relative chez les sujets normaux,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 107–126 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (5)

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vision Res. 33, 1835–1845 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Geisler, “Adaptation, afterimages and cone saturation,” Vision Res. 18, 279–289 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vision Res. 27, 1981–1987 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density difference in the aging human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

J. Marshall, “Ageing changes in human cones,” in XXIII Concilium Ophthalmologicum, Kyoto, K. Shimizu, J. A. Oosterhuis, eds. (Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978), pp. 375–378.

J. D. Moreland, “Matching range and age in a blue-green equation,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 129–134.
[CrossRef]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “S-cone discrimination sensitivity and performance on arrangement tests,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 293–302.
[CrossRef]

J. Birch, Diagnosis of Defective Colour Vision (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1993), Chap. 6.

J. A. M. van Everdingen, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of tritan screening tests as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 167–175.
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, J. A. M. van Everdingen, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of arrangement tests at reduced levels of illlumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 177–185.
[CrossRef]

H. Kudo, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of screening tests for S-cone discrimination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 119–127.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral loci of test lights metameric with a 420-nm standard plotted as a function of age for conditions that suppress the relative sensitivity of S cones. The solid line is based on the least-squares linear regression.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Chromatic-discrimination thresholds expressed in terms of log ΔS (S-cone Td) along tritan axes plotted as a function of S-cone stimulation. In each panel the circles represent discrimination thresholds, and error bars represent ±1 standard error of the mean. The curve passing through each set of data represents the function best fitted to the data by Eq. (1). The root-mean-square error between the raw data and thresholds predicted by Eq. (1) are 0.057, 0.202, and 0.340 for subjects BD, JK, and DG, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Chromatic-discrimination thresholds expressed in terms of log ΔS (S-cone Td) along tritan axes plotted as a function of age. Discrimination thresholds measured at a series of S-cone excitation levels are shown in individual panels. The parameters for the least-squares linear regression equations are presented in Table 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Chromatic-discrimination thresholds along tritan axes for three age groups plotted as a function of S-cone excitation. Geometric means for youngest (open circles, 22–30 years), middle (diamonds, 39–55 years), and oldest age-groups (filled circles, 59–77 years) are shown. Other details as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Chromatic-discrimination thresholds along a constant S-cone axis plotted as a function of age. Discrimination thresholds measured at two levels of L-cone excitation are shown in individual panels. The parameters for the least-squares linear regression equations are presented in Table 2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Geometric means of chromatic-discrimination thresholds along a constant S-cone axis for three age groups plotted as a function of L-cone stimulation. Geometric means for youngest, middle, and oldest age groups are represented by open circles, diamonds, and filled circles, respectively. Error bars represent 1 standard error of the mean.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Parameter values for Eq. (1) that best fit individual chromatic-discrimination threshold functions along tritan axes plotted as a function of age. The lines are based on linear regression equations (calculated in the lower panel without the three points plotting at −∞). Upper panel, circles represent Weber fractions for observers in this study and in the study of Boynton and Kambe, respectively. Lower panel, circles represent log10 values of CSn. Other details as in upper panel.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Descriptive Statistics and Parameters of Linear Regression as a Function of Age for Chromatic-Discrimination Thresholds along a Tritan Axis

Tables Icon

Table 2 Descriptive Statistics and Parameters of Linear Regression as a Function of Age for Chromatic-Discrimination Thresholds along a Constant S-Cone Axis

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Table 3 Parameters of Eq. (1) That Were Used to Fit Averaged Data Sets of Tritan Discrimination Thresholds as a Function of S-Cone Stimulation for Three Age Groups

Equations (2)

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Δ S = W ( S + C S n ) ,
( 1 / C ) Δ S = W [ ( 1 / C ) S + S n ] .

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