Abstract

Unique hue loci were measured for four observers in the fovea and at 20-deg temporal eccentricity as a function of test size. Eccentric measurements were made on the cone plateau following a rod bleach. The results indicate that unique yellow remains approximately invariant with respect to test size and retinal eccentricity, whereas unique blue and unique green shift to longer wavelengths with increasing test size. The locus of unique blue in the periphery reaches an asymptote at approximately the same wavelength as that from the foveal measurements, whereas unique green measured in the periphery is consistently at shorter wavelengths than in the fovea. In general, the data are best described by a model in which the short-wavelength-sensitive cone input to the two opponent-color channels decreases with decreasing test size and increasing retinal eccentricity.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. A. Johnson, “Color vision in the peripheral retina,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 63, 97–103 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral colour vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), Vol. VII/4, pp. 517–536.
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Chromatic thresholds of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory. Part I,” Psychol. Rev. 26, 16–41 (1919).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. O. Weitzman, J. A. S. Kinney, “Effect of stimulus size, duration, and retinal location upon the appearance of color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 640–643 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. A. Weale, “Hue-discrimination in para-central parts of the human retina measured at different luminance levels,” J. Physiol. (London) 113, 115–122 (1951).
  8. R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wave-length discrimination of the peripheral retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 119, 170–190 (1953).
  9. A. C. Cruz, J. D. Moreland, “Small field tritanomaly in peripheral vision,” Farbe 4, 241–245 (1955).
  10. M. M. Connors, P. A. Kelsey, “Shape of the red and green color zone gradients,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 874–877 (1961).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. M. Connors, J. A. S. Kinney, “Relative red–green sensitivity as a function of retinal position,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 81–84 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Gilbert, “Colour perception in parafoveal vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 63, 83–89 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Bezold–Brücke phenomenon of the far peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 22, 845–849 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color vision in the peripheral retina under photopic conditions,” Vision Res. 22, 839–844 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. A. van Esch, E. E. Koldenhof, A. J. van Doorn, J. J. Koenderink, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the human peripheral visual field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 443–450 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Variation in density of macular pigmentation and in short-wave cone sensitivity with eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 706–711 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “The chromaticity coordinates for spectrum colours of extrafoveal cones,” Vision Res. 17, 1091–1094 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. L. Nagy, J. A. Doyal, “Red–green color discrimination as a function of stimulus field size in peripheral vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1147–1156 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. L. Nagy, R. R. Sanchez, T. C. Hughes, “Visual search for color differences with foveal and peripheral vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1995–2001 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Oden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. Rovamo, A. Iivanainen, “Detection of chromatic deviations from white across the human visual field,” Vision Res. 31, 2227–2234 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. B. R. Wooten, G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. H. Hibino, “Red–green and yellow–blue opponent-color responses as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Vision Res. 32, 1955–1964 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. T. K. Kuyk, “Spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina to large and small stimuli,” Vision Res. 22, 1293–1297 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. J. L. Nerger, C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. S. Otake, C. M. Cicerone, “The distribution of cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 34, 748 (1993).
  35. D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vision Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. F. M. de Monasterio, P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 251, 167–195 (1975).
  38. E. Zrenner, P. Gouras, “Cone opponency in tonic ganglion cells and its variation with eccentricity in rhesus monkey retina,” in Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 211–224.
  39. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 195–202 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  40. J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  41. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. E. Storniolo, “Spectral loci of unique hues: implications for color vision models,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 34, 749 (1993).
  42. J. L. Nerger, C. J. Ayde, V. J. Volbrecht, “Unique hue judgements as a function of retinal eccentricity,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 100.
  43. V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, C. J. Ayde, “Unique hue judgments in the peripheral retina as a function of stimulus size, duration, and rod contribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 34, 765 (1993).
  44. M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 217, 447–471 (1971).
  45. W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, J. D. Cohen, “The experimental determination of unique green in the spectrum,” Percept. Psychophys. 4, 65–68 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  47. G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. J. J. Vos, P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red—or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  50. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of color-blind observers and the cone photopigments,” Vision Res. 12, 2059–2071 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “Some quantitative aspects of an opponent-colors theory. II. Brightness, saturation, and hue in normal and dichromatic vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 602–616 (1955).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. As discussed by Abramov and Gordon,49 an additional constraint of models of this type is that the hue mechanisms must not respond to an equal-energy white light, i.e., each opponent-hue mechanism must sum to zero when it is integrated across the spectrum. If this constraint is met prior to the simple manipulation of the S-cone input, then it cannot still hold after the manipulation; thus an additional compensatory component must also be included in the model.
  54. B. Drum, “Hue signals from short- and middle-wavelength-sensitive cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 153–157 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red—or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. E. Storniolo, “Spectral loci of unique hues: implications for color vision models,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 34, 749 (1993).

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, C. J. Ayde, “Unique hue judgments in the peripheral retina as a function of stimulus size, duration, and rod contribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 34, 765 (1993).

S. Otake, C. M. Cicerone, “The distribution of cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 34, 748 (1993).

A. L. Nagy, J. A. Doyal, “Red–green color discrimination as a function of stimulus field size in peripheral vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1147–1156 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

H. Hibino, “Red–green and yellow–blue opponent-color responses as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Vision Res. 32, 1955–1964 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Nerger, C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 195–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

J. Rovamo, A. Iivanainen, “Detection of chromatic deviations from white across the human visual field,” Vision Res. 31, 2227–2234 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. A. Johnson, “Color vision in the peripheral retina,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 63, 97–103 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

1983 (1)

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Oden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (4)

T. K. Kuyk, “Spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina to large and small stimuli,” Vision Res. 22, 1293–1297 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Bezold–Brücke phenomenon of the far peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 22, 845–849 (1982).
[CrossRef]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color vision in the peripheral retina under photopic conditions,” Vision Res. 22, 839–844 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (2)

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vision Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

1977 (3)

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “The chromaticity coordinates for spectrum colours of extrafoveal cones,” Vision Res. 17, 1091–1094 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

F. M. de Monasterio, P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 251, 167–195 (1975).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

B. R. Wooten, G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (2)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of color-blind observers and the cone photopigments,” Vision Res. 12, 2059–2071 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (2)

M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 217, 447–471 (1971).

J. J. Vos, P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, J. D. Cohen, “The experimental determination of unique green in the spectrum,” Percept. Psychophys. 4, 65–68 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

1961 (1)

1959 (1)

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1955 (2)

1953 (1)

R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wave-length discrimination of the peripheral retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 119, 170–190 (1953).

1951 (1)

R. A. Weale, “Hue-discrimination in para-central parts of the human retina measured at different luminance levels,” J. Physiol. (London) 113, 115–122 (1951).

1950 (1)

M. Gilbert, “Colour perception in parafoveal vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 63, 83–89 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1919 (1)

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Chromatic thresholds of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory. Part I,” Psychol. Rev. 26, 16–41 (1919).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, I.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red—or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. E. Storniolo, “Spectral loci of unique hues: implications for color vision models,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 34, 749 (1993).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 195–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahnelt, P. K.

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 217, 447–471 (1971).

Ayde, C. J.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, C. J. Ayde, “Unique hue judgments in the peripheral retina as a function of stimulus size, duration, and rod contribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 34, 765 (1993).

J. L. Nerger, C. J. Ayde, V. J. Volbrecht, “Unique hue judgements as a function of retinal eccentricity,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 100.

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, H.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 195–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cicerone, C. M.

S. Otake, C. M. Cicerone, “The distribution of cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 34, 748 (1993).

J. L. Nerger, C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, J. D.

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, J. D. Cohen, “The experimental determination of unique green in the spectrum,” Percept. Psychophys. 4, 65–68 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Connors, M. M.

Cruz, A.

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, A. C.

A. C. Cruz, J. D. Moreland, “Small field tritanomaly in peripheral vision,” Farbe 4, 241–245 (1955).

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Monasterio, F. M.

F. M. de Monasterio, P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 251, 167–195 (1975).

den Oden, R. J.

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Oden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doyal, J. A.

Drum, B.

Edens, B. W.

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Oden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferree, C. E.

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Chromatic thresholds of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory. Part I,” Psychol. Rev. 26, 16–41 (1919).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, M.

M. Gilbert, “Colour perception in parafoveal vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 63, 83–89 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red—or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. E. Storniolo, “Spectral loci of unique hues: implications for color vision models,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 34, 749 (1993).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 195–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gouras, P.

F. M. de Monasterio, P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 251, 167–195 (1975).

E. Zrenner, P. Gouras, “Cone opponency in tonic ganglion cells and its variation with eccentricity in rhesus monkey retina,” in Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 211–224.

Hayhoe, M. M.

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vision Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibino, H.

H. Hibino, “Red–green and yellow–blue opponent-color responses as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Vision Res. 32, 1955–1964 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, T. C.

Hurley, J. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, J. D. Cohen, “The experimental determination of unique green in the spectrum,” Percept. Psychophys. 4, 65–68 (1968).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “Some quantitative aspects of an opponent-colors theory. II. Brightness, saturation, and hue in normal and dichromatic vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 602–616 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iivanainen, A.

J. Rovamo, A. Iivanainen, “Detection of chromatic deviations from white across the human visual field,” Vision Res. 31, 2227–2234 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, J. D. Cohen, “The experimental determination of unique green in the spectrum,” Percept. Psychophys. 4, 65–68 (1968).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “Some quantitative aspects of an opponent-colors theory. II. Brightness, saturation, and hue in normal and dichromatic vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 602–616 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, M. A.

M. A. Johnson, “Color vision in the peripheral retina,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 63, 97–103 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaiser, P. K.

H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kelsey, P. A.

Kinney, J. A. S.

Klock, I. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koenderink, J. J.

J. A. van Esch, E. E. Koldenhof, A. J. van Doorn, J. J. Koenderink, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the human peripheral visual field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 443–450 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Oden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolb, H.

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koldenhof, E. E.

Kuyk, T. K.

T. K. Kuyk, “Spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina to large and small stimuli,” Vision Res. 22, 1293–1297 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerea, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vision Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milam, A. H.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Cruz, J. D. Moreland, “Small field tritanomaly in peripheral vision,” Farbe 4, 241–245 (1955).

J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral colour vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), Vol. VII/4, pp. 517–536.
[CrossRef]

Nagy, A. L.

Nerger, J. L.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, C. J. Ayde, “Unique hue judgments in the peripheral retina as a function of stimulus size, duration, and rod contribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 34, 765 (1993).

J. L. Nerger, C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Nerger, C. J. Ayde, V. J. Volbrecht, “Unique hue judgements as a function of retinal eccentricity,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 100.

Neun, M. E.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noorlander, C.

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Oden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otake, S.

S. Otake, C. M. Cicerone, “The distribution of cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 34, 748 (1993).

Pflug, R.

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of color-blind observers and the cone photopigments,” Vision Res. 12, 2059–2071 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Powell, D. S.

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rand, G.

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Chromatic thresholds of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory. Part I,” Psychol. Rev. 26, 16–41 (1919).
[CrossRef]

Rovamo, J.

J. Rovamo, A. Iivanainen, “Detection of chromatic deviations from white across the human visual field,” Vision Res. 31, 2227–2234 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez, R. R.

Schafer, W.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of color-blind observers and the cone photopigments,” Vision Res. 12, 2059–2071 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stabell, B.

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color vision in the peripheral retina under photopic conditions,” Vision Res. 22, 839–844 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Bezold–Brücke phenomenon of the far peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 22, 845–849 (1982).
[CrossRef]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Variation in density of macular pigmentation and in short-wave cone sensitivity with eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 706–711 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “The chromaticity coordinates for spectrum colours of extrafoveal cones,” Vision Res. 17, 1091–1094 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Stabell, U.

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Bezold–Brücke phenomenon of the far peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 22, 845–849 (1982).
[CrossRef]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color vision in the peripheral retina under photopic conditions,” Vision Res. 22, 839–844 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Variation in density of macular pigmentation and in short-wave cone sensitivity with eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 706–711 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “The chromaticity coordinates for spectrum colours of extrafoveal cones,” Vision Res. 17, 1091–1094 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Storniolo, A. E.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. E. Storniolo, “Spectral loci of unique hues: implications for color vision models,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 34, 749 (1993).

Uchikawa, H.

H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Uchikawa, K.

H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).
[CrossRef]

van Doorn, A. J.

van Esch, J. A.

Volbrecht, V. J.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, C. J. Ayde, “Unique hue judgments in the peripheral retina as a function of stimulus size, duration, and rod contribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 34, 765 (1993).

J. L. Nerger, C. J. Ayde, V. J. Volbrecht, “Unique hue judgements as a function of retinal eccentricity,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 100.

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wald, G.

B. R. Wooten, G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walraven, P. L.

J. J. Vos, P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wave-length discrimination of the peripheral retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 119, 170–190 (1953).

R. A. Weale, “Hue-discrimination in para-central parts of the human retina measured at different luminance levels,” J. Physiol. (London) 113, 115–122 (1951).

Weitzman, D. O.

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vision Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Wooten, G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zrenner, E.

E. Zrenner, P. Gouras, “Cone opponency in tonic ganglion cells and its variation with eccentricity in rhesus monkey retina,” in Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 211–224.

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

M. A. Johnson, “Color vision in the peripheral retina,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 63, 97–103 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Psychol. (1)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red—or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl. (2)

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Farbe (1)

A. C. Cruz, J. D. Moreland, “Small field tritanomaly in peripheral vision,” Farbe 4, 241–245 (1955).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. (3)

S. Otake, C. M. Cicerone, “The distribution of cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 34, 748 (1993).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. E. Storniolo, “Spectral loci of unique hues: implications for color vision models,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 34, 749 (1993).

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, C. J. Ayde, “Unique hue judgments in the peripheral retina as a function of stimulus size, duration, and rod contribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 34, 765 (1993).

J. Comp. Neurol. (2)

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

B. R. Wooten, G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (6)

J. Physiol. (London) (4)

F. M. de Monasterio, P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 251, 167–195 (1975).

R. A. Weale, “Hue-discrimination in para-central parts of the human retina measured at different luminance levels,” J. Physiol. (London) 113, 115–122 (1951).

R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wave-length discrimination of the peripheral retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 119, 170–190 (1953).

M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 217, 447–471 (1971).

Opt. Acta (1)

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, J. D. Cohen, “The experimental determination of unique green in the spectrum,” Percept. Psychophys. 4, 65–68 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B (1)

M. Gilbert, “Colour perception in parafoveal vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 63, 83–89 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Rev. (1)

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Chromatic thresholds of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory. Part I,” Psychol. Rev. 26, 16–41 (1919).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (18)

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Bezold–Brücke phenomenon of the far peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 22, 845–849 (1982).
[CrossRef]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color vision in the peripheral retina under photopic conditions,” Vision Res. 22, 839–844 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vision Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hibino, “Red–green and yellow–blue opponent-color responses as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Vision Res. 32, 1955–1964 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Kuyk, “Spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina to large and small stimuli,” Vision Res. 22, 1293–1297 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Nerger, C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Oden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rovamo, A. Iivanainen, “Detection of chromatic deviations from white across the human visual field,” Vision Res. 31, 2227–2234 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “The chromaticity coordinates for spectrum colours of extrafoveal cones,” Vision Res. 17, 1091–1094 (1977).
[CrossRef]

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Vos, P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of color-blind observers and the cone photopigments,” Vision Res. 12, 2059–2071 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

As discussed by Abramov and Gordon,49 an additional constraint of models of this type is that the hue mechanisms must not respond to an equal-energy white light, i.e., each opponent-hue mechanism must sum to zero when it is integrated across the spectrum. If this constraint is met prior to the simple manipulation of the S-cone input, then it cannot still hold after the manipulation; thus an additional compensatory component must also be included in the model.

J. L. Nerger, C. J. Ayde, V. J. Volbrecht, “Unique hue judgements as a function of retinal eccentricity,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 100.

E. Zrenner, P. Gouras, “Cone opponency in tonic ganglion cells and its variation with eccentricity in rhesus monkey retina,” in Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 211–224.

J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral colour vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), Vol. VII/4, pp. 517–536.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Wavelength of unique yellow loci for four observers plotted as a function of stimulus size in (a) the fovea and (b) at 20-deg temporal eccentricity. Different symbols represent the different observers (RM, downward triangles; CH, upward triangles; JN, squares; VV, circles), and error bars denote ±1 standard error of the mean based on between-session variability. Solid lines are drawn through the data points for ease of comparison.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Unique blue loci determined in (a) the fovea and (b) at 20-deg temporal eccentricity. The data are plotted as in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Unique green loci determined in (a) the fovea and (b) at 20-deg temporal eccentricity. The data are plotted as in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical (a) R–G and (b) Y–B opponent-response functions. Solid symbols represent the theoretical functions of the color-normal observer, and open symbols represent the functions derived by reducing the S-cone weighting into the opponent codes (see the text for a description of the modeling). The unique hues, as determined by the zero crossings of the R–G and Y–B functions, are indicated in each panel by the dashed lines.

Metrics