Abstract

The concept that the focus anisoplanatism effect, which limits the useful diameter of an adaptive-optics system that relies on an artificial guide star [(AGS), a laser atmospheric backscatter spot] as a reference source for determining the turbulence-induced wave-front distortion, can be eliminated (or greatly reduced) by use of a multiplicity of AGS spots is evaluated. The case of an infinite density of such spots with an infinite density of wave-front sensor subapertures (each infinitely small) is analyzed assuming that performance is limited only by the fact that turbulence is distributed along the propagation path rather than being contained in a single plane. It is found that even in this case focus anisoplanatism limits performance. Relative to what can be achieved with a single AGS spot, it is found that at most approximately a factor-of-2.5 increase in the useful aperture diameter can be obtained by use of infinitely many AGS spots and that this increase is available only for a laser backscatter altitude as high as the 90-km mesospheric sodium layer.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Hardy, “Active optics: a new technology for the control of light,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651–697 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. L. Fried, “Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 52–61 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. L. Fried, J. F. Belsher, “Analysis of fundamental limits to artificial-guide-star adaptive-optics-system performance for astronomical imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 277–287 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature (London) 353, 141–143 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. A. Tyler, “Rapid evaluation of d0: the effective diameter of a laser-guide-star adaptive-optics system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 325–338 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. The term focus anisoplanatism was coined by Tom O’Meara (Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, Calif.) in approximately 1980 and has been in general use in the interested community since then, although the strict suitability of the phrase might be questioned. As a more suitable terminology we might use the words range-dependent anisoplanatism, but use of the phrase focus anisoplanatism has become so customary that we will not undertake to advocate its replacement. (In retrospect, it seems that the nomenclature applied to almost all the various anisoplanatic effects in adaptive optics has been less than optimal.)
  8. R. Benedict, J. B. Breckinridge, D. L. Fried, eds., Feature issue, “Atmospheric-Compensation Technology,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A11, 255–451, 779–945 (1994).This double-issue Feature (January and February 1994) contains 30 papers on the subject of adaptive optics, with a substantial number being concerned with matters related to the use of an artificial guide star.
  9. R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31 (1985).
  10. C. S. Gardner, B. M. Welsh, L. A. Thompson, “Design and performance analysis of adaptive optical telescopes using laser guide stars,” Proc. IEEE 78, 1721–1743 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. L. Fried, “Diffusion analysis for the propagation of mutual coherence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 961–969 (1968), App. B.
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. L. Fried, “Turbulence-induced variation in the apparent separation of a pair of point sources,” Rep. TR-721R (Optical Sciences Company, Placentia, Calif., 1989), App. A.
  13. D. L. Fried, “Atmospheric turbulence optical effects: understanding the adaptive-optics implications,” in Proceedings of the NATO Conference on Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, D. M. Alloin, J.-M. Mariotti, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 25–57.
  14. D. L. Fried, J. L. Vaughn, “M-method performance for M = 3,” Rep. TR-995R (Optical Sciences Company, Placentia, Calif., 1989).

1994

1991

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature (London) 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. S. Gardner, B. M. Welsh, L. A. Thompson, “Design and performance analysis of adaptive optical telescopes using laser guide stars,” Proc. IEEE 78, 1721–1743 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31 (1985).

1982

1978

J. Hardy, “Active optics: a new technology for the control of light,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651–697 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1968

Ameer, G. A.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barclay, H. T.

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature (London) 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Belsher, J. F.

Boeke, B. R.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Browne, S. L.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Foy, R.

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31 (1985).

Fried, D. L.

D. L. Fried, J. F. Belsher, “Analysis of fundamental limits to artificial-guide-star adaptive-optics-system performance for astronomical imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 277–287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Fried, “Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 52–61 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Fried, “Diffusion analysis for the propagation of mutual coherence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 961–969 (1968), App. B.
[CrossRef]

D. L. Fried, “Atmospheric turbulence optical effects: understanding the adaptive-optics implications,” in Proceedings of the NATO Conference on Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, D. M. Alloin, J.-M. Mariotti, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 25–57.

D. L. Fried, J. L. Vaughn, “M-method performance for M = 3,” Rep. TR-995R (Optical Sciences Company, Placentia, Calif., 1989).

D. L. Fried, “Turbulence-induced variation in the apparent separation of a pair of point sources,” Rep. TR-721R (Optical Sciences Company, Placentia, Calif., 1989), App. A.

Fugate, R. Q.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, C. S.

C. S. Gardner, B. M. Welsh, L. A. Thompson, “Design and performance analysis of adaptive optical telescopes using laser guide stars,” Proc. IEEE 78, 1721–1743 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, J.

J. Hardy, “Active optics: a new technology for the control of light,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651–697 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31 (1985).

Murphy, D. V.

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature (London) 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Page, D. A.

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature (London) 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Primmerman, C. A.

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature (London) 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P. H.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ruane, R. E.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, L. A.

C. S. Gardner, B. M. Welsh, L. A. Thompson, “Design and performance analysis of adaptive optical telescopes using laser guide stars,” Proc. IEEE 78, 1721–1743 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, G. A.

Vaughn, J. L.

D. L. Fried, J. L. Vaughn, “M-method performance for M = 3,” Rep. TR-995R (Optical Sciences Company, Placentia, Calif., 1989).

Welsh, B. M.

C. S. Gardner, B. M. Welsh, L. A. Thompson, “Design and performance analysis of adaptive optical telescopes using laser guide stars,” Proc. IEEE 78, 1721–1743 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wopat, L. M.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zollars, B. G.

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature (London) 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys.

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31 (1985).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nature (London)

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature (London) 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

C. S. Gardner, B. M. Welsh, L. A. Thompson, “Design and performance analysis of adaptive optical telescopes using laser guide stars,” Proc. IEEE 78, 1721–1743 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Hardy, “Active optics: a new technology for the control of light,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651–697 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. L. Fried, “Turbulence-induced variation in the apparent separation of a pair of point sources,” Rep. TR-721R (Optical Sciences Company, Placentia, Calif., 1989), App. A.

D. L. Fried, “Atmospheric turbulence optical effects: understanding the adaptive-optics implications,” in Proceedings of the NATO Conference on Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, D. M. Alloin, J.-M. Mariotti, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 25–57.

D. L. Fried, J. L. Vaughn, “M-method performance for M = 3,” Rep. TR-995R (Optical Sciences Company, Placentia, Calif., 1989).

The term focus anisoplanatism was coined by Tom O’Meara (Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, Calif.) in approximately 1980 and has been in general use in the interested community since then, although the strict suitability of the phrase might be questioned. As a more suitable terminology we might use the words range-dependent anisoplanatism, but use of the phrase focus anisoplanatism has become so customary that we will not undertake to advocate its replacement. (In retrospect, it seems that the nomenclature applied to almost all the various anisoplanatic effects in adaptive optics has been less than optimal.)

R. Benedict, J. B. Breckinridge, D. L. Fried, eds., Feature issue, “Atmospheric-Compensation Technology,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A11, 255–451, 779–945 (1994).This double-issue Feature (January and February 1994) contains 30 papers on the subject of adaptive optics, with a substantial number being concerned with matters related to the use of an artificial guide star.

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