Abstract

This study examined the detectability of flicker for small foveal long-wavelength test stimuli centered within surrounding long-wavelength annular adaptation stimuli. Flicker threshold-versus-illuminance (tvi) curves were analyzed for four different test-stimulus waveforms—sine-wave, square-wave, and rapid-on sawtooth and rapid-off sawtooth flicker—at temporal frequencies ranging from 12 to 21 Hz and at temporal modulation depths ranging from ~50% to 100%. For all stimulus combinations that were examined involving temporal frequencies above 12 Hz, the resultant flicker tvi curves shared the following characteristic features: First, at operationally dim surround illuminances, there was always a single elevated threshold for detection of flicker. Second, some surround illuminance always could be found for which flicker threshold decreased abruptly, typically by ~1.5 log units within 0.1 log unit of surround illuminance increase. Third, when test illuminance was incremented above this lower flicker threshold, flicker always vanished; when test illuminance was incremented still further, flicker reappeared. Finally, at sufficiently bright surround illuminances flicker did not disappear with increasing test illuminance. Although these effects held for all waveforms, the abrupt decrease of flicker threshold occurred at brighter surround illuminances for sawtooth than for sine-wave flicker, and at brighter surround illuminances for sine-wave than for square-wave flicker, at least for fully modulated waveforms (of a given temporal frequency). Moreover, when modulation depth was adjusted so that any two different waveforms had the same first-harmonic contrast, the resultant flicker tvi curves became identical when plotted as first-harmonic amplitude versus surround illuminance. This identity held for any given temporal frequency, even though the flicker tvi curves for 12–Hz fully modulated sine-wave or square-wave flicker did not manifest flicker response suppression, whereas the flicker tvi curves for sawtooth flicker did. These and other results imply that the first-harmonic contrast of the test stimulus fully determines the shape of the entire flicker tvi curve and that the dc component of the test stimulus helps to cause flicker response suppression. The results also demonstrate that first-harmonic equivalence is only a necessary, not a sufficient, condition for linearity.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Sensory Processes and Perception, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds., Vol. I of Handbook of Perception and Human Performance (Wiley, New York, 1986), pp. 1–43.
  2. J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vision Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. J. Coletta, A. J. Adams, “Spatial extent of rod–cone and cone–cone interactions for flicker detection,” Vision Res. 26, 917–925 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans. I. Results in normal observers,” Vis. Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. R. Alexander, G. A. Fishman, D. J. Derlacki, “Mechanisms of rod-cone interaction: evidence from congenital stationary night blindness,” Vision Res. 28, 575–583 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Eisner, “Losses of flicker sensitivity during dark adaptation: effects of test size and wavelength,” Vision Res. 32, 1975–1986 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Eisner, “Nonmonotonic effects of test illuminance on flicker detection: a study of foveal light adaptation with annular surrounds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 33–47 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. A. Fowler, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: effects of mean illuminance and low temporal frequencies,” Vision Res. 32, 1239–1247 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. J. DeMarco, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Effect of sawtooth polarity on chromatic and luminance detection,” Vis. Neurosci. 11, 491–499 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. H. Swanson, “Chromatic adaptation alters spectral sensitivity at high temporal frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1294–1303 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. The effect of temporal frequency on flicker response suppression was ascertained by use of intrasession comparisons up to frequencies of 30 Hz. The steep flicker tvi slopes continued to shift to higher surround illuminances with increasing test illuminance. For subject HVN the lower flicker threshold was first recorded at surround illuminances of 1.7, 2.4, 2.8, and 3.9 log Td, respectively, for 18-, 21-, 24-, and 30-Hz fully modulated sine-wave stimuli. For subject TQN the corresponding surround illuminances were 1.9, 2.3, 2.9 and >4.0 (if at all) log Td, respectively.
  12. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Sciences: Concepts and Methods Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  13. In Ref. 7 the procedure for the basic tvi paradigm was given in paragraphs 2–4 of the Procedure section, rather than only in paragraphs 2 and 3, as labeled in that paper.
  14. On comparison of the flicker tvi curves for rapid-on versus rapid-off flicker, at both 15 and 18 Hz for both subjects, there were only two of a total of 75 tvi-coordinate pairs for which any type of rapid-on or rapid-off flicker threshold data differed by more than 0.2 log unit and only nine additional pairs for which any rapid-on or rapid-off flicker threshold data differed by more than 0.1 log unit.
  15. B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2225–2236 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, “The primate retina contains two types of ganglion cells, with high and low contrast sensitivity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 83, 2755–2757 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,”J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  18. T. E. Frumkes, S. M. Wu, “Independent influences on cone-mediated responses to light onset and offset in distal retinal neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 64, 1043–1054 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  19. R. Pflug, R. Nelson, P. K. Ahnelt, “Background-induced flicker enhancement in cat retinal horizontal cells. I. Temporal and spectral properties,” J. Neurophysiol. 64, 313–325 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  20. T. E. Frumkes, T. Eysteinsson, “The cellular basis for suppressive rod–cone interaction,” Vis. Neurosci. 1, 263–273 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fasicularis,”J. Physiol. 427, 681–713 (1990).
  22. D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Human cone receptor activity: the leading edge of the a-wave and models of receptor activity,” Vis. Neurosci. 10, 857–871 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. W. Seiple, K. Holopigian, V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. Chang, S. A. Burns, M. R. Kreitz, “Red–green flicker photometry and nonlinearities in the flicker electroretinogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1413–1422 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. N. J. Coletta, A. J. Adams, “Rod–cone interactions in flicker detection,” Vision Res. 24, 1330–1340 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Eisner, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Flicker photometric study of chromatic adaptation: selective suppression of cone inputs by colored backgrounds,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 705–718 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. Eisner, J. R. Samples, “Profound reductions of flicker sensitivity in the elderly: can glaucoma involve the retina distal to ganglion cells?” Appl. Opt. 30, 2121–2135 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. Stockman, D. I. A. MacLeod, J. A. Vivien, “Isolation of the middle- and long-wavelength-sensitive cones in normal trichromats,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2471–2490 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Eisner, “Losses of foveal flicker sensitivity during dark adaptation following extended bleaches,” Vision Res. 29, 1401–1423 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. The actual response nonmonotonicities that result in the disappearance of flicker with increasing test illuminance, and help to cause the abrupt reduction of flicker threshold at some surround illuminance, need not be very great. In particular, if flicker response has not reached flicker threshold, even a modest decrease of flicker response with increasing test illuminance would cause the flicker response to remain subthreshold.

1994 (2)

P. J. DeMarco, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Effect of sawtooth polarity on chromatic and luminance detection,” Vis. Neurosci. 11, 491–499 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eisner, “Nonmonotonic effects of test illuminance on flicker detection: a study of foveal light adaptation with annular surrounds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 33–47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (5)

1992 (5)

W. Seiple, K. Holopigian, V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans. I. Results in normal observers,” Vis. Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. A. Fowler, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: effects of mean illuminance and low temporal frequencies,” Vision Res. 32, 1239–1247 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eisner, “Losses of flicker sensitivity during dark adaptation: effects of test size and wavelength,” Vision Res. 32, 1975–1986 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,”J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

1990 (4)

T. E. Frumkes, S. M. Wu, “Independent influences on cone-mediated responses to light onset and offset in distal retinal neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 64, 1043–1054 (1990).
[PubMed]

R. Pflug, R. Nelson, P. K. Ahnelt, “Background-induced flicker enhancement in cat retinal horizontal cells. I. Temporal and spectral properties,” J. Neurophysiol. 64, 313–325 (1990).
[PubMed]

J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fasicularis,”J. Physiol. 427, 681–713 (1990).

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2225–2236 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

A. Eisner, “Losses of foveal flicker sensitivity during dark adaptation following extended bleaches,” Vision Res. 29, 1401–1423 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

K. R. Alexander, G. A. Fishman, D. J. Derlacki, “Mechanisms of rod-cone interaction: evidence from congenital stationary night blindness,” Vision Res. 28, 575–583 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Frumkes, T. Eysteinsson, “The cellular basis for suppressive rod–cone interaction,” Vis. Neurosci. 1, 263–273 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

N. J. Coletta, A. J. Adams, “Spatial extent of rod–cone and cone–cone interactions for flicker detection,” Vision Res. 26, 917–925 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, “The primate retina contains two types of ganglion cells, with high and low contrast sensitivity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 83, 2755–2757 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

N. J. Coletta, A. J. Adams, “Rod–cone interactions in flicker detection,” Vision Res. 24, 1330–1340 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Adams, A. J.

N. J. Coletta, A. J. Adams, “Spatial extent of rod–cone and cone–cone interactions for flicker detection,” Vision Res. 26, 917–925 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Coletta, A. J. Adams, “Rod–cone interactions in flicker detection,” Vision Res. 24, 1330–1340 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ahnelt, P. K.

R. Pflug, R. Nelson, P. K. Ahnelt, “Background-induced flicker enhancement in cat retinal horizontal cells. I. Temporal and spectral properties,” J. Neurophysiol. 64, 313–325 (1990).
[PubMed]

Alexander, K. R.

K. R. Alexander, G. A. Fishman, D. J. Derlacki, “Mechanisms of rod-cone interaction: evidence from congenital stationary night blindness,” Vision Res. 28, 575–583 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baylor, D. A.

J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fasicularis,”J. Physiol. 427, 681–713 (1990).

Beczkowska, I.

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans. I. Results in normal observers,” Vis. Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birch, D. G.

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Human cone receptor activity: the leading edge of the a-wave and models of receptor activity,” Vis. Neurosci. 10, 857–871 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowen, R. W.

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. A. Fowler, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: effects of mean illuminance and low temporal frequencies,” Vision Res. 32, 1239–1247 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

Chang, Y.

Coletta, N. J.

N. J. Coletta, A. J. Adams, “Spatial extent of rod–cone and cone–cone interactions for flicker detection,” Vision Res. 26, 917–925 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Coletta, A. J. Adams, “Rod–cone interactions in flicker detection,” Vision Res. 24, 1330–1340 (1984).
[CrossRef]

DeMarco, P. J.

P. J. DeMarco, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Effect of sawtooth polarity on chromatic and luminance detection,” Vis. Neurosci. 11, 491–499 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denny, N.

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans. I. Results in normal observers,” Vis. Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derlacki, D. J.

K. R. Alexander, G. A. Fishman, D. J. Derlacki, “Mechanisms of rod-cone interaction: evidence from congenital stationary night blindness,” Vision Res. 28, 575–583 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Eisner, A.

Eysteinsson, T.

T. E. Frumkes, T. Eysteinsson, “The cellular basis for suppressive rod–cone interaction,” Vis. Neurosci. 1, 263–273 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fishman, G. A.

K. R. Alexander, G. A. Fishman, D. J. Derlacki, “Mechanisms of rod-cone interaction: evidence from congenital stationary night blindness,” Vision Res. 28, 575–583 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, M. A.

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. A. Fowler, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: effects of mean illuminance and low temporal frequencies,” Vision Res. 32, 1239–1247 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frumkes, T. E.

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans. I. Results in normal observers,” Vis. Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Frumkes, S. M. Wu, “Independent influences on cone-mediated responses to light onset and offset in distal retinal neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 64, 1043–1054 (1990).
[PubMed]

T. E. Frumkes, T. Eysteinsson, “The cellular basis for suppressive rod–cone interaction,” Vis. Neurosci. 1, 263–273 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Greenstein, V. C.

W. Seiple, K. Holopigian, V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holopigian, K.

W. Seiple, K. Holopigian, V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hood, D. C.

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Human cone receptor activity: the leading edge of the a-wave and models of receptor activity,” Vis. Neurosci. 10, 857–871 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Seiple, K. Holopigian, V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, E.

E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, “The primate retina contains two types of ganglion cells, with high and low contrast sensitivity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 83, 2755–2757 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kreitz, M. R.

Kremers, J.

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vision Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lange, G.

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans. I. Results in normal observers,” Vis. Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. B.

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vision Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,”J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).
[PubMed]

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2225–2236 (1990).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

Martin, P. R.

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,”J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).
[PubMed]

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2225–2236 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Meister, M.

J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fasicularis,”J. Physiol. 427, 681–713 (1990).

Nelson, R.

R. Pflug, R. Nelson, P. K. Ahnelt, “Background-induced flicker enhancement in cat retinal horizontal cells. I. Temporal and spectral properties,” J. Neurophysiol. 64, 313–325 (1990).
[PubMed]

Nunn, B. J.

J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fasicularis,”J. Physiol. 427, 681–713 (1990).

Pflug, R.

R. Pflug, R. Nelson, P. K. Ahnelt, “Background-induced flicker enhancement in cat retinal horizontal cells. I. Temporal and spectral properties,” J. Neurophysiol. 64, 313–325 (1990).
[PubMed]

Pokorny, J.

P. J. DeMarco, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Effect of sawtooth polarity on chromatic and luminance detection,” Vis. Neurosci. 11, 491–499 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vision Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. A. Fowler, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: effects of mean illuminance and low temporal frequencies,” Vision Res. 32, 1239–1247 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,”J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).
[PubMed]

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2225–2236 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Samples, J. R.

Schnapf, J. L.

J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fasicularis,”J. Physiol. 427, 681–713 (1990).

Seiple, W.

W. Seiple, K. Holopigian, V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapley, R. M.

E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, “The primate retina contains two types of ganglion cells, with high and low contrast sensitivity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 83, 2755–2757 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

P. J. DeMarco, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Effect of sawtooth polarity on chromatic and luminance detection,” Vis. Neurosci. 11, 491–499 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vision Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. A. Fowler, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: effects of mean illuminance and low temporal frequencies,” Vision Res. 32, 1239–1247 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,”J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).
[PubMed]

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2225–2236 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Sciences: Concepts and Methods Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Stockman, A.

Swanson, W. H.

Valberg, A.

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,”J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).
[PubMed]

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2225–2236 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, J. A.

Watson, A. B.

A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Sensory Processes and Perception, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds., Vol. I of Handbook of Perception and Human Performance (Wiley, New York, 1986), pp. 1–43.

Wu, S. M.

T. E. Frumkes, S. M. Wu, “Independent influences on cone-mediated responses to light onset and offset in distal retinal neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 64, 1043–1054 (1990).
[PubMed]

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Sciences: Concepts and Methods Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Neurophysiol. (2)

T. E. Frumkes, S. M. Wu, “Independent influences on cone-mediated responses to light onset and offset in distal retinal neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 64, 1043–1054 (1990).
[PubMed]

R. Pflug, R. Nelson, P. K. Ahnelt, “Background-induced flicker enhancement in cat retinal horizontal cells. I. Temporal and spectral properties,” J. Neurophysiol. 64, 313–325 (1990).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

J. Physiol. (2)

J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fasicularis,”J. Physiol. 427, 681–713 (1990).

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,”J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).
[PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) (1)

E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, “The primate retina contains two types of ganglion cells, with high and low contrast sensitivity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 83, 2755–2757 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Neurosci. (4)

T. E. Frumkes, T. Eysteinsson, “The cellular basis for suppressive rod–cone interaction,” Vis. Neurosci. 1, 263–273 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. J. DeMarco, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Effect of sawtooth polarity on chromatic and luminance detection,” Vis. Neurosci. 11, 491–499 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans. I. Results in normal observers,” Vis. Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, D. G. Birch, “Human cone receptor activity: the leading edge of the a-wave and models of receptor activity,” Vis. Neurosci. 10, 857–871 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (8)

W. Seiple, K. Holopigian, V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Coletta, A. J. Adams, “Rod–cone interactions in flicker detection,” Vision Res. 24, 1330–1340 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Eisner, “Losses of foveal flicker sensitivity during dark adaptation following extended bleaches,” Vision Res. 29, 1401–1423 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Alexander, G. A. Fishman, D. J. Derlacki, “Mechanisms of rod-cone interaction: evidence from congenital stationary night blindness,” Vision Res. 28, 575–583 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Eisner, “Losses of flicker sensitivity during dark adaptation: effects of test size and wavelength,” Vision Res. 32, 1975–1986 (1992).
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[CrossRef]

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Other (6)

A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Sensory Processes and Perception, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds., Vol. I of Handbook of Perception and Human Performance (Wiley, New York, 1986), pp. 1–43.

The effect of temporal frequency on flicker response suppression was ascertained by use of intrasession comparisons up to frequencies of 30 Hz. The steep flicker tvi slopes continued to shift to higher surround illuminances with increasing test illuminance. For subject HVN the lower flicker threshold was first recorded at surround illuminances of 1.7, 2.4, 2.8, and 3.9 log Td, respectively, for 18-, 21-, 24-, and 30-Hz fully modulated sine-wave stimuli. For subject TQN the corresponding surround illuminances were 1.9, 2.3, 2.9 and >4.0 (if at all) log Td, respectively.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Sciences: Concepts and Methods Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1982).

In Ref. 7 the procedure for the basic tvi paradigm was given in paragraphs 2–4 of the Procedure section, rather than only in paragraphs 2 and 3, as labeled in that paper.

On comparison of the flicker tvi curves for rapid-on versus rapid-off flicker, at both 15 and 18 Hz for both subjects, there were only two of a total of 75 tvi-coordinate pairs for which any type of rapid-on or rapid-off flicker threshold data differed by more than 0.2 log unit and only nine additional pairs for which any rapid-on or rapid-off flicker threshold data differed by more than 0.1 log unit.

The actual response nonmonotonicities that result in the disappearance of flicker with increasing test illuminance, and help to cause the abrupt reduction of flicker threshold at some surround illuminance, need not be very great. In particular, if flicker response has not reached flicker threshold, even a modest decrease of flicker response with increasing test illuminance would cause the flicker response to remain subthreshold.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top left: Flicker tvi data for long-wavelength (~646-nm), 13′-diameter foveal test stimuli centered within 18′-inner-diameter, 1°-outer-diameter, 670-nm surround stimuli for subject TQN. Flicker thresholds (open symbols) and vanishing thresholds (filled symbols) are plotted as functions of surround illuminance for two different waveforms, sine-wave (circles) and rapid-on sawtooth (upward-pointing triangles). Test stimuli are flickered at 15 Hz with a temporal modulation depth of 99.5%. The time-averaged retinal illuminance equals the first-harmonic peak-to-trough amplitude minus 0.30 log unit (for the sine wave) and minus 0.10 log unit (for the rapid-on sawtooth). Bottom left: Same as top left but 18 Hz. Top right: Same as top left but for subject HVN. Bottom right: Same as bottom left but for subject HVN.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left: Same as Fig. 1 top left but 12 Hz for subject TQN. Also graphed are data for rapid-off sawtooth flicker (downward-pointing triangles). Note that both the ordinate and the abscissa scales are translated from those in Fig. 1 and that the leftmost abscissa value represents an occluded surround. Right: Same as Fig. 2 left but for subject HVN.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top left: Flicker tvi data for square-wave flicker (squares) versus sine-wave flicker (circles); 15-Hz, 99.5% modulation depth for subject TQN. The time-averaged retinal illuminance equals the first-harmonic peak-to-trough amplitude minus 0.30 log unit (for the sine wave) and minus 0.41 log unit (for the square wave). Bottom left: Same as top left but 18 Hz. Top right: Same as top left but for subject HVN. Bottom right: Same as bottom left but for subject HVN.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top left: Flicker tvi data for 63.4% modulation depth sine-wave flicker (circles) versus 99.5% modulation depth rapid-on sawtooth flicker (upward-pointing triangles) for subject TQN; 12 Hz. The time-averaged retinal illuminance equals the first-harmonic peak-to-trough amplitude minus 0.10 log unit. Middle left: Same as top left but 15 Hz. Bottom left: Same as top left but 18 Hz. Top right: Same as top left but for subject HVN. Middle right: Same as middle left but for subject HVN. Bottom right: Same as bottom left but for subject HVN.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Top left: Flicker tvi data for 78.1% modulation depth square-wave flicker (squares) versus 99.5% modulation depth sine-wave flicker (circles) for subject TQN; 15 Hz. The time-averaged retinal illuminance equals the first-harmonic peak-to-trough amplitude minus 0.30 log unit. Middle left: Same as top left but 18 Hz. Bottom left: Same as top left but 21 Hz. Top right: Same as top left but for subject HVN. Middle right: Same as middle left but for subject HVN. Bottom right: Same as bottom left but for subject HVN.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Left: Same as Fig. 5 top left but 12 Hz for subject TQN. Note that both the ordinate and the abscissa scales are translated from those in Fig. 5 and that the leftmost abscissa value represents an occluded surround. As with all figures, data were obtained for all stimulus conditions at every surround illuminance for which any data are plotted; for this figure most of the data are superimposed. Right: Same as left but for subject HVN.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Top left: Flicker tvi data for 99.5% modulation depth sine-wave flicker (large circles) versus 51% modulation depth sine-wave flicker (small circles) for subject TQN; 15 Hz. The time-averaged retinal illuminance equals the first-harmonic peak-to-trough amplitude minus 0.30 log unit (for the 99.5% sine wave) and minus 0.01 log unit (for the 51% sine wave). Bottom left: Same as top left but 18 Hz. Top right: Same as top left but for subject HVN. Bottom right: Same as bottom left but for subject HVN. Note that upper flicker thresholds could not be measured for 51% modulation depth flicker at surround illuminances less than 2.4 log Td; the highest first-harmonic amplitude that was measurable was 4.18 log Td.

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