Abstract

The surface-guided Bloch modes guided by the interface between a multilayer dielectric stack and an external medium are highly dispersive. This makes attractive their use in mode-selective coupling of light into and out of side-polished multimode fibers. The particular case of a dual-mode fiber is modeled. Mode selection by means of surface-guided Bloch modes is found to offer advantages in comparison with selection by means of a single-mode waveguiding film of the same average refractive index as the stack. Good modal selectivity is achievable together with high tunability, i.e., high sensitivity to the refractive index of the intervening layer between stack and side-polished fiber.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. V. Sorin, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Highly selective evanescent modal filter for two-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 11, 581–583 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. Kumar, S. Ghadirli, K. Thyagarajan, “Performance of a dual-mode-single-mode waveguide coupler as a modal filter,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5092–5095 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, P. St. J. Russel, “Selective excitation of fibre-modes using surface-plasmons,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 7, 1051–1053 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. Schmauss, “Transmission of two-mode-coded channels in one fibre using optical directional couplers as mode selective elements,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 603–609 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Thursby, D. Walsh, W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, “An inline mode splitter applied to a dual polarimeter in elliptical core fiber,” in Tenth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. D. C. Jones, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2360, 339–342 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, C.-S. Hong, “Electromagnetic propagation in periodic stratified media. I. General theory,” J.Opt.Soc.Am. 67, 423–438 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. St. J. Russel, T. A. Birks, F. D. Lloyd-Lucas, “Photonic Bloch waves and photonic band gaps,” in Confined Electrons and Photons: New Physics and Applications, E. Burstein, C. Weisbuch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. D. Lloyd-Lucas, R. D. Pechstedt, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Narrow-band waveguide taps using photonic surface modes supported by multilayer dielectric stacks,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 7 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 103–105.
  9. C. Vassallo, Optical Waveguide Concepts (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), pp. 27–35.
  10. S. Shaklan, “Measurement of intermodal coupling in weakly multimode fibre optics,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2022–2024 (1990).
    [Crossref]

1995 (1)

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, P. St. J. Russel, “Selective excitation of fibre-modes using surface-plasmons,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 7, 1051–1053 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

B. Schmauss, “Transmission of two-mode-coded channels in one fibre using optical directional couplers as mode selective elements,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 603–609 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. Kumar, S. Ghadirli, K. Thyagarajan, “Performance of a dual-mode-single-mode waveguide coupler as a modal filter,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5092–5095 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

S. Shaklan, “Measurement of intermodal coupling in weakly multimode fibre optics,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2022–2024 (1990).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

1977 (1)

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, C.-S. Hong, “Electromagnetic propagation in periodic stratified media. I. General theory,” J.Opt.Soc.Am. 67, 423–438 (1977).
[Crossref]

Barcelos, S.

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, P. St. J. Russel, “Selective excitation of fibre-modes using surface-plasmons,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 7, 1051–1053 (1995).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

P. St. J. Russel, T. A. Birks, F. D. Lloyd-Lucas, “Photonic Bloch waves and photonic band gaps,” in Confined Electrons and Photons: New Physics and Applications, E. Burstein, C. Weisbuch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995).
[Crossref]

F. D. Lloyd-Lucas, R. D. Pechstedt, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Narrow-band waveguide taps using photonic surface modes supported by multilayer dielectric stacks,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 7 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 103–105.

Culshaw, B.

G. Thursby, D. Walsh, W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, “An inline mode splitter applied to a dual polarimeter in elliptical core fiber,” in Tenth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. D. C. Jones, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2360, 339–342 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ghadirli, S.

Hong, C.-S.

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, C.-S. Hong, “Electromagnetic propagation in periodic stratified media. I. General theory,” J.Opt.Soc.Am. 67, 423–438 (1977).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. Y.

Kumar, A.

Lloyd-Lucas, F. D.

P. St. J. Russel, T. A. Birks, F. D. Lloyd-Lucas, “Photonic Bloch waves and photonic band gaps,” in Confined Electrons and Photons: New Physics and Applications, E. Burstein, C. Weisbuch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995).
[Crossref]

F. D. Lloyd-Lucas, R. D. Pechstedt, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Narrow-band waveguide taps using photonic surface modes supported by multilayer dielectric stacks,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 7 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 103–105.

Michie, W. C.

G. Thursby, D. Walsh, W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, “An inline mode splitter applied to a dual polarimeter in elliptical core fiber,” in Tenth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. D. C. Jones, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2360, 339–342 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pechstedt, R. D.

F. D. Lloyd-Lucas, R. D. Pechstedt, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Narrow-band waveguide taps using photonic surface modes supported by multilayer dielectric stacks,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 7 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 103–105.

Russel, P. St. J.

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, P. St. J. Russel, “Selective excitation of fibre-modes using surface-plasmons,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 7, 1051–1053 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. St. J. Russel, T. A. Birks, F. D. Lloyd-Lucas, “Photonic Bloch waves and photonic band gaps,” in Confined Electrons and Photons: New Physics and Applications, E. Burstein, C. Weisbuch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. St. J.

F. D. Lloyd-Lucas, R. D. Pechstedt, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Narrow-band waveguide taps using photonic surface modes supported by multilayer dielectric stacks,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 7 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 103–105.

Schmauss, B.

B. Schmauss, “Transmission of two-mode-coded channels in one fibre using optical directional couplers as mode selective elements,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 603–609 (1992).
[Crossref]

Shaklan, S.

S. Shaklan, “Measurement of intermodal coupling in weakly multimode fibre optics,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2022–2024 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shaw, H. J.

Sorin, W. V.

Thursby, G.

G. Thursby, D. Walsh, W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, “An inline mode splitter applied to a dual polarimeter in elliptical core fiber,” in Tenth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. D. C. Jones, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2360, 339–342 (1994).
[Crossref]

Thyagarajan, K.

Vassallo, C.

C. Vassallo, Optical Waveguide Concepts (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), pp. 27–35.

Walsh, D.

G. Thursby, D. Walsh, W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, “An inline mode splitter applied to a dual polarimeter in elliptical core fiber,” in Tenth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. D. C. Jones, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2360, 339–342 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, C.-S. Hong, “Electromagnetic propagation in periodic stratified media. I. General theory,” J.Opt.Soc.Am. 67, 423–438 (1977).
[Crossref]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, C.-S. Hong, “Electromagnetic propagation in periodic stratified media. I. General theory,” J.Opt.Soc.Am. 67, 423–438 (1977).
[Crossref]

Zervas, M. N.

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, P. St. J. Russel, “Selective excitation of fibre-modes using surface-plasmons,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 7, 1051–1053 (1995).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Shaklan, “Measurement of intermodal coupling in weakly multimode fibre optics,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2022–2024 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, P. St. J. Russel, “Selective excitation of fibre-modes using surface-plasmons,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 7, 1051–1053 (1995).
[Crossref]

J.Opt.Soc.Am. (1)

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, C.-S. Hong, “Electromagnetic propagation in periodic stratified media. I. General theory,” J.Opt.Soc.Am. 67, 423–438 (1977).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Schmauss, “Transmission of two-mode-coded channels in one fibre using optical directional couplers as mode selective elements,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 603–609 (1992).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

G. Thursby, D. Walsh, W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, “An inline mode splitter applied to a dual polarimeter in elliptical core fiber,” in Tenth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. D. C. Jones, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2360, 339–342 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. St. J. Russel, T. A. Birks, F. D. Lloyd-Lucas, “Photonic Bloch waves and photonic band gaps,” in Confined Electrons and Photons: New Physics and Applications, E. Burstein, C. Weisbuch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995).
[Crossref]

F. D. Lloyd-Lucas, R. D. Pechstedt, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Narrow-band waveguide taps using photonic surface modes supported by multilayer dielectric stacks,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 7 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 103–105.

C. Vassallo, Optical Waveguide Concepts (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), pp. 27–35.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Generic mode-selective fiber coupler (MSFC) geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index profile of the mode-selective coupler with use of (a) the dielectric multilayer stack and (b) the high-index single-mode waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effective index of the normal modes of the coupler based on SGBM’s as a function of the refractive index of the oil layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized maximum power coupled from each fiber mode as a function of the refractive index of the oil layer, with use of the multilayer stack (solid curves) and the high-index waveguide (dotted curves).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross talk and coupling length of both fiber modes for the coupler based on SGBM’s as a function of the thickness of the oil layer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Coupling length of both fiber modes as a function of the refractive index of the oil layer, with use of the multilayer stack (solid curves) and the high-index waveguide (dotted curves).

Equations (7)

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P max P 0 = κ 2 κ 2 + Δ 2 ,
Δ = 1 2 ( β s β f + κ s κ f ) .
Γ I = γ + Δ 2 + κ 2 , Γ II = γ Δ 2 + κ 2 ,
γ = 1 2 ( β s + β f + κ s + κ f ) .
κ 2 = ( Γ I + Γ II ) β f Γ I Γ II β f 2 ,
P max P 0 = 1 ( Γ I + Γ II 2 β f Γ I Γ II ) 2 .
L c = π Γ I Γ II .

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