Backscattering enhancement of electromagnetic wave scattering from a perfectly conducting two-dimensional random rough surface (three-dimensional scattering problem) is studied with Monte Carlo simulations. The magnetic-field integral equation formulation is used with the method of moments. The solution of the matrix equation is calculated exactly with an efficient method known as the sparse-matrix flat-surface iterative approach. Numerical examples are illustrated with 32,768 surface unknowns, surface areas between 256 and 1024 square wavelengths, rms heights of 0.5 and 1 wavelength, and as many as 1000 realizations. The bistatic scattering simulations show backscattering enhancement for both copolarized and cross-polarized components. Comparisons are made with controlled laboratory experimental data for which the random rough surfaces are fabricated with prescribed properties of a rms height of 1 wavelength and a correlation length equal to 2 wavelengths. Comparisons are made between simulations and experimental data for the absolute value of the bistatic scattering coefficient. The copolarized scattering coefficient is in good agreement, and the cross-polarized scattering coefficient is in excellent agreement.
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