Abstract

Image enhancement has been shown to improve face recognition by visually impaired observers. We conducted three experiments in an effort to refine our understanding of the parameters leading to this effect. In experiment 1 we found that the band of spatial frequencies between 4 and 8 cycles/face is critical for face recognition. In experiment 2 we found that enhancement of these frequencies and the resulting image distortion actually reduced recognition performance for normal observers. Since the degradation of performance by low vision is larger than the effect of distortion, the enhancement that reduces performance for normal observers may still be beneficial for the visually impaired observer. Experiment 3 found that patients tend to prefer images enhanced at frequencies higher than the critical frequencies found in experiment 1. Such individually selected enhancement did not improve recognition in comparison with uniformly applied enhancement. The lack of an enhancement effect may be due to the small variability in enhancement frequencies selected by our subject population.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Peli, R. B. Goldstein, G. M. Young, C. L. Trempe, S. M. Buzney, “Image enhancement for the visually impaired: simulations and experimental results,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 2337–2350 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  2. E. Peli, T. Peli, “Image enhancement for the visually impaired,” Opt. Eng. 23, 47–51 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Peli, “Limitations of image enhancement for the visually impaired,” J. Opt. Vis. Sci. 69, 15–24 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. P. Ginsburg, “Specifying relevant spatial information for image evaluation and display design: an explanation of how we see certain objects,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21, 219–227 (1980).
  5. A. Fiorentini, L. Maffei, G. Sandini, “The role of high spatial frequencies in face perception,” Perception 12, 195–201 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. S. Rubin, K. Siegel, “Recognition of low pass filtered faces and letters,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 25, 28 (1984).
  7. J. Sergent, “Microgenesis of face perception,” in Aspects of Face Processing, H. D. Ellis, M. A. Jeeves, R. Newcombe, A. Young, eds. (Nijhoff, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 17–33.
  8. L. O. Harvey, G. P. Sinclair, “On the quality of visual imagery,” Invest, Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 26, 281 (1985).
  9. M. Hübner, I. Rentschler, W. Encke, “Hidden face recognition: comparing foveal and extrafoveal performance,” Human Neurobiol. 4, 1–7 (1985).
  10. E. Peli, R. Goldstein, C. Trempe, L. Arend, “Image enhancement improves face recognition,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 7 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 64–67.
  11. R. A. Schuchard, G. S. Rubin, “Face identification of band pass filtered faces by low vision observers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 30, 396 (1989).
  12. T. Hayes, M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, “Recognition of positive and negative band pass-filtered images,” Perception 15, 595–602 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Peli, “Display nonlinearity in digital image processing for visual communication,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2374–2382 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Peli, “Contrast in complex images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2032–2040 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Note that the high-frequency half-maximum point of the 1.5-octave Gaussian filter centered at the 4 cycles/face that were used by Schuchard and Rubin is at 6 cycles/face.11,18
  16. J. A. Swets, R. M. Pickett, Evaluation of Diagnostic Systems: Methods from Signal Detection Theory(Academic, New York, 1982), pp. 15–45.
  17. C. E. Metz, P. Wang, H. B. Kronman, “A new approach for testing the significance of differences between ROC curves measured from correlated data,” in Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Information Processing in Medical Imaging, F. Deconinck, ed. (Nijhoff, The Hague, 1983), pp. 431–445.
  18. R. A. Schuchard, G. S. Rubin, “Effect of band width on discrimination and recognition of band pass filtered faces,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 161.
  19. V. Bruce, “Recognizing familiar faces,” in Aspects of Face Processing, H. D. Ellis, M. A. Jeeves, F. Newcombe, A. Young, eds. (Nijhoff, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 107–117.
  20. T. B. Lawton, “Image enhancement filters significantly improve reading performance for low vision observers,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 12, 193–200 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. B. Lawton, “Improved reading performance using individualized compensation filters for observers with losses in central vision,” Ophthalmology 96, 115–126 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  22. F. L. Engel, Institute for Perception Research, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1993).

1992 (3)

E. Peli, “Limitations of image enhancement for the visually impaired,” J. Opt. Vis. Sci. 69, 15–24 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Peli, “Display nonlinearity in digital image processing for visual communication,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2374–2382 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Lawton, “Image enhancement filters significantly improve reading performance for low vision observers,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 12, 193–200 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

E. Peli, R. B. Goldstein, G. M. Young, C. L. Trempe, S. M. Buzney, “Image enhancement for the visually impaired: simulations and experimental results,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 2337–2350 (1991).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

R. A. Schuchard, G. S. Rubin, “Face identification of band pass filtered faces by low vision observers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 30, 396 (1989).

T. B. Lawton, “Improved reading performance using individualized compensation filters for observers with losses in central vision,” Ophthalmology 96, 115–126 (1989).
[PubMed]

1986 (1)

T. Hayes, M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, “Recognition of positive and negative band pass-filtered images,” Perception 15, 595–602 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

L. O. Harvey, G. P. Sinclair, “On the quality of visual imagery,” Invest, Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 26, 281 (1985).

M. Hübner, I. Rentschler, W. Encke, “Hidden face recognition: comparing foveal and extrafoveal performance,” Human Neurobiol. 4, 1–7 (1985).

1984 (2)

G. S. Rubin, K. Siegel, “Recognition of low pass filtered faces and letters,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 25, 28 (1984).

E. Peli, T. Peli, “Image enhancement for the visually impaired,” Opt. Eng. 23, 47–51 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

A. Fiorentini, L. Maffei, G. Sandini, “The role of high spatial frequencies in face perception,” Perception 12, 195–201 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

A. P. Ginsburg, “Specifying relevant spatial information for image evaluation and display design: an explanation of how we see certain objects,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21, 219–227 (1980).

Arend, L.

E. Peli, R. Goldstein, C. Trempe, L. Arend, “Image enhancement improves face recognition,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 7 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 64–67.

Bruce, V.

V. Bruce, “Recognizing familiar faces,” in Aspects of Face Processing, H. D. Ellis, M. A. Jeeves, F. Newcombe, A. Young, eds. (Nijhoff, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 107–117.

Burr, D. C.

T. Hayes, M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, “Recognition of positive and negative band pass-filtered images,” Perception 15, 595–602 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Buzney, S. M.

E. Peli, R. B. Goldstein, G. M. Young, C. L. Trempe, S. M. Buzney, “Image enhancement for the visually impaired: simulations and experimental results,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 2337–2350 (1991).
[PubMed]

Encke, W.

M. Hübner, I. Rentschler, W. Encke, “Hidden face recognition: comparing foveal and extrafoveal performance,” Human Neurobiol. 4, 1–7 (1985).

Engel, F. L.

F. L. Engel, Institute for Perception Research, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1993).

Fiorentini, A.

A. Fiorentini, L. Maffei, G. Sandini, “The role of high spatial frequencies in face perception,” Perception 12, 195–201 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ginsburg, A. P.

A. P. Ginsburg, “Specifying relevant spatial information for image evaluation and display design: an explanation of how we see certain objects,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21, 219–227 (1980).

Goldstein, R.

E. Peli, R. Goldstein, C. Trempe, L. Arend, “Image enhancement improves face recognition,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 7 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 64–67.

Goldstein, R. B.

E. Peli, R. B. Goldstein, G. M. Young, C. L. Trempe, S. M. Buzney, “Image enhancement for the visually impaired: simulations and experimental results,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 2337–2350 (1991).
[PubMed]

Harvey, L. O.

L. O. Harvey, G. P. Sinclair, “On the quality of visual imagery,” Invest, Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 26, 281 (1985).

Hayes, T.

T. Hayes, M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, “Recognition of positive and negative band pass-filtered images,” Perception 15, 595–602 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hübner, M.

M. Hübner, I. Rentschler, W. Encke, “Hidden face recognition: comparing foveal and extrafoveal performance,” Human Neurobiol. 4, 1–7 (1985).

Kronman, H. B.

C. E. Metz, P. Wang, H. B. Kronman, “A new approach for testing the significance of differences between ROC curves measured from correlated data,” in Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Information Processing in Medical Imaging, F. Deconinck, ed. (Nijhoff, The Hague, 1983), pp. 431–445.

Lawton, T. B.

T. B. Lawton, “Image enhancement filters significantly improve reading performance for low vision observers,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 12, 193–200 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Lawton, “Improved reading performance using individualized compensation filters for observers with losses in central vision,” Ophthalmology 96, 115–126 (1989).
[PubMed]

Maffei, L.

A. Fiorentini, L. Maffei, G. Sandini, “The role of high spatial frequencies in face perception,” Perception 12, 195–201 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metz, C. E.

C. E. Metz, P. Wang, H. B. Kronman, “A new approach for testing the significance of differences between ROC curves measured from correlated data,” in Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Information Processing in Medical Imaging, F. Deconinck, ed. (Nijhoff, The Hague, 1983), pp. 431–445.

Morrone, M. C.

T. Hayes, M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, “Recognition of positive and negative band pass-filtered images,” Perception 15, 595–602 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Peli, E.

E. Peli, “Display nonlinearity in digital image processing for visual communication,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2374–2382 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Peli, “Limitations of image enhancement for the visually impaired,” J. Opt. Vis. Sci. 69, 15–24 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Peli, R. B. Goldstein, G. M. Young, C. L. Trempe, S. M. Buzney, “Image enhancement for the visually impaired: simulations and experimental results,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 2337–2350 (1991).
[PubMed]

E. Peli, “Contrast in complex images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2032–2040 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Peli, T. Peli, “Image enhancement for the visually impaired,” Opt. Eng. 23, 47–51 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. Peli, R. Goldstein, C. Trempe, L. Arend, “Image enhancement improves face recognition,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 7 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 64–67.

Peli, T.

E. Peli, T. Peli, “Image enhancement for the visually impaired,” Opt. Eng. 23, 47–51 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Pickett, R. M.

J. A. Swets, R. M. Pickett, Evaluation of Diagnostic Systems: Methods from Signal Detection Theory(Academic, New York, 1982), pp. 15–45.

Rentschler, I.

M. Hübner, I. Rentschler, W. Encke, “Hidden face recognition: comparing foveal and extrafoveal performance,” Human Neurobiol. 4, 1–7 (1985).

Rubin, G. S.

R. A. Schuchard, G. S. Rubin, “Face identification of band pass filtered faces by low vision observers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 30, 396 (1989).

G. S. Rubin, K. Siegel, “Recognition of low pass filtered faces and letters,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 25, 28 (1984).

R. A. Schuchard, G. S. Rubin, “Effect of band width on discrimination and recognition of band pass filtered faces,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 161.

Sandini, G.

A. Fiorentini, L. Maffei, G. Sandini, “The role of high spatial frequencies in face perception,” Perception 12, 195–201 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuchard, R. A.

R. A. Schuchard, G. S. Rubin, “Face identification of band pass filtered faces by low vision observers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 30, 396 (1989).

R. A. Schuchard, G. S. Rubin, “Effect of band width on discrimination and recognition of band pass filtered faces,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 161.

Sergent, J.

J. Sergent, “Microgenesis of face perception,” in Aspects of Face Processing, H. D. Ellis, M. A. Jeeves, R. Newcombe, A. Young, eds. (Nijhoff, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 17–33.

Siegel, K.

G. S. Rubin, K. Siegel, “Recognition of low pass filtered faces and letters,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 25, 28 (1984).

Sinclair, G. P.

L. O. Harvey, G. P. Sinclair, “On the quality of visual imagery,” Invest, Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 26, 281 (1985).

Swets, J. A.

J. A. Swets, R. M. Pickett, Evaluation of Diagnostic Systems: Methods from Signal Detection Theory(Academic, New York, 1982), pp. 15–45.

Trempe, C.

E. Peli, R. Goldstein, C. Trempe, L. Arend, “Image enhancement improves face recognition,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 7 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 64–67.

Trempe, C. L.

E. Peli, R. B. Goldstein, G. M. Young, C. L. Trempe, S. M. Buzney, “Image enhancement for the visually impaired: simulations and experimental results,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 2337–2350 (1991).
[PubMed]

Wang, P.

C. E. Metz, P. Wang, H. B. Kronman, “A new approach for testing the significance of differences between ROC curves measured from correlated data,” in Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Information Processing in Medical Imaging, F. Deconinck, ed. (Nijhoff, The Hague, 1983), pp. 431–445.

Young, G. M.

E. Peli, R. B. Goldstein, G. M. Young, C. L. Trempe, S. M. Buzney, “Image enhancement for the visually impaired: simulations and experimental results,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 2337–2350 (1991).
[PubMed]

Human Neurobiol. (1)

M. Hübner, I. Rentschler, W. Encke, “Hidden face recognition: comparing foveal and extrafoveal performance,” Human Neurobiol. 4, 1–7 (1985).

Invest, Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. (1)

L. O. Harvey, G. P. Sinclair, “On the quality of visual imagery,” Invest, Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 26, 281 (1985).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

E. Peli, R. B. Goldstein, G. M. Young, C. L. Trempe, S. M. Buzney, “Image enhancement for the visually impaired: simulations and experimental results,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 2337–2350 (1991).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. (2)

G. S. Rubin, K. Siegel, “Recognition of low pass filtered faces and letters,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 25, 28 (1984).

R. A. Schuchard, G. S. Rubin, “Face identification of band pass filtered faces by low vision observers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 30, 396 (1989).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Vis. Sci. (1)

E. Peli, “Limitations of image enhancement for the visually impaired,” J. Opt. Vis. Sci. 69, 15–24 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. (1)

T. B. Lawton, “Image enhancement filters significantly improve reading performance for low vision observers,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 12, 193–200 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology (1)

T. B. Lawton, “Improved reading performance using individualized compensation filters for observers with losses in central vision,” Ophthalmology 96, 115–126 (1989).
[PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (2)

E. Peli, “Display nonlinearity in digital image processing for visual communication,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2374–2382 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Peli, T. Peli, “Image enhancement for the visually impaired,” Opt. Eng. 23, 47–51 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Perception (2)

A. Fiorentini, L. Maffei, G. Sandini, “The role of high spatial frequencies in face perception,” Perception 12, 195–201 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hayes, M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, “Recognition of positive and negative band pass-filtered images,” Perception 15, 595–602 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

A. P. Ginsburg, “Specifying relevant spatial information for image evaluation and display design: an explanation of how we see certain objects,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21, 219–227 (1980).

Other (8)

J. Sergent, “Microgenesis of face perception,” in Aspects of Face Processing, H. D. Ellis, M. A. Jeeves, R. Newcombe, A. Young, eds. (Nijhoff, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 17–33.

E. Peli, R. Goldstein, C. Trempe, L. Arend, “Image enhancement improves face recognition,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 7 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 64–67.

Note that the high-frequency half-maximum point of the 1.5-octave Gaussian filter centered at the 4 cycles/face that were used by Schuchard and Rubin is at 6 cycles/face.11,18

J. A. Swets, R. M. Pickett, Evaluation of Diagnostic Systems: Methods from Signal Detection Theory(Academic, New York, 1982), pp. 15–45.

C. E. Metz, P. Wang, H. B. Kronman, “A new approach for testing the significance of differences between ROC curves measured from correlated data,” in Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Information Processing in Medical Imaging, F. Deconinck, ed. (Nijhoff, The Hague, 1983), pp. 431–445.

R. A. Schuchard, G. S. Rubin, “Effect of band width on discrimination and recognition of band pass filtered faces,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 161.

V. Bruce, “Recognizing familiar faces,” in Aspects of Face Processing, H. D. Ellis, M. A. Jeeves, F. Newcombe, A. Young, eds. (Nijhoff, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 107–117.

F. L. Engel, Institute for Perception Research, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1993).

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