Abstract

The discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) for scattering calculations, including the relationship between the DDA and other methods, is reviewed. Computational considerations, i.e., the use of complex-conjugate gradient algorithms and fast-Fourier-transform methods, are discussed. We test the accuracy of the DDA by using the DDA to compute scattering and absorption by isolated, homogeneous spheres as well as by targets consisting of two contiguous spheres. It is shown that, for dielectric materials (|m| ≲ 2), the DDA permits calculations of scattering and absorption that are accurate to within a few percent.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  44. T. K. Sarkar, E. Arvas, and S. M. Rao, “Application of the fast Fourier transform and the conjugate gradient method for efficient solution of electromagnetic scattering from both electrically large and small conducting bodies,” Electromagnetics 5, 99–122 (1985).
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    [Crossref]
  67. M. A. Taubenblatt and T. K. Tran, “Calculation of light scattering from particles and structures on a surface by the coupled-dipole method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 912–919 (1993).
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1993 (10)

J. M. Perrin and J. P. Sivan, “Light scattering by dust grains: effects of the state of the surface on the validity of the discrete dipole approximation,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. II 316, 47–53 (1993).

B. T. Draine and J. Goodman, “Beyond Clausius–Mossotti: wave propagation on a polarizable point lattice and the discrete dipole approximation,” Astrophys. J. 405, 685–697 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. J. Flatau, T. Schneider, and F. Evans, ccg-pak—fortran. Conjugate gradient package for solving complex matrix equations (1993).Available from pflatau@ucsd.edu.

F. Rouleau and P. G. Martin, “A new method to calculate the extinction properties of irregularly shaped particles,” Astrophys. J. 414, 803–814 (1993).
[Crossref]

W. C. Chew and C.-C. Lu, “NEPAL—an algorithm for solving the volume integral equation,” Microwave Opt. Tech. Lett. 6, 185–188 (1993).
[Crossref]

B. T. Draine and S. Malhotra, “On graphite and the 2175 Å extinction profile,” Astrophys. J. 414, 632–645 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. B. Singham and C. F. Bohren, “Scattering of unpolarized and polarized light by particle aggregates of different size and fractal dimension,” Langmuir 9, 1431–1435 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. C. Ku, “Comparisons of coupled-dipole solutions and dipole refractive indices for light scattering and absorption by arbitrarily shaped or agglomerated particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 336–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. A. Taubenblatt and T. K. Tran, “Calculation of light scattering from particles and structures on a surface by the coupled-dipole method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 912–919 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. J. Flatau, K. A. Fuller, and D. W. Mackowski, “Scattering by two spheres in contact: comparisons between discrete dipole approximation and modal analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3302–3305 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (7)

C. Bourrely, P. Chiappetta, T. Lemaire, and B. Torrésani, “Multidipole formulation of the coupled dipole method for electromagnetic scattering by an arbitrary particle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1336–1340 (1992).
[Crossref]

T. Kozasa, J. Blum, and T. Mukai, “Optical properties of dust aggregates. I. Wavelength dependence,” Astron. Astrophys. 263, 423–432 (1992).

T. Mukai, H. Ishimoto, T. Kozasa, J. Blum, and J. M. Greenberg, “Radiation pressure forces of fluffy porous grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 262, 315–320 (1992).

W. C. Chew, Y. M. Wang, and L. Gurel, “Recursive algorithm for wave-scattering using windowed addition theorem,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 6, 1537–1560 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. C. Ku and K.-H. Shim, “A comparison of solutions for light scattering and absorption by agglomerated or arbitrarily- shaped particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 201–220 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. Lakhtakia, “General theory of the Purcell-Pennypacker scattering approach and its extension to bianisotropic scatterers,” Astrophys. J. 394, 494–499 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. Lakhtakia, “Strong and weak forms of the method of moments and the coupled dipole method for scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic fields,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. C3, 583–603 (1992).

1991 (12)

C. F. Bohren and S. B. Singham, “Backscattering by non- spherical particles: a review of methods and suggested new approaches,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5269–5277 (1991).
[Crossref]

D. W. Mackowski, “Analysis of radiative scattering for multiple sphere configurations,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 433, 599–614 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. M. Perrin and J. P. Sivan, “Scattering and polarisation of light by rough and porous interstellar grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 247, 497–504 (1991).

M. F. Iskander, H. Y. Chen, and J. E. Penner, “Resonance optical absorption by fractal agglomerates of smoke aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 25A, 2563–2569 (1991).

R. A. West and P. H. Smith, “Evidence for aggregate particles in the atmospheres of Titan and Jupiter,” Icarus 90, 330–333 (1991).
[Crossref]

R. W. Freund and N. M. Nachtigal, “QMR: a quasi-minimal residual method for non-Hermitian linear systems,” Numer. Math. 60, 315–339 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. A. Fuller, “Optical resonances and two-sphere systems,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4716–4731 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. West, “Optical properties of aggregate particles whose outer diameter is comparable to the wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 30, 5316–5324 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Goodman, B. T. Draine, and P. J. Flatau, “Application of fast-Fourier-transform techniques to the discrete-dipole approximation,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1198–1200 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Newman and K. Kingsley, “An introduction to the method of moments,” J. Comput. Phys. 68, 1–18 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. E. Dungey and C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering by nonspherical particles: a refinement to the coupled-dipole method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 81–87 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. I. Mishchenko, “Light scattering by randomly oriented axially symmetric particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 871–882 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (6)

P. J. Flatau, G. L. Stephens, and B. T. Draine, “Light scattering by rectangular solids in the discrete-dipole approximation: a new algorithm exploiting the block-Toeplitz structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 593–600 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. F. Evans and J. Vivekanandan, “Multiparameter radar and microwave radiative transfer modeling of nonspherical atmospheric ice particles,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 28, 423–437 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. M. Perrin and P. L. Lamy, “On the validity of effective- medium theories in the case of light extinction by inhomogeneous dust particles,” Astrophys. J. 364, 146–151 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. M. Perrin and J. P. Sivan, “Porosity and impurities within interstellar grains. Is the ultraviolet bump still explained by carbonaceous material?,” Astron. Astrophys. 228, 238–245 (1990).

J. I. Hage and J. M. Greenberg, “A model for the optical properties of porous grains,” Astrophys. J. 361, 251–259 (1990).
[Crossref]

R. Harrington, “Origin and development of the method of moments for field computation,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 32(3), 31–35 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (3)

A. W. Glison, “Recent advances in frequency domain techniques for electromagnetic scattering problems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 25, 2867–2871 (1989).

C. F. Smith, A. F. Peterson, and R. Mittra, “A conjugate gradient algorithm for the treatment of multiple incident electromagnetic fields,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 37, 1490–1493 (1989).
[Crossref]

M. F. Iskander, H. Y. Chen, and J. E. Penner, “Optical scattering and absorption by branched chains of aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3083–3091 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (7)

G. H. Goedecke and S. G. O’Brien, “Scattering by irregular inhomogeneous particles via the digitized Green’s function algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2431–2438 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Sarkar, X. Yang, and E. Arvas, “A limited survey of various conjugate gradient methods for complex matrix equations arising in electromagnetic wave interactions,” Wave Motion 10, 527–546 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. B. Singham and C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering by an arbitrary particle: the scattering order formulation of the coupled-dipole method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1867–1872 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. K. Miller, “A selective survey of computational electromagnetics,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1281–1305 (1988).
[Crossref]

E. L. Wright, “The ultraviolet extinction from interstellar graphitic onions,” Nature (London) 366, 227–228 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. F. Peterson, C. F. Smith, and R. Mittra, “Eigenvalues of the moment-method matrix and their effect on the convergence of the conjugate gradient algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1177–1179 (1988).
[Crossref]

B. T. Draine, “The discrete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

L. Knockaert, “A note on the relationship between the conjugate gradient method and polynomials orthogonal over the spectrum of a linear operator,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-35, 1089–1091 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. B. Singham and C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering by an arbitrary particle: a physical reformulation of the coupled-dipoles method,” Opt. Lett. 12, 10–12 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

S. B. Singham and G. C. Salzman, “Evaluation of the scattering matrix of an arbitrary particle using the coupled dipole approximation,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 2658–2667 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (2)

D. T. Borup and O. P. Gandhi, “Calculation of high- resolution SAR distributions in biological bodies using the FFT algorithm and conjugate gradient method,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-33, 417–419 (1985).
[Crossref]

T. K. Sarkar, E. Arvas, and S. M. Rao, “Application of the fast Fourier transform and the conjugate gradient method for efficient solution of electromagnetic scattering from both electrically large and small conducting bodies,” Electromagnetics 5, 99–122 (1985).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

1975 (1)

1974 (1)

D. E. Livesay and K. Chen, “Electromagnetic fields induced inside arbitrarily shaped biological bodies,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-22, 1273–1280 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[Crossref]

1965 (2)

H. DeVoe, “Optical properties of molecular aggregates. II. Classical theory of the refraction, absorption, and optical activity of solutions and crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3199–3208 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. H. Richmond, “Scattering by a dielectric cylinder of arbitrary cross-section shape,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-13, 334–343 (1965).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

H. DeVoe, “Optical properties of molecular aggregates. I. Classical model of electronic absorption and refraction,” J. Chem. Phys. 41, 393–400 (1964).
[Crossref]

Arvas, E.

T. K. Sarkar, X. Yang, and E. Arvas, “A limited survey of various conjugate gradient methods for complex matrix equations arising in electromagnetic wave interactions,” Wave Motion 10, 527–546 (1988).
[Crossref]

T. K. Sarkar, E. Arvas, and S. M. Rao, “Application of the fast Fourier transform and the conjugate gradient method for efficient solution of electromagnetic scattering from both electrically large and small conducting bodies,” Electromagnetics 5, 99–122 (1985).
[Crossref]

Barber, P.

Barber, P. W.

Blum, J.

T. Kozasa, J. Blum, and T. Mukai, “Optical properties of dust aggregates. I. Wavelength dependence,” Astron. Astrophys. 263, 423–432 (1992).

T. Mukai, H. Ishimoto, T. Kozasa, J. Blum, and J. M. Greenberg, “Radiation pressure forces of fluffy porous grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 262, 315–320 (1992).

Bohren, C. F.

S. B. Singham and C. F. Bohren, “Scattering of unpolarized and polarized light by particle aggregates of different size and fractal dimension,” Langmuir 9, 1431–1435 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. E. Dungey and C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering by nonspherical particles: a refinement to the coupled-dipole method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 81–87 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. F. Bohren and S. B. Singham, “Backscattering by non- spherical particles: a review of methods and suggested new approaches,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5269–5277 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. B. Singham and C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering by an arbitrary particle: the scattering order formulation of the coupled-dipole method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1867–1872 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Singham and C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering by an arbitrary particle: a physical reformulation of the coupled-dipoles method,” Opt. Lett. 12, 10–12 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Borup, D. T.

D. T. Borup and O. P. Gandhi, “Calculation of high- resolution SAR distributions in biological bodies using the FFT algorithm and conjugate gradient method,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-33, 417–419 (1985).
[Crossref]

Bourrely, C.

Chan, C. H.

A. F. Peterson, S. L. Ray, C. H. Chan, and R. Mittra, “Numerical implementation of the conjugate gradient method and the CG-FFT for electromagnetic scattering,” in Application of Conjugate Gradient Method to Electromagnetics and Signal Processing, T. K. Sarkar, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), Chap. 5.

Chen, H. Y.

M. F. Iskander, H. Y. Chen, and J. E. Penner, “Resonance optical absorption by fractal agglomerates of smoke aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 25A, 2563–2569 (1991).

M. F. Iskander, H. Y. Chen, and J. E. Penner, “Optical scattering and absorption by branched chains of aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3083–3091 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

D. E. Livesay and K. Chen, “Electromagnetic fields induced inside arbitrarily shaped biological bodies,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-22, 1273–1280 (1974).
[Crossref]

Chew, W. C.

W. C. Chew and C.-C. Lu, “NEPAL—an algorithm for solving the volume integral equation,” Microwave Opt. Tech. Lett. 6, 185–188 (1993).
[Crossref]

W. C. Chew, Y. M. Wang, and L. Gurel, “Recursive algorithm for wave-scattering using windowed addition theorem,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 6, 1537–1560 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chiappetta, P.

Clayton, G. C.

M. J. Wolff, G. C. Clayton, P. G. Martin, and R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, “Modeling composite and fluffy grains: the effects of porosity,” Astrophys. J. (to be published).

DeVoe, H.

H. DeVoe, “Optical properties of molecular aggregates. II. Classical theory of the refraction, absorption, and optical activity of solutions and crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3199–3208 (1965).
[Crossref]

H. DeVoe, “Optical properties of molecular aggregates. I. Classical model of electronic absorption and refraction,” J. Chem. Phys. 41, 393–400 (1964).
[Crossref]

Draine, B. T.

B. T. Draine and J. Goodman, “Beyond Clausius–Mossotti: wave propagation on a polarizable point lattice and the discrete dipole approximation,” Astrophys. J. 405, 685–697 (1993).
[Crossref]

B. T. Draine and S. Malhotra, “On graphite and the 2175 Å extinction profile,” Astrophys. J. 414, 632–645 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. J. Goodman, B. T. Draine, and P. J. Flatau, “Application of fast-Fourier-transform techniques to the discrete-dipole approximation,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1198–1200 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Flatau, G. L. Stephens, and B. T. Draine, “Light scattering by rectangular solids in the discrete-dipole approximation: a new algorithm exploiting the block-Toeplitz structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 593–600 (1990).
[Crossref]

B. T. Draine, “The discrete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[Crossref]

Dungey, C. E.

Evans, F.

P. J. Flatau, T. Schneider, and F. Evans, ccg-pak—fortran. Conjugate gradient package for solving complex matrix equations (1993).Available from pflatau@ucsd.edu.

Evans, K. F.

K. F. Evans and J. Vivekanandan, “Multiparameter radar and microwave radiative transfer modeling of nonspherical atmospheric ice particles,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 28, 423–437 (1990).
[Crossref]

Flatau, P. J.

Freund, R. W.

R. W. Freund and N. M. Nachtigal, “QMR: a quasi-minimal residual method for non-Hermitian linear systems,” Numer. Math. 60, 315–339 (1991).
[Crossref]

Fuller, K. A.

Gallopoulos, E.

V. Simoncini and E. Gallopoulos, “An iterative method for nonsymmetric systems with multiple right-hand sides,” Tech. Rep. 1242 (Center for Supercomputing Research and Development, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Champaign, III., 1992).

Gandhi, O. P.

D. T. Borup and O. P. Gandhi, “Calculation of high- resolution SAR distributions in biological bodies using the FFT algorithm and conjugate gradient method,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-33, 417–419 (1985).
[Crossref]

Glison, A. W.

A. W. Glison, “Recent advances in frequency domain techniques for electromagnetic scattering problems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 25, 2867–2871 (1989).

Goedecke, G. H.

Goodman, J.

B. T. Draine and J. Goodman, “Beyond Clausius–Mossotti: wave propagation on a polarizable point lattice and the discrete dipole approximation,” Astrophys. J. 405, 685–697 (1993).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J. J.

Greenberg, J. M.

T. Mukai, H. Ishimoto, T. Kozasa, J. Blum, and J. M. Greenberg, “Radiation pressure forces of fluffy porous grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 262, 315–320 (1992).

J. I. Hage and J. M. Greenberg, “A model for the optical properties of porous grains,” Astrophys. J. 361, 251–259 (1990).
[Crossref]

Gurel, L.

W. C. Chew, Y. M. Wang, and L. Gurel, “Recursive algorithm for wave-scattering using windowed addition theorem,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 6, 1537–1560 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hage, J. I.

J. I. Hage and J. M. Greenberg, “A model for the optical properties of porous grains,” Astrophys. J. 361, 251–259 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hager, W.

W. Hager, Applied Numerical Linear Algebra (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1988).

Harrington, R.

R. Harrington, “Origin and development of the method of moments for field computation,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 32(3), 31–35 (1990).
[Crossref]

Harrington, R. F.

R. F. Harrington, Field Computation by Moment Methods (Macmillan, New York, 1968).

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Humphreys, T. J.

G. W. Kattawar and T. J. Humphreys, “Electromagnetic scattering from two identical pseudospheres,” in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 177–190.
[Crossref]

Ishimoto, H.

T. Mukai, H. Ishimoto, T. Kozasa, J. Blum, and J. M. Greenberg, “Radiation pressure forces of fluffy porous grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 262, 315–320 (1992).

Iskander, M. F.

M. F. Iskander, H. Y. Chen, and J. E. Penner, “Resonance optical absorption by fractal agglomerates of smoke aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 25A, 2563–2569 (1991).

M. F. Iskander, H. Y. Chen, and J. E. Penner, “Optical scattering and absorption by branched chains of aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3083–3091 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electromagnetism (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Joly, P.

P. Joly, “Résolution de systèmes linéaires avec plusieurs members par la méthode du gradient conjugué,” Tech. Rep. R-91012 (Publications du Laboratoire d’Analyse Numérique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, 1991).

Kattawar, G. W.

G. W. Kattawar and T. J. Humphreys, “Electromagnetic scattering from two identical pseudospheres,” in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 177–190.
[Crossref]

Kingsley, K.

E. H. Newman and K. Kingsley, “An introduction to the method of moments,” J. Comput. Phys. 68, 1–18 (1991).
[Crossref]

Knockaert, L.

L. Knockaert, “A note on the relationship between the conjugate gradient method and polynomials orthogonal over the spectrum of a linear operator,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-35, 1089–1091 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kozasa, T.

T. Kozasa, J. Blum, and T. Mukai, “Optical properties of dust aggregates. I. Wavelength dependence,” Astron. Astrophys. 263, 423–432 (1992).

T. Mukai, H. Ishimoto, T. Kozasa, J. Blum, and J. M. Greenberg, “Radiation pressure forces of fluffy porous grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 262, 315–320 (1992).

Ku, J. C.

J. C. Ku, “Comparisons of coupled-dipole solutions and dipole refractive indices for light scattering and absorption by arbitrarily shaped or agglomerated particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 336–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. C. Ku and K.-H. Shim, “A comparison of solutions for light scattering and absorption by agglomerated or arbitrarily- shaped particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 201–220 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lakhtakia, A.

A. Lakhtakia, “General theory of the Purcell-Pennypacker scattering approach and its extension to bianisotropic scatterers,” Astrophys. J. 394, 494–499 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. Lakhtakia, “Strong and weak forms of the method of moments and the coupled dipole method for scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic fields,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. C3, 583–603 (1992).

Lamy, P. L.

J. M. Perrin and P. L. Lamy, “On the validity of effective- medium theories in the case of light extinction by inhomogeneous dust particles,” Astrophys. J. 364, 146–151 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lemaire, T.

Livesay, D. E.

D. E. Livesay and K. Chen, “Electromagnetic fields induced inside arbitrarily shaped biological bodies,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-22, 1273–1280 (1974).
[Crossref]

Lorentz, H. A.

H. A. Lorentz, Theory of Electrons (Teubner, Leipzig, 1909).

Lu, C.-C.

W. C. Chew and C.-C. Lu, “NEPAL—an algorithm for solving the volume integral equation,” Microwave Opt. Tech. Lett. 6, 185–188 (1993).
[Crossref]

Mackowski, D. W.

Malhotra, S.

B. T. Draine and S. Malhotra, “On graphite and the 2175 Å extinction profile,” Astrophys. J. 414, 632–645 (1993).
[Crossref]

Martin, P. G.

F. Rouleau and P. G. Martin, “A new method to calculate the extinction properties of irregularly shaped particles,” Astrophys. J. 414, 803–814 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. J. Wolff, G. C. Clayton, P. G. Martin, and R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, “Modeling composite and fluffy grains: the effects of porosity,” Astrophys. J. (to be published).

Miller, E. K.

E. K. Miller, “A selective survey of computational electromagnetics,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1281–1305 (1988).
[Crossref]

Mishchenko, M. I.

Mittra, R.

C. F. Smith, A. F. Peterson, and R. Mittra, “A conjugate gradient algorithm for the treatment of multiple incident electromagnetic fields,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 37, 1490–1493 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. F. Peterson, C. F. Smith, and R. Mittra, “Eigenvalues of the moment-method matrix and their effect on the convergence of the conjugate gradient algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1177–1179 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. F. Peterson, S. L. Ray, C. H. Chan, and R. Mittra, “Numerical implementation of the conjugate gradient method and the CG-FFT for electromagnetic scattering,” in Application of Conjugate Gradient Method to Electromagnetics and Signal Processing, T. K. Sarkar, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), Chap. 5.

Mukai, T.

T. Kozasa, J. Blum, and T. Mukai, “Optical properties of dust aggregates. I. Wavelength dependence,” Astron. Astrophys. 263, 423–432 (1992).

T. Mukai, H. Ishimoto, T. Kozasa, J. Blum, and J. M. Greenberg, “Radiation pressure forces of fluffy porous grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 262, 315–320 (1992).

Nachtigal, N. M.

R. W. Freund and N. M. Nachtigal, “QMR: a quasi-minimal residual method for non-Hermitian linear systems,” Numer. Math. 60, 315–339 (1991).
[Crossref]

Newman, E. H.

E. H. Newman and K. Kingsley, “An introduction to the method of moments,” J. Comput. Phys. 68, 1–18 (1991).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, S. G.

Penner, J. E.

M. F. Iskander, H. Y. Chen, and J. E. Penner, “Resonance optical absorption by fractal agglomerates of smoke aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 25A, 2563–2569 (1991).

M. F. Iskander, H. Y. Chen, and J. E. Penner, “Optical scattering and absorption by branched chains of aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3083–3091 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pennypacker, C. R.

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[Crossref]

Perrin, J. M.

J. M. Perrin and J. P. Sivan, “Light scattering by dust grains: effects of the state of the surface on the validity of the discrete dipole approximation,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. II 316, 47–53 (1993).

J. M. Perrin and J. P. Sivan, “Scattering and polarisation of light by rough and porous interstellar grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 247, 497–504 (1991).

J. M. Perrin and J. P. Sivan, “Porosity and impurities within interstellar grains. Is the ultraviolet bump still explained by carbonaceous material?,” Astron. Astrophys. 228, 238–245 (1990).

J. M. Perrin and P. L. Lamy, “On the validity of effective- medium theories in the case of light extinction by inhomogeneous dust particles,” Astrophys. J. 364, 146–151 (1990).
[Crossref]

Peterson, A. F.

C. F. Smith, A. F. Peterson, and R. Mittra, “A conjugate gradient algorithm for the treatment of multiple incident electromagnetic fields,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 37, 1490–1493 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. F. Peterson, C. F. Smith, and R. Mittra, “Eigenvalues of the moment-method matrix and their effect on the convergence of the conjugate gradient algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1177–1179 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. F. Peterson, S. L. Ray, C. H. Chan, and R. Mittra, “Numerical implementation of the conjugate gradient method and the CG-FFT for electromagnetic scattering,” in Application of Conjugate Gradient Method to Electromagnetics and Signal Processing, T. K. Sarkar, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), Chap. 5.

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[Crossref]

Rao, S. M.

T. K. Sarkar, E. Arvas, and S. M. Rao, “Application of the fast Fourier transform and the conjugate gradient method for efficient solution of electromagnetic scattering from both electrically large and small conducting bodies,” Electromagnetics 5, 99–122 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ray, S. L.

A. F. Peterson, S. L. Ray, C. H. Chan, and R. Mittra, “Numerical implementation of the conjugate gradient method and the CG-FFT for electromagnetic scattering,” in Application of Conjugate Gradient Method to Electromagnetics and Signal Processing, T. K. Sarkar, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), Chap. 5.

Richmond, J. H.

J. H. Richmond, “Scattering by a dielectric cylinder of arbitrary cross-section shape,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-13, 334–343 (1965).
[Crossref]

Rouleau, F.

F. Rouleau and P. G. Martin, “A new method to calculate the extinction properties of irregularly shaped particles,” Astrophys. J. 414, 803–814 (1993).
[Crossref]

Salzman, G. C.

S. B. Singham and G. C. Salzman, “Evaluation of the scattering matrix of an arbitrary particle using the coupled dipole approximation,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 2658–2667 (1986).
[Crossref]

Sarkar, T. K.

T. K. Sarkar, X. Yang, and E. Arvas, “A limited survey of various conjugate gradient methods for complex matrix equations arising in electromagnetic wave interactions,” Wave Motion 10, 527–546 (1988).
[Crossref]

T. K. Sarkar, E. Arvas, and S. M. Rao, “Application of the fast Fourier transform and the conjugate gradient method for efficient solution of electromagnetic scattering from both electrically large and small conducting bodies,” Electromagnetics 5, 99–122 (1985).
[Crossref]

Schneider, T.

P. J. Flatau, T. Schneider, and F. Evans, ccg-pak—fortran. Conjugate gradient package for solving complex matrix equations (1993).Available from pflatau@ucsd.edu.

Schulte-Ladbeck, R. E.

M. J. Wolff, G. C. Clayton, P. G. Martin, and R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, “Modeling composite and fluffy grains: the effects of porosity,” Astrophys. J. (to be published).

Shim, K.-H.

J. C. Ku and K.-H. Shim, “A comparison of solutions for light scattering and absorption by agglomerated or arbitrarily- shaped particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 201–220 (1992).
[Crossref]

Simoncini, V.

V. Simoncini and E. Gallopoulos, “An iterative method for nonsymmetric systems with multiple right-hand sides,” Tech. Rep. 1242 (Center for Supercomputing Research and Development, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Champaign, III., 1992).

Singham, S. B.

S. B. Singham and C. F. Bohren, “Scattering of unpolarized and polarized light by particle aggregates of different size and fractal dimension,” Langmuir 9, 1431–1435 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. F. Bohren and S. B. Singham, “Backscattering by non- spherical particles: a review of methods and suggested new approaches,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5269–5277 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. B. Singham and C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering by an arbitrary particle: the scattering order formulation of the coupled-dipole method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1867–1872 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Singham and C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering by an arbitrary particle: a physical reformulation of the coupled-dipoles method,” Opt. Lett. 12, 10–12 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Singham and G. C. Salzman, “Evaluation of the scattering matrix of an arbitrary particle using the coupled dipole approximation,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 2658–2667 (1986).
[Crossref]

Sivan, J. P.

J. M. Perrin and J. P. Sivan, “Light scattering by dust grains: effects of the state of the surface on the validity of the discrete dipole approximation,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. II 316, 47–53 (1993).

J. M. Perrin and J. P. Sivan, “Scattering and polarisation of light by rough and porous interstellar grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 247, 497–504 (1991).

J. M. Perrin and J. P. Sivan, “Porosity and impurities within interstellar grains. Is the ultraviolet bump still explained by carbonaceous material?,” Astron. Astrophys. 228, 238–245 (1990).

Smith, C. F.

C. F. Smith, A. F. Peterson, and R. Mittra, “A conjugate gradient algorithm for the treatment of multiple incident electromagnetic fields,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 37, 1490–1493 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. F. Peterson, C. F. Smith, and R. Mittra, “Eigenvalues of the moment-method matrix and their effect on the convergence of the conjugate gradient algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1177–1179 (1988).
[Crossref]

Smith, P. H.

R. A. West and P. H. Smith, “Evidence for aggregate particles in the atmospheres of Titan and Jupiter,” Icarus 90, 330–333 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stephens, G. L.

Taubenblatt, M. A.

Torrésani, B.

Tran, T. K.

Vivekanandan, J.

K. F. Evans and J. Vivekanandan, “Multiparameter radar and microwave radiative transfer modeling of nonspherical atmospheric ice particles,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 28, 423–437 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.-S.

Wang, Y. M.

W. C. Chew, Y. M. Wang, and L. Gurel, “Recursive algorithm for wave-scattering using windowed addition theorem,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 6, 1537–1560 (1992).
[Crossref]

West, R. A.

R. A. West, “Optical properties of aggregate particles whose outer diameter is comparable to the wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 30, 5316–5324 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. West and P. H. Smith, “Evidence for aggregate particles in the atmospheres of Titan and Jupiter,” Icarus 90, 330–333 (1991).
[Crossref]

Wolff, M. J.

M. J. Wolff, G. C. Clayton, P. G. Martin, and R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, “Modeling composite and fluffy grains: the effects of porosity,” Astrophys. J. (to be published).

Wright, E. L.

E. L. Wright, “The ultraviolet extinction from interstellar graphitic onions,” Nature (London) 366, 227–228 (1988).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

T. K. Sarkar, X. Yang, and E. Arvas, “A limited survey of various conjugate gradient methods for complex matrix equations arising in electromagnetic wave interactions,” Wave Motion 10, 527–546 (1988).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C.

Appl. Opt. (7)

Astron. Astrophys. (4)

J. M. Perrin and J. P. Sivan, “Scattering and polarisation of light by rough and porous interstellar grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 247, 497–504 (1991).

J. M. Perrin and J. P. Sivan, “Porosity and impurities within interstellar grains. Is the ultraviolet bump still explained by carbonaceous material?,” Astron. Astrophys. 228, 238–245 (1990).

T. Kozasa, J. Blum, and T. Mukai, “Optical properties of dust aggregates. I. Wavelength dependence,” Astron. Astrophys. 263, 423–432 (1992).

T. Mukai, H. Ishimoto, T. Kozasa, J. Blum, and J. M. Greenberg, “Radiation pressure forces of fluffy porous grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 262, 315–320 (1992).

Astrophys. J. (8)

J. M. Perrin and P. L. Lamy, “On the validity of effective- medium theories in the case of light extinction by inhomogeneous dust particles,” Astrophys. J. 364, 146–151 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. I. Hage and J. M. Greenberg, “A model for the optical properties of porous grains,” Astrophys. J. 361, 251–259 (1990).
[Crossref]

B. T. Draine and S. Malhotra, “On graphite and the 2175 Å extinction profile,” Astrophys. J. 414, 632–645 (1993).
[Crossref]

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[Crossref]

B. T. Draine, “The discrete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. Lakhtakia, “General theory of the Purcell-Pennypacker scattering approach and its extension to bianisotropic scatterers,” Astrophys. J. 394, 494–499 (1992).
[Crossref]

B. T. Draine and J. Goodman, “Beyond Clausius–Mossotti: wave propagation on a polarizable point lattice and the discrete dipole approximation,” Astrophys. J. 405, 685–697 (1993).
[Crossref]

F. Rouleau and P. G. Martin, “A new method to calculate the extinction properties of irregularly shaped particles,” Astrophys. J. 414, 803–814 (1993).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Environ. (1)

M. F. Iskander, H. Y. Chen, and J. E. Penner, “Resonance optical absorption by fractal agglomerates of smoke aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 25A, 2563–2569 (1991).

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. II (1)

J. M. Perrin and J. P. Sivan, “Light scattering by dust grains: effects of the state of the surface on the validity of the discrete dipole approximation,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. II 316, 47–53 (1993).

ccg-pak—fortran. Conjugate gradient package for solving complex matrix equations (1)

P. J. Flatau, T. Schneider, and F. Evans, ccg-pak—fortran. Conjugate gradient package for solving complex matrix equations (1993).Available from pflatau@ucsd.edu.

Electromagnetics (1)

T. K. Sarkar, E. Arvas, and S. M. Rao, “Application of the fast Fourier transform and the conjugate gradient method for efficient solution of electromagnetic scattering from both electrically large and small conducting bodies,” Electromagnetics 5, 99–122 (1985).
[Crossref]

Icarus (1)

R. A. West and P. H. Smith, “Evidence for aggregate particles in the atmospheres of Titan and Jupiter,” Icarus 90, 330–333 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. (1)

R. Harrington, “Origin and development of the method of moments for field computation,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 32(3), 31–35 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (6)

A. W. Glison, “Recent advances in frequency domain techniques for electromagnetic scattering problems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 25, 2867–2871 (1989).

E. K. Miller, “A selective survey of computational electromagnetics,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1281–1305 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. H. Richmond, “Scattering by a dielectric cylinder of arbitrary cross-section shape,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-13, 334–343 (1965).
[Crossref]

L. Knockaert, “A note on the relationship between the conjugate gradient method and polynomials orthogonal over the spectrum of a linear operator,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-35, 1089–1091 (1987).
[Crossref]

A. F. Peterson, C. F. Smith, and R. Mittra, “Eigenvalues of the moment-method matrix and their effect on the convergence of the conjugate gradient algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1177–1179 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. F. Smith, A. F. Peterson, and R. Mittra, “A conjugate gradient algorithm for the treatment of multiple incident electromagnetic fields,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 37, 1490–1493 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing (1)

K. F. Evans and J. Vivekanandan, “Multiparameter radar and microwave radiative transfer modeling of nonspherical atmospheric ice particles,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 28, 423–437 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

D. T. Borup and O. P. Gandhi, “Calculation of high- resolution SAR distributions in biological bodies using the FFT algorithm and conjugate gradient method,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-33, 417–419 (1985).
[Crossref]

D. E. Livesay and K. Chen, “Electromagnetic fields induced inside arbitrarily shaped biological bodies,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-22, 1273–1280 (1974).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Mod. Phys. (1)

A. Lakhtakia, “Strong and weak forms of the method of moments and the coupled dipole method for scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic fields,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. C3, 583–603 (1992).

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

S. B. Singham and G. C. Salzman, “Evaluation of the scattering matrix of an arbitrary particle using the coupled dipole approximation,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 2658–2667 (1986).
[Crossref]

H. DeVoe, “Optical properties of molecular aggregates. I. Classical model of electronic absorption and refraction,” J. Chem. Phys. 41, 393–400 (1964).
[Crossref]

H. DeVoe, “Optical properties of molecular aggregates. II. Classical theory of the refraction, absorption, and optical activity of solutions and crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3199–3208 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

E. H. Newman and K. Kingsley, “An introduction to the method of moments,” J. Comput. Phys. 68, 1–18 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. (1)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scattering and absorption for a sphere with refractive index m = 1.33 + 0.01i. The upper panel shows the exact values of the scattering and absorption efficiency factors Qsca and Qabs, obtained with Mie theory, as functions of ka, where k = 2π/λ. The middle and lower panels show fractional errors in Qsca and Qabs. obtained from DDA pseudospheres, labeled by the number N of dipoles in the pseudosphere.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Same as Fig. 1, but for the refractive index m = 2 + i.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Differential scattering cross section for pseudospheres with m = 1.33 + 0.01i and ka = 3. The curves are labeled by N, the number of dipoles in the pseudosphere.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 3 but for ka = 5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 3 but for ka = 7.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same as Fig. 3 but for m = 2 + i.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 3, but for m = 2 + i and ka = 5.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Same as Fig. 3, but for m = 2 + i and ka = 7.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Q sca C sca / π a eff 2 and Q abs C abs / π a eff 2 (calculated by modal analysis) for two contiguous spheres of refractive index m = 1.33 + 0.01i, for radiation incident at an angle of 30° relative to the axis passing through the center of the two spheres. (b) Fractional error in computed value of Qsca and (c) Qabs for a DDA representation containing N = 2 × 17256 dipoles. Results are shown for three different prescriptions for the dipole polarizabilities: LDR, DGF/VIEF, and CMRR as functions of x = kaeff (source, Ref. 28).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Scattering by two contiguous spheres with refractive index m = 1.33 + 0.001i for x = kaeff = 10. Radiation is incident along the axis passing through the centers of the two spheres. Results are shown for two elements (S11 and S22) of the 4×4 scattering matrix.55 S11 and S22 computed with the DDA are compared with exact results (source, Ref. 28).

Equations (11)

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α j CM = 3 d 3 4 π j 1 j + 2 ,
α LDR α C M 1 + ( α C M / d 3 ) [ ( b 1 + m 2 b 2 + m 2 b 3 S ) ( k d ) 2 ( 2 / 3 ) i ( k d ) 3 ] ,
b 1 = 1.891531 , b 2 = 0.1648469 , b 3 = 1.7700004 , S j = 1 3 ( â j ê j ) 2 ,
N > ( 4 π / 3 ) | m | 3 ( k a eff ) 3 .
E j = E inc , j k j A jk P k ,
A j k = exp ( i k r j k ) r j k × [ k 2 ( r ̂ j k r ̂ j k 1 3 ) + i k r j k 1 r j k 2 ( 3 r ̂ j k r ̂ j k 1 3 ) ] , j k ,
k = 1 N A j k P k = E inc , j .
C ext = 4 π k | E 0 | 2 j = 1 N Im ( E inc , j * · P j ) ,
C abs = 4 π k | E 0 | 2 j = 1 N { Im [ P j · ( α j 1 ) * P j * ] 2 3 k 3 | P j | 2 } .
E sca = k 2 exp ( ikr ) r j = 1 N exp ( i k r ̂ · r j ) ( r ̂ r ̂ 1 3 ) P j .
error d Q / d Ω ( DDA ) d Q / d Ω ( Mie ) d Q / d Ω ( Mie ) .

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