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[CrossRef]

P. J. Flatau, T. Schneider, F. Evans, ccg-pak—fortran. Conjugate gradient package for solving complex matrix equations (1993).Available from pflatau@ucsd.edu.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

B. T. Draine, S. Malhotra, “On graphite and the 2175 Å extinction profile,” Astrophys. J. 414, 632–645 (1993).

[CrossRef]

S. B. Singham, C. F. Bohren, “Scattering of unpolarized and polarized light by particle aggregates of different size and fractal dimension,” Langmuir 9, 1431–1435 (1993).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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T. Mukai, H. Ishimoto, T. Kozasa, J. Blum, J. M. Greenberg, “Radiation pressure forces of fluffy porous grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 262, 315–320 (1992).

W. C. Chew, Y. M. Wang, L. Gurel, “Recursive algorithm for wave-scattering using windowed addition theorem,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 6, 1537–1560 (1992).

[CrossRef]

J. C. Ku, K.-H. Shim, “A comparison of solutions for light scattering and absorption by agglomerated or arbitrarily- shaped particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 201–220 (1992).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia, “Strong and weak forms of the method of moments and the coupled dipole method for scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic fields,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. C3, 583–603 (1992).

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[CrossRef]

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M. F. Iskander, H. Y. Chen, J. E. Penner, “Resonance optical absorption by fractal agglomerates of smoke aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 25A, 2563–2569 (1991).

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[CrossRef]

R. W. Freund, N. M. Nachtigal, “QMR: a quasi-minimal residual method for non-Hermitian linear systems,” Numer. Math. 60, 315–339 (1991).

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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

K. F. Evans, J. Vivekanandan, “Multiparameter radar and microwave radiative transfer modeling of nonspherical atmospheric ice particles,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 28, 423–437 (1990).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Perrin, P. L. Lamy, “On the validity of effective- medium theories in the case of light extinction by inhomogeneous dust particles,” Astrophys. J. 364, 146–151 (1990).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Perrin, J. P. Sivan, “Porosity and impurities within interstellar grains. Is the ultraviolet bump still explained by carbonaceous material?,” Astron. Astrophys. 228, 238–245 (1990).

J. I. Hage, J. M. Greenberg, “A model for the optical properties of porous grains,” Astrophys. J. 361, 251–259 (1990).

[CrossRef]

R. Harrington, “Origin and development of the method of moments for field computation,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 32(3), 31–35 (1990).

[CrossRef]

A. W. Glison, “Recent advances in frequency domain techniques for electromagnetic scattering problems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 25, 2867–2871 (1989).

C. F. Smith, A. F. Peterson, R. Mittra, “A conjugate gradient algorithm for the treatment of multiple incident electromagnetic fields,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 37, 1490–1493 (1989).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. H. Goedecke, S. G. O’Brien, “Scattering by irregular inhomogeneous particles via the digitized Green’s function algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2431–2438 (1988).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

S. B. Singham, C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering by an arbitrary particle: the scattering order formulation of the coupled-dipole method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1867–1872 (1988).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

A. F. Peterson, C. F. Smith, R. Mittra, “Eigenvalues of the moment-method matrix and their effect on the convergence of the conjugate gradient algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1177–1179 (1988).

[CrossRef]

B. T. Draine, “The discrete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).

[CrossRef]

S. B. Singham, G. C. Salzman, “Evaluation of the scattering matrix of an arbitrary particle using the coupled dipole approximation,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 2658–2667 (1986).

[CrossRef]

D. T. Borup, O. P. Gandhi, “Calculation of high- resolution SAR distributions in biological bodies using the FFT algorithm and conjugate gradient method,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-33, 417–419 (1985).

[CrossRef]

T. K. Sarkar, E. Arvas, S. M. Rao, “Application of the fast Fourier transform and the conjugate gradient method for efficient solution of electromagnetic scattering from both electrically large and small conducting bodies,” Electromagnetics 5, 99–122 (1985).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. H. Richmond, “Scattering by a dielectric cylinder of arbitrary cross-section shape,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-13, 334–343 (1965).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

T. K. Sarkar, X. Yang, E. Arvas, “A limited survey of various conjugate gradient methods for complex matrix equations arising in electromagnetic wave interactions,” Wave Motion 10, 527–546 (1988).

[CrossRef]

T. K. Sarkar, E. Arvas, S. M. Rao, “Application of the fast Fourier transform and the conjugate gradient method for efficient solution of electromagnetic scattering from both electrically large and small conducting bodies,” Electromagnetics 5, 99–122 (1985).

[CrossRef]

T. Kozasa, J. Blum, T. Mukai, “Optical properties of dust aggregates. I. Wavelength dependence,” Astron. Astrophys. 263, 423–432 (1992).

T. Mukai, H. Ishimoto, T. Kozasa, J. Blum, J. M. Greenberg, “Radiation pressure forces of fluffy porous grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 262, 315–320 (1992).

S. B. Singham, C. F. Bohren, “Scattering of unpolarized and polarized light by particle aggregates of different size and fractal dimension,” Langmuir 9, 1431–1435 (1993).

[CrossRef]

C. E. Dungey, C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering by nonspherical particles: a refinement to the coupled-dipole method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 81–87 (1991).

[CrossRef]

C. F. Bohren, S. B. Singham, “Backscattering by non- spherical particles: a review of methods and suggested new approaches,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5269–5277 (1991).

[CrossRef]

S. B. Singham, C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering by an arbitrary particle: the scattering order formulation of the coupled-dipole method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1867–1872 (1988).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]
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D. T. Borup, O. P. Gandhi, “Calculation of high- resolution SAR distributions in biological bodies using the FFT algorithm and conjugate gradient method,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-33, 417–419 (1985).

[CrossRef]

A. F. Peterson, S. L. Ray, C. H. Chan, R. Mittra, “Numerical implementation of the conjugate gradient method and the CG-FFT for electromagnetic scattering,” in Application of Conjugate Gradient Method to Electromagnetics and Signal Processing, T. K. Sarkar, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), Chap. 5.

M. F. Iskander, H. Y. Chen, J. E. Penner, “Resonance optical absorption by fractal agglomerates of smoke aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 25A, 2563–2569 (1991).

M. F. Iskander, H. Y. Chen, J. E. Penner, “Optical scattering and absorption by branched chains of aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3083–3091 (1989).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. E. Livesay, K. Chen, “Electromagnetic fields induced inside arbitrarily shaped biological bodies,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-22, 1273–1280 (1974).

[CrossRef]

W. C. Chew, C.-C. Lu, “NEPAL—an algorithm for solving the volume integral equation,” Microwave Opt. Tech. Lett. 6, 185–188 (1993).

[CrossRef]

W. C. Chew, Y. M. Wang, L. Gurel, “Recursive algorithm for wave-scattering using windowed addition theorem,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 6, 1537–1560 (1992).

[CrossRef]

M. J. Wolff, G. C. Clayton, P. G. Martin, R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, “Modeling composite and fluffy grains: the effects of porosity,” Astrophys. J. (to be published).

H. DeVoe, “Optical properties of molecular aggregates. II. Classical theory of the refraction, absorption, and optical activity of solutions and crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3199–3208 (1965).

[CrossRef]

H. DeVoe, “Optical properties of molecular aggregates. I. Classical model of electronic absorption and refraction,” J. Chem. Phys. 41, 393–400 (1964).

[CrossRef]

B. T. Draine, J. Goodman, “Beyond Clausius–Mossotti: wave propagation on a polarizable point lattice and the discrete dipole approximation,” Astrophys. J. 405, 685–697 (1993).

[CrossRef]

B. T. Draine, S. Malhotra, “On graphite and the 2175 Å extinction profile,” Astrophys. J. 414, 632–645 (1993).

[CrossRef]

J. J. Goodman, B. T. Draine, P. J. Flatau, “Application of fast-Fourier-transform techniques to the discrete-dipole approximation,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1198–1200 (1991).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P. J. Flatau, G. L. Stephens, B. T. Draine, “Light scattering by rectangular solids in the discrete-dipole approximation: a new algorithm exploiting the block-Toeplitz structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 593–600 (1990).

[CrossRef]

B. T. Draine, “The discrete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).

[CrossRef]

P. J. Flatau, T. Schneider, F. Evans, ccg-pak—fortran. Conjugate gradient package for solving complex matrix equations (1993).Available from pflatau@ucsd.edu.

K. F. Evans, J. Vivekanandan, “Multiparameter radar and microwave radiative transfer modeling of nonspherical atmospheric ice particles,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 28, 423–437 (1990).

[CrossRef]

P. J. Flatau, K. A. Fuller, D. W. Mackowski, “Scattering by two spheres in contact: comparisons between discrete dipole approximation and modal analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3302–3305 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P. J. Flatau, T. Schneider, F. Evans, ccg-pak—fortran. Conjugate gradient package for solving complex matrix equations (1993).Available from pflatau@ucsd.edu.

J. J. Goodman, B. T. Draine, P. J. Flatau, “Application of fast-Fourier-transform techniques to the discrete-dipole approximation,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1198–1200 (1991).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P. J. Flatau, G. L. Stephens, B. T. Draine, “Light scattering by rectangular solids in the discrete-dipole approximation: a new algorithm exploiting the block-Toeplitz structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 593–600 (1990).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

V. Simoncini, E. Gallopoulos, “An iterative method for nonsymmetric systems with multiple right-hand sides,” Tech. Rep. 1242 (Center for Supercomputing Research and Development, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Champaign, III., 1992).

D. T. Borup, O. P. Gandhi, “Calculation of high- resolution SAR distributions in biological bodies using the FFT algorithm and conjugate gradient method,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-33, 417–419 (1985).

[CrossRef]

A. W. Glison, “Recent advances in frequency domain techniques for electromagnetic scattering problems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 25, 2867–2871 (1989).

B. T. Draine, J. Goodman, “Beyond Clausius–Mossotti: wave propagation on a polarizable point lattice and the discrete dipole approximation,” Astrophys. J. 405, 685–697 (1993).

[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, H. Ishimoto, T. Kozasa, J. Blum, J. M. Greenberg, “Radiation pressure forces of fluffy porous grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 262, 315–320 (1992).

J. I. Hage, J. M. Greenberg, “A model for the optical properties of porous grains,” Astrophys. J. 361, 251–259 (1990).

[CrossRef]

W. C. Chew, Y. M. Wang, L. Gurel, “Recursive algorithm for wave-scattering using windowed addition theorem,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 6, 1537–1560 (1992).

[CrossRef]

J. I. Hage, J. M. Greenberg, “A model for the optical properties of porous grains,” Astrophys. J. 361, 251–259 (1990).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, H. Ishimoto, T. Kozasa, J. Blum, J. M. Greenberg, “Radiation pressure forces of fluffy porous grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 262, 315–320 (1992).

M. F. Iskander, H. Y. Chen, J. E. Penner, “Resonance optical absorption by fractal agglomerates of smoke aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 25A, 2563–2569 (1991).

M. F. Iskander, H. Y. Chen, J. E. Penner, “Optical scattering and absorption by branched chains of aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3083–3091 (1989).

[CrossRef]
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[CrossRef]

E. H. Newman, K. Kingsley, “An introduction to the method of moments,” J. Comput. Phys. 68, 1–18 (1991).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

T. Kozasa, J. Blum, T. Mukai, “Optical properties of dust aggregates. I. Wavelength dependence,” Astron. Astrophys. 263, 423–432 (1992).

T. Mukai, H. Ishimoto, T. Kozasa, J. Blum, J. M. Greenberg, “Radiation pressure forces of fluffy porous grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 262, 315–320 (1992).

A. Lakhtakia, “General theory of the Purcell-Pennypacker scattering approach and its extension to bianisotropic scatterers,” Astrophys. J. 394, 494–499 (1992).

[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia, “Strong and weak forms of the method of moments and the coupled dipole method for scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic fields,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. C3, 583–603 (1992).

J. M. Perrin, P. L. Lamy, “On the validity of effective- medium theories in the case of light extinction by inhomogeneous dust particles,” Astrophys. J. 364, 146–151 (1990).

[CrossRef]

D. E. Livesay, K. Chen, “Electromagnetic fields induced inside arbitrarily shaped biological bodies,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-22, 1273–1280 (1974).

[CrossRef]

H. A. Lorentz, Theory of Electrons (Teubner, Leipzig, 1909).

W. C. Chew, C.-C. Lu, “NEPAL—an algorithm for solving the volume integral equation,” Microwave Opt. Tech. Lett. 6, 185–188 (1993).

[CrossRef]

B. T. Draine, S. Malhotra, “On graphite and the 2175 Å extinction profile,” Astrophys. J. 414, 632–645 (1993).

[CrossRef]

F. Rouleau, P. G. Martin, “A new method to calculate the extinction properties of irregularly shaped particles,” Astrophys. J. 414, 803–814 (1993).

[CrossRef]

M. J. Wolff, G. C. Clayton, P. G. Martin, R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, “Modeling composite and fluffy grains: the effects of porosity,” Astrophys. J. (to be published).

E. K. Miller, “A selective survey of computational electromagnetics,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1281–1305 (1988).

[CrossRef]

C. F. Smith, A. F. Peterson, R. Mittra, “A conjugate gradient algorithm for the treatment of multiple incident electromagnetic fields,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 37, 1490–1493 (1989).

[CrossRef]

A. F. Peterson, C. F. Smith, R. Mittra, “Eigenvalues of the moment-method matrix and their effect on the convergence of the conjugate gradient algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1177–1179 (1988).

[CrossRef]

A. F. Peterson, S. L. Ray, C. H. Chan, R. Mittra, “Numerical implementation of the conjugate gradient method and the CG-FFT for electromagnetic scattering,” in Application of Conjugate Gradient Method to Electromagnetics and Signal Processing, T. K. Sarkar, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), Chap. 5.

T. Kozasa, J. Blum, T. Mukai, “Optical properties of dust aggregates. I. Wavelength dependence,” Astron. Astrophys. 263, 423–432 (1992).

T. Mukai, H. Ishimoto, T. Kozasa, J. Blum, J. M. Greenberg, “Radiation pressure forces of fluffy porous grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 262, 315–320 (1992).

R. W. Freund, N. M. Nachtigal, “QMR: a quasi-minimal residual method for non-Hermitian linear systems,” Numer. Math. 60, 315–339 (1991).

[CrossRef]

E. H. Newman, K. Kingsley, “An introduction to the method of moments,” J. Comput. Phys. 68, 1–18 (1991).

[CrossRef]

M. F. Iskander, H. Y. Chen, J. E. Penner, “Resonance optical absorption by fractal agglomerates of smoke aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 25A, 2563–2569 (1991).

M. F. Iskander, H. Y. Chen, J. E. Penner, “Optical scattering and absorption by branched chains of aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3083–3091 (1989).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. M. Purcell, C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Perrin, J. P. Sivan, “Light scattering by dust grains: effects of the state of the surface on the validity of the discrete dipole approximation,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. II 316, 47–53 (1993).

J. M. Perrin, J. P. Sivan, “Scattering and polarisation of light by rough and porous interstellar grains,” Astron. Astrophys. 247, 497–504 (1991).

J. M. Perrin, J. P. Sivan, “Porosity and impurities within interstellar grains. Is the ultraviolet bump still explained by carbonaceous material?,” Astron. Astrophys. 228, 238–245 (1990).

J. M. Perrin, P. L. Lamy, “On the validity of effective- medium theories in the case of light extinction by inhomogeneous dust particles,” Astrophys. J. 364, 146–151 (1990).

[CrossRef]

C. F. Smith, A. F. Peterson, R. Mittra, “A conjugate gradient algorithm for the treatment of multiple incident electromagnetic fields,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 37, 1490–1493 (1989).

[CrossRef]

A. F. Peterson, C. F. Smith, R. Mittra, “Eigenvalues of the moment-method matrix and their effect on the convergence of the conjugate gradient algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1177–1179 (1988).

[CrossRef]

A. F. Peterson, S. L. Ray, C. H. Chan, R. Mittra, “Numerical implementation of the conjugate gradient method and the CG-FFT for electromagnetic scattering,” in Application of Conjugate Gradient Method to Electromagnetics and Signal Processing, T. K. Sarkar, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), Chap. 5.

E. M. Purcell, C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).

[CrossRef]

T. K. Sarkar, E. Arvas, S. M. Rao, “Application of the fast Fourier transform and the conjugate gradient method for efficient solution of electromagnetic scattering from both electrically large and small conducting bodies,” Electromagnetics 5, 99–122 (1985).

[CrossRef]

A. F. Peterson, S. L. Ray, C. H. Chan, R. Mittra, “Numerical implementation of the conjugate gradient method and the CG-FFT for electromagnetic scattering,” in Application of Conjugate Gradient Method to Electromagnetics and Signal Processing, T. K. Sarkar, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), Chap. 5.

J. H. Richmond, “Scattering by a dielectric cylinder of arbitrary cross-section shape,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-13, 334–343 (1965).

[CrossRef]

F. Rouleau, P. G. Martin, “A new method to calculate the extinction properties of irregularly shaped particles,” Astrophys. J. 414, 803–814 (1993).

[CrossRef]

S. B. Singham, G. C. Salzman, “Evaluation of the scattering matrix of an arbitrary particle using the coupled dipole approximation,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 2658–2667 (1986).

[CrossRef]

T. K. Sarkar, X. Yang, E. Arvas, “A limited survey of various conjugate gradient methods for complex matrix equations arising in electromagnetic wave interactions,” Wave Motion 10, 527–546 (1988).

[CrossRef]

T. K. Sarkar, E. Arvas, S. M. Rao, “Application of the fast Fourier transform and the conjugate gradient method for efficient solution of electromagnetic scattering from both electrically large and small conducting bodies,” Electromagnetics 5, 99–122 (1985).

[CrossRef]

P. J. Flatau, T. Schneider, F. Evans, ccg-pak—fortran. Conjugate gradient package for solving complex matrix equations (1993).Available from pflatau@ucsd.edu.

M. J. Wolff, G. C. Clayton, P. G. Martin, R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck, “Modeling composite and fluffy grains: the effects of porosity,” Astrophys. J. (to be published).

J. C. Ku, K.-H. Shim, “A comparison of solutions for light scattering and absorption by agglomerated or arbitrarily- shaped particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 201–220 (1992).

[CrossRef]

V. Simoncini, E. Gallopoulos, “An iterative method for nonsymmetric systems with multiple right-hand sides,” Tech. Rep. 1242 (Center for Supercomputing Research and Development, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Champaign, III., 1992).

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