Abstract

In visual search experiments we examined whether targets that are distinguished from distracting items solely by a contrary change in color can be sought spatially in parallel. Targets under time-varying illumination pop out if they present a contrary luminance signal; targets under space-varying illumination can be detected in parallel when they are isoluminant. The results suggest that neurons with spatially and chromatically opposed receptive fields are active across the central visual field.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. M. D’Zmura, G. Iverson, “Color constancy: adaptation to the illumination environment,” in Advances in Color Vision, Vol. 4 of the OSA 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 107–109.
  3. M. D’Zmura, G. Iverson, “Color constancy. I. Basic theory of two-stage linear recovery of spectral descriptions for lights and surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2148–2165 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. D’Zmura, G. Iverson, “Color constancy. II. Results for two-stage linear recovery of spectral descriptions for lights and surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2166–2180 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Ullman, “The interpretation of structure from motion,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 203, 405–426 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Treisman, “Preattentive processing in vision,” Comput. Vision Graphics Image Process. 31, 156–177 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. D’Zmura, “Color in visual search,” Vision Res. 31, 951–966 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science. Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  9. C. R. Michael, “Color vision mechanisms in monkey striate cortex: dual-opponent cells with concentric receptive fields,”J. Neurophysiol. 41, 572–588 (1978).
    [PubMed]
  10. M. S. Livingstone, D. H. Hubel, “Anatomy and physiology of a color system in primate primary visual cortex,”J. Neurosci. 4, 309–356 (1984).
    [PubMed]
  11. P. Cavanagh, C. W. Tyler, O. E. Favreau, “Perceived velocity of moving chromatic gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 893–899 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Wertheimer, “Principles of perceptual organization,” in Readings in Perception, D. C. Beardslee, M. Wertheimer, eds. (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1958), pp. 115–135.
  13. K. Nakayama, G. H. Silverman, “Serial and parallel processing of visual feature conjunctions,” Nature (London) 320, 264–265 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Ullman, “On visual detection of light sources,” Biol. Cybern. 21, 205–212 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, T. H. Taylor, “Quantitative studies in retinex theory. A comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the ‘color mondrian’ experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445–458 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. E. Arend, A. Reeves, “Simultaneous color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1743–1751 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

M. D’Zmura, “Color in visual search,” Vision Res. 31, 951–966 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

K. Nakayama, G. H. Silverman, “Serial and parallel processing of visual feature conjunctions,” Nature (London) 320, 264–265 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Arend, A. Reeves, “Simultaneous color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1743–1751 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

A. Treisman, “Preattentive processing in vision,” Comput. Vision Graphics Image Process. 31, 156–177 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

M. S. Livingstone, D. H. Hubel, “Anatomy and physiology of a color system in primate primary visual cortex,”J. Neurosci. 4, 309–356 (1984).
[PubMed]

P. Cavanagh, C. W. Tyler, O. E. Favreau, “Perceived velocity of moving chromatic gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 893–899 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

S. Ullman, “The interpretation of structure from motion,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 203, 405–426 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

C. R. Michael, “Color vision mechanisms in monkey striate cortex: dual-opponent cells with concentric receptive fields,”J. Neurophysiol. 41, 572–588 (1978).
[PubMed]

1976 (2)

S. Ullman, “On visual detection of light sources,” Biol. Cybern. 21, 205–212 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, T. H. Taylor, “Quantitative studies in retinex theory. A comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the ‘color mondrian’ experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445–458 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Arend, L. E.

Cavanagh, P.

D’Zmura, M.

Favreau, O. E.

Hubel, D. H.

M. S. Livingstone, D. H. Hubel, “Anatomy and physiology of a color system in primate primary visual cortex,”J. Neurosci. 4, 309–356 (1984).
[PubMed]

Iverson, G.

Livingstone, M. S.

M. S. Livingstone, D. H. Hubel, “Anatomy and physiology of a color system in primate primary visual cortex,”J. Neurosci. 4, 309–356 (1984).
[PubMed]

McCann, J. J.

J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, T. H. Taylor, “Quantitative studies in retinex theory. A comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the ‘color mondrian’ experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445–458 (1976).
[CrossRef]

McKee, S. P.

J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, T. H. Taylor, “Quantitative studies in retinex theory. A comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the ‘color mondrian’ experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445–458 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Michael, C. R.

C. R. Michael, “Color vision mechanisms in monkey striate cortex: dual-opponent cells with concentric receptive fields,”J. Neurophysiol. 41, 572–588 (1978).
[PubMed]

Nakayama, K.

K. Nakayama, G. H. Silverman, “Serial and parallel processing of visual feature conjunctions,” Nature (London) 320, 264–265 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, A.

Silverman, G. H.

K. Nakayama, G. H. Silverman, “Serial and parallel processing of visual feature conjunctions,” Nature (London) 320, 264–265 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science. Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Taylor, T. H.

J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, T. H. Taylor, “Quantitative studies in retinex theory. A comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the ‘color mondrian’ experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445–458 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Treisman, A.

A. Treisman, “Preattentive processing in vision,” Comput. Vision Graphics Image Process. 31, 156–177 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, C. W.

Ullman, S.

S. Ullman, “The interpretation of structure from motion,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 203, 405–426 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Ullman, “On visual detection of light sources,” Biol. Cybern. 21, 205–212 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wertheimer, M.

M. Wertheimer, “Principles of perceptual organization,” in Readings in Perception, D. C. Beardslee, M. Wertheimer, eds. (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1958), pp. 115–135.

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science. Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Biol. Cybern. (1)

S. Ullman, “On visual detection of light sources,” Biol. Cybern. 21, 205–212 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Vision Graphics Image Process. (1)

A. Treisman, “Preattentive processing in vision,” Comput. Vision Graphics Image Process. 31, 156–177 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

C. R. Michael, “Color vision mechanisms in monkey striate cortex: dual-opponent cells with concentric receptive fields,”J. Neurophysiol. 41, 572–588 (1978).
[PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (1)

M. S. Livingstone, D. H. Hubel, “Anatomy and physiology of a color system in primate primary visual cortex,”J. Neurosci. 4, 309–356 (1984).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

Nature (London) (1)

K. Nakayama, G. H. Silverman, “Serial and parallel processing of visual feature conjunctions,” Nature (London) 320, 264–265 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London B (1)

S. Ullman, “The interpretation of structure from motion,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 203, 405–426 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (2)

M. D’Zmura, “Color in visual search,” Vision Res. 31, 951–966 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, T. H. Taylor, “Quantitative studies in retinex theory. A comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the ‘color mondrian’ experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445–458 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science. Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

M. D’Zmura, G. Iverson, “Color constancy: adaptation to the illumination environment,” in Advances in Color Vision, Vol. 4 of the OSA 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 107–109.

M. Wertheimer, “Principles of perceptual organization,” in Readings in Perception, D. C. Beardslee, M. Wertheimer, eds. (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1958), pp. 115–135.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A, A 6 × 6 square array of simulated Munsell chip papers centered on a black surround, where the side of each square subtended 1.36° of visual angle to produce an 8.16° × 8.16° stimulus area, was modulated sinusoidally in time at 2 Hz through a simulated oscillation of illumination between D65 and F2. B, Each of 20 adjacent strips of simulated Munsell chip papers, centered on a black surround, had a width of 0.61° of visual angle and a length of 8.62°, producing a stimulus area 8.62° wide by 12.2° long. The strips were modulated sinusoidally, through a simulated oscillation of illumination between D65 and F2, across the horizontal extent of the display. The spatial frequency of the oscillation was 0.7 cycle/deg, so producing six full cycles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A, CIE 1931 (x, y) chromaticities and Munsell chip designations of the background (gray arrow) and the distractors, modulated in phase by illumination varying between D65 (arrow base) and F2 (arrowhead), and the counterphase modulated target (gray arrow, reverse direction). In a control experiment with space-varying stimuli the target was modulated in phase with the distractors, while the background items were modulated in counterphase. B, Normalized luminances of the background, the distractors, and the target. The relative value 1.0 corresponds to an absolute luminance of 7 cd/m2 on a Sony GDM 1602 monitor for the time-varying experiments and to an absolute luminance of 16 cd/m2 on a Sony GDM 1960 monitor for the space-varying experiments. At no one time or location was the target distinguished by either color or brightness when it was presented at isoluminance: the target is not distinguished by a trivial color cue.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A, Slopes of the best-fitting lines to graphs of reaction time versus number of displayed items for target-present trials (open circles) and target-absent trials (solid circles) for two observers in the experiments with time-varying illumination. The observers’ ability to detect in parallel targets that present counterphase luminance modulation, indicated by the near-zero slopes at ±20% contrast, deteriorates at isoluminance (0% contrast). The average percentages correct for observers AM and MD were 95.5 and 93.2, respectively. The average intercepts of the best-fitting lines to target-present trial data for AM and MD were 516 and 500 ms, respectively. B, Slopes from the experiments with space-varying illumination are nearly zero in both isoluminant and nonisoluminant conditions. The average percentages correct for AM and MD were 96.2 and 94.2, respectively. The average intercepts of the best-fitting lines to target-present trial data for AM and MD were 380 and 389 ms, respectively. All the slopes are computed from reaction-time results at four levels of the variable number of displayed items from 60 trials, preceded by 40 unscored practice trials.

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