Abstract

We present a method for measuring the local velocities and first-order variations in velocities in a time-varying image. The scheme is an extension of the generalized gradient model that encompasses the local variation of velocity within a local patch of the image. Motion within a patch is analyzed in parallel by 42 different spatiotemporal filters derived from 6 linearly independent spatiotemporal kernels. No constraints are imposed on the image structure, and there is no need for smoothness constraints on the velocity field. The aperture problem does not arise so long as there is some two-dimensional structure in the patch being analyzed. Among the advantages of the scheme is that there is no requirement to calculate second or higher derivatives of the image function. This makes the scheme robust in the presence of noise. The spatiotemporal kernels are of simple form, involving Gaussian functions, and are biologically plausible receptive fields. The validity of the scheme is demonstrated by application to both synthetic and real video images sequences and by direct comparison with another recently published scheme Biol. Cybern. 63, 185 ( 1990)] for the measurement of complex optical flow.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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