Abstract

Using a computerized test system, we compared binocular and monocular visual optotype acuity, varying both contrast and contrast disparity between the two eyes. When contrast was the same in the two eyes, binocular acuity was better than best monocular acuity by an average of 0.045 log minimum angle of resolution, or 11%. When contrast differed in the two eyes, binocular acuity in most but not all cases was still better than the monocular acuity of the eye that received the higher contrast. This binocular advantage became smaller but remained significant as contrast disparity became larger. These results are most simply explained by threshold contrast summation of high-spatial-frequency letter components.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Monocular versus binocular visual acuity,” Nature (London) 208, 191–192 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. H. Bacon, “The interaction of dichoptically presented spatial gratings,” Vision Res. 16, 337–344 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Blake, E. Levinson, “Spatial properties of binocular neurons in the human visual system,” Exp. Brain Res. 27, 221–232 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Braccini, G. Gambardella, G. Suetta, “A noise masking experiment in grating perception at threshold: the implications on binocular summation,” Vision Res. 20, 373–376 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation. I. Detection and discrimination,” Vision Res. 24, 373–383 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Gilchrist, S. Pardhan, “Binocular contrast detection with unequal monocular illuminance,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 7, 373–377 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. J. M. Levelt, On Binocular Rivalry (Mouton, The Hague, 1965).
  8. D. Y. Teller, E. Galanter, “Brightness, luminances, and Fechner’s paradox,” Percept. Psychophys. 2, 297–300 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. R. Engel, “The visual process underlying binocular brightness summation,” Vision Res. 7, 753–767 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. W. Curtis, S. J. Rule, “Binocular processing of brightness information: a vector-sum model,”J. Exp. Psychol. 4, 132–143 (1978).
  11. G. E. Legge, “Spatial frequency masking in human vision: binocular interactions,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 838–847 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. E. Legge, G. S. Rubin, “Binocular interaction in suprathreshold contrast interactions,” Percept. Psychophys. 30, 49–61 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Blake, W. Martens, A. Di Gianfillipo, “Reaction time as a measure of binocular interaction in human vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 930–941 (1980).
    [PubMed]
  14. R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith, D. M. Levi, “Suprathreshold binocular interactions for grating patterns,” Percept. Psychophys. 27, 43–50 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Blake, R. Fox, “The psychophysical inquiry into binocular summation,” Percept. Psychophys. 14, 161–185 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Blake, M. Sloane, R. Fox, “Further developments in binocular summation,” Percept. Psychophys. 30, 266–276 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Arditi, “Binocular vision,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986).
  18. L. Frisen, B. Lindblom, “Binocular summation in humans: evidence for a hierarchic model,”J. Physiol. (London) 402, 773–782 (1988).
  19. A. P. Ginsburg, “Specifying relevant spatial information for image evaluation and display designs: an explanation of how we see certain objects,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21, 219–227 (1980).
  20. S. Pardhan, J. Gilchrist, W. Douthwaite, “The effect of spatial frequency on binocular contrast inhibition,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 9, 46–49 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. Faye, Clinical Low Vision (Little, Brown, Toronto, 1984).
  22. E. Barany, “A theory of binocular visual acuity and an analysis of the variability of visual acuity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 24, 63–92 (1946).
  23. M. W. Horowitz, “An analysis of the superiority of binocular over, monocular visual acuity,”J. Exp. Psychol. 39, 581–596 (1949).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. Kahneman, J. Norman, M. Kubovy, “Critical duration for the resolution of form: centrally or peripherally determined?”J. Exp. Psychol. 73, 323–327 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. Home, “Binocular summation: a study of contrast sensitivity, visual acuity and recognition,” Vision Res. 18, 579–585 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Pardhan, D. B. Elliott, “Clinical measurements of binocular summation and inhibition in patients with cataract,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 355–359 (1991).
  27. F. L. Ferris, A. Kassoff, G. H. Bresnick, I. L. Bailey, “New visual acuity charts for clinical research,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 94, 91–96 (1982).
    [PubMed]
  28. A. Arditi, R. Cagenello, “A computer-based optotype acuity test system suitable for evaluation of acuity charts,” in Noninuasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 88–91.
  29. A. Arditi, R. Cagenello, “On the statistical reliability of letter-chart visual acuity measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 120–124 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  30. I. L. Bailey, J. E. Lovie, “New design principles for visual acuity letter charts,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 53, 740–745 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. E. E. Birch, “Binocular processing of contrast: a vector sum model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 18, 246 (1979).
  32. G. J. Iverson, J. A. Movshon, A. Arditi, “Binocular additivity of monocular contrasts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 20, 224 (1981).
  33. V. Virsu, J. Rovamo, “Visual resolution, contrast sensitivity, and the cortical magnification factor,” Exp. Brain Res. 37, 475–494 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. P. R. Herse, H. E. Bedell, “Contrast sensitivity for letter and grating targets under various stimulus conditions,” Optom. Vision Sci. 69, 774–781 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  35. D. H. Parish, G. Sperling, “Object spatial frequencies, retinal spatial frequencies, noise, and the efficiency of letter discrimination,” Vision Res. 31, 1399–1415 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation. II. Quadratic summation,” Vision Res. 24, 385–394 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  37. P. A. Anderson, A. J. Movshon, “Binocular combination of contrast signals,” Vision Res. 29, 1115–1132 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,”J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576–593 (1965).
  39. M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, S. L. Alvarez, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminance,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. C. D. Kay, J. D. Morrison, “A quantitative investigation into the effects of pupil diameter and defocus on contrast sensitivity for an extended range of spatial frequencies in natural and homatropinized eyes,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 7, 21–30 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  41. R. D. Freeman, I. Ohzawa, “On the neurophysiological organization of binocular vision,” Vision Res. 30, 1661–1676 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. Arditi, R. Cagenello, “On the statistical reliability of letter-chart visual acuity measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 120–124 (1993).
[PubMed]

1991 (2)

S. Pardhan, D. B. Elliott, “Clinical measurements of binocular summation and inhibition in patients with cataract,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 355–359 (1991).

D. H. Parish, G. Sperling, “Object spatial frequencies, retinal spatial frequencies, noise, and the efficiency of letter discrimination,” Vision Res. 31, 1399–1415 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

R. D. Freeman, I. Ohzawa, “On the neurophysiological organization of binocular vision,” Vision Res. 30, 1661–1676 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (3)

P. A. Anderson, A. J. Movshon, “Binocular combination of contrast signals,” Vision Res. 29, 1115–1132 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Herse, H. E. Bedell, “Contrast sensitivity for letter and grating targets under various stimulus conditions,” Optom. Vision Sci. 69, 774–781 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Pardhan, J. Gilchrist, W. Douthwaite, “The effect of spatial frequency on binocular contrast inhibition,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 9, 46–49 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

L. Frisen, B. Lindblom, “Binocular summation in humans: evidence for a hierarchic model,”J. Physiol. (London) 402, 773–782 (1988).

M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, S. L. Alvarez, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminance,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

C. D. Kay, J. D. Morrison, “A quantitative investigation into the effects of pupil diameter and defocus on contrast sensitivity for an extended range of spatial frequencies in natural and homatropinized eyes,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 7, 21–30 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Gilchrist, S. Pardhan, “Binocular contrast detection with unequal monocular illuminance,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 7, 373–377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (3)

G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation. I. Detection and discrimination,” Vision Res. 24, 373–383 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation. II. Quadratic summation,” Vision Res. 24, 385–394 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. Home, “Binocular summation: a study of contrast sensitivity, visual acuity and recognition,” Vision Res. 18, 579–585 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

F. L. Ferris, A. Kassoff, G. H. Bresnick, I. L. Bailey, “New visual acuity charts for clinical research,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 94, 91–96 (1982).
[PubMed]

1981 (3)

R. Blake, M. Sloane, R. Fox, “Further developments in binocular summation,” Percept. Psychophys. 30, 266–276 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Legge, G. S. Rubin, “Binocular interaction in suprathreshold contrast interactions,” Percept. Psychophys. 30, 49–61 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Iverson, J. A. Movshon, A. Arditi, “Binocular additivity of monocular contrasts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 20, 224 (1981).

1980 (4)

C. Braccini, G. Gambardella, G. Suetta, “A noise masking experiment in grating perception at threshold: the implications on binocular summation,” Vision Res. 20, 373–376 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Blake, W. Martens, A. Di Gianfillipo, “Reaction time as a measure of binocular interaction in human vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 930–941 (1980).
[PubMed]

R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith, D. M. Levi, “Suprathreshold binocular interactions for grating patterns,” Percept. Psychophys. 27, 43–50 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Ginsburg, “Specifying relevant spatial information for image evaluation and display designs: an explanation of how we see certain objects,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21, 219–227 (1980).

1979 (3)

V. Virsu, J. Rovamo, “Visual resolution, contrast sensitivity, and the cortical magnification factor,” Exp. Brain Res. 37, 475–494 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Birch, “Binocular processing of contrast: a vector sum model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 18, 246 (1979).

G. E. Legge, “Spatial frequency masking in human vision: binocular interactions,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 838–847 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

D. W. Curtis, S. J. Rule, “Binocular processing of brightness information: a vector-sum model,”J. Exp. Psychol. 4, 132–143 (1978).

1977 (1)

R. Blake, E. Levinson, “Spatial properties of binocular neurons in the human visual system,” Exp. Brain Res. 27, 221–232 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (2)

J. H. Bacon, “The interaction of dichoptically presented spatial gratings,” Vision Res. 16, 337–344 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. L. Bailey, J. E. Lovie, “New design principles for visual acuity letter charts,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 53, 740–745 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

R. Blake, R. Fox, “The psychophysical inquiry into binocular summation,” Percept. Psychophys. 14, 161–185 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1967 (3)

D. Kahneman, J. Norman, M. Kubovy, “Critical duration for the resolution of form: centrally or peripherally determined?”J. Exp. Psychol. 73, 323–327 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Teller, E. Galanter, “Brightness, luminances, and Fechner’s paradox,” Percept. Psychophys. 2, 297–300 (1967).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Engel, “The visual process underlying binocular brightness summation,” Vision Res. 7, 753–767 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (2)

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Monocular versus binocular visual acuity,” Nature (London) 208, 191–192 (1965).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,”J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

1949 (1)

M. W. Horowitz, “An analysis of the superiority of binocular over, monocular visual acuity,”J. Exp. Psychol. 39, 581–596 (1949).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1946 (1)

E. Barany, “A theory of binocular visual acuity and an analysis of the variability of visual acuity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 24, 63–92 (1946).

Alvarez, S. L.

M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, S. L. Alvarez, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminance,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, P. A.

P. A. Anderson, A. J. Movshon, “Binocular combination of contrast signals,” Vision Res. 29, 1115–1132 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arditi, A.

A. Arditi, R. Cagenello, “On the statistical reliability of letter-chart visual acuity measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 120–124 (1993).
[PubMed]

G. J. Iverson, J. A. Movshon, A. Arditi, “Binocular additivity of monocular contrasts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 20, 224 (1981).

A. Arditi, R. Cagenello, “A computer-based optotype acuity test system suitable for evaluation of acuity charts,” in Noninuasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 88–91.

A. Arditi, “Binocular vision,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Bacon, J. H.

J. H. Bacon, “The interaction of dichoptically presented spatial gratings,” Vision Res. 16, 337–344 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey, I. L.

F. L. Ferris, A. Kassoff, G. H. Bresnick, I. L. Bailey, “New visual acuity charts for clinical research,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 94, 91–96 (1982).
[PubMed]

I. L. Bailey, J. E. Lovie, “New design principles for visual acuity letter charts,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 53, 740–745 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barany, E.

E. Barany, “A theory of binocular visual acuity and an analysis of the variability of visual acuity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 24, 63–92 (1946).

Bedell, H. E.

P. R. Herse, H. E. Bedell, “Contrast sensitivity for letter and grating targets under various stimulus conditions,” Optom. Vision Sci. 69, 774–781 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Birch, E. E.

E. E. Birch, “Binocular processing of contrast: a vector sum model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 18, 246 (1979).

Blake, R.

R. Blake, M. Sloane, R. Fox, “Further developments in binocular summation,” Percept. Psychophys. 30, 266–276 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Blake, W. Martens, A. Di Gianfillipo, “Reaction time as a measure of binocular interaction in human vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 930–941 (1980).
[PubMed]

R. Blake, E. Levinson, “Spatial properties of binocular neurons in the human visual system,” Exp. Brain Res. 27, 221–232 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Blake, R. Fox, “The psychophysical inquiry into binocular summation,” Percept. Psychophys. 14, 161–185 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Braccini, C.

C. Braccini, G. Gambardella, G. Suetta, “A noise masking experiment in grating perception at threshold: the implications on binocular summation,” Vision Res. 20, 373–376 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bresnick, G. H.

F. L. Ferris, A. Kassoff, G. H. Bresnick, I. L. Bailey, “New visual acuity charts for clinical research,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 94, 91–96 (1982).
[PubMed]

Cagenello, R.

A. Arditi, R. Cagenello, “On the statistical reliability of letter-chart visual acuity measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 120–124 (1993).
[PubMed]

A. Arditi, R. Cagenello, “A computer-based optotype acuity test system suitable for evaluation of acuity charts,” in Noninuasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 88–91.

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Monocular versus binocular visual acuity,” Nature (London) 208, 191–192 (1965).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,”J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

Curtis, D. W.

D. W. Curtis, S. J. Rule, “Binocular processing of brightness information: a vector-sum model,”J. Exp. Psychol. 4, 132–143 (1978).

Di Gianfillipo, A.

R. Blake, W. Martens, A. Di Gianfillipo, “Reaction time as a measure of binocular interaction in human vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 930–941 (1980).
[PubMed]

Douthwaite, W.

S. Pardhan, J. Gilchrist, W. Douthwaite, “The effect of spatial frequency on binocular contrast inhibition,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 9, 46–49 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, D. B.

S. Pardhan, D. B. Elliott, “Clinical measurements of binocular summation and inhibition in patients with cataract,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 355–359 (1991).

Engel, G. R.

G. R. Engel, “The visual process underlying binocular brightness summation,” Vision Res. 7, 753–767 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faye, E.

E. Faye, Clinical Low Vision (Little, Brown, Toronto, 1984).

Ferris, F. L.

F. L. Ferris, A. Kassoff, G. H. Bresnick, I. L. Bailey, “New visual acuity charts for clinical research,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 94, 91–96 (1982).
[PubMed]

Fox, R.

R. Blake, M. Sloane, R. Fox, “Further developments in binocular summation,” Percept. Psychophys. 30, 266–276 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Blake, R. Fox, “The psychophysical inquiry into binocular summation,” Percept. Psychophys. 14, 161–185 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. D.

R. D. Freeman, I. Ohzawa, “On the neurophysiological organization of binocular vision,” Vision Res. 30, 1661–1676 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frisen, L.

L. Frisen, B. Lindblom, “Binocular summation in humans: evidence for a hierarchic model,”J. Physiol. (London) 402, 773–782 (1988).

Galanter, E.

D. Y. Teller, E. Galanter, “Brightness, luminances, and Fechner’s paradox,” Percept. Psychophys. 2, 297–300 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Gambardella, G.

C. Braccini, G. Gambardella, G. Suetta, “A noise masking experiment in grating perception at threshold: the implications on binocular summation,” Vision Res. 20, 373–376 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilchrist, J.

S. Pardhan, J. Gilchrist, W. Douthwaite, “The effect of spatial frequency on binocular contrast inhibition,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 9, 46–49 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Gilchrist, S. Pardhan, “Binocular contrast detection with unequal monocular illuminance,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 7, 373–377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ginsburg, A. P.

A. P. Ginsburg, “Specifying relevant spatial information for image evaluation and display designs: an explanation of how we see certain objects,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21, 219–227 (1980).

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,”J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Monocular versus binocular visual acuity,” Nature (London) 208, 191–192 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Harwerth, R. S.

R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith, D. M. Levi, “Suprathreshold binocular interactions for grating patterns,” Percept. Psychophys. 27, 43–50 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Herse, P. R.

P. R. Herse, H. E. Bedell, “Contrast sensitivity for letter and grating targets under various stimulus conditions,” Optom. Vision Sci. 69, 774–781 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Home, R.

R. Home, “Binocular summation: a study of contrast sensitivity, visual acuity and recognition,” Vision Res. 18, 579–585 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M. W.

M. W. Horowitz, “An analysis of the superiority of binocular over, monocular visual acuity,”J. Exp. Psychol. 39, 581–596 (1949).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iverson, G. J.

G. J. Iverson, J. A. Movshon, A. Arditi, “Binocular additivity of monocular contrasts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 20, 224 (1981).

Kahneman, D.

D. Kahneman, J. Norman, M. Kubovy, “Critical duration for the resolution of form: centrally or peripherally determined?”J. Exp. Psychol. 73, 323–327 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kassoff, A.

F. L. Ferris, A. Kassoff, G. H. Bresnick, I. L. Bailey, “New visual acuity charts for clinical research,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 94, 91–96 (1982).
[PubMed]

Kay, C. D.

C. D. Kay, J. D. Morrison, “A quantitative investigation into the effects of pupil diameter and defocus on contrast sensitivity for an extended range of spatial frequencies in natural and homatropinized eyes,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 7, 21–30 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kubovy, M.

D. Kahneman, J. Norman, M. Kubovy, “Critical duration for the resolution of form: centrally or peripherally determined?”J. Exp. Psychol. 73, 323–327 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legge, G. E.

G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation. I. Detection and discrimination,” Vision Res. 24, 373–383 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation. II. Quadratic summation,” Vision Res. 24, 385–394 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Legge, G. S. Rubin, “Binocular interaction in suprathreshold contrast interactions,” Percept. Psychophys. 30, 49–61 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Legge, “Spatial frequency masking in human vision: binocular interactions,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 838–847 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levelt, W. J. M.

W. J. M. Levelt, On Binocular Rivalry (Mouton, The Hague, 1965).

Levi, D. M.

R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith, D. M. Levi, “Suprathreshold binocular interactions for grating patterns,” Percept. Psychophys. 27, 43–50 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Levinson, E.

R. Blake, E. Levinson, “Spatial properties of binocular neurons in the human visual system,” Exp. Brain Res. 27, 221–232 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindblom, B.

L. Frisen, B. Lindblom, “Binocular summation in humans: evidence for a hierarchic model,”J. Physiol. (London) 402, 773–782 (1988).

Lovie, J. E.

I. L. Bailey, J. E. Lovie, “New design principles for visual acuity letter charts,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 53, 740–745 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martens, W.

R. Blake, W. Martens, A. Di Gianfillipo, “Reaction time as a measure of binocular interaction in human vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 930–941 (1980).
[PubMed]

Morrison, J. D.

C. D. Kay, J. D. Morrison, “A quantitative investigation into the effects of pupil diameter and defocus on contrast sensitivity for an extended range of spatial frequencies in natural and homatropinized eyes,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 7, 21–30 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Movshon, A. J.

P. A. Anderson, A. J. Movshon, “Binocular combination of contrast signals,” Vision Res. 29, 1115–1132 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Movshon, J. A.

G. J. Iverson, J. A. Movshon, A. Arditi, “Binocular additivity of monocular contrasts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 20, 224 (1981).

Norman, J.

D. Kahneman, J. Norman, M. Kubovy, “Critical duration for the resolution of form: centrally or peripherally determined?”J. Exp. Psychol. 73, 323–327 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohzawa, I.

R. D. Freeman, I. Ohzawa, “On the neurophysiological organization of binocular vision,” Vision Res. 30, 1661–1676 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owsley, C.

M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, S. L. Alvarez, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminance,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pardhan, S.

S. Pardhan, D. B. Elliott, “Clinical measurements of binocular summation and inhibition in patients with cataract,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 355–359 (1991).

S. Pardhan, J. Gilchrist, W. Douthwaite, “The effect of spatial frequency on binocular contrast inhibition,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 9, 46–49 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Gilchrist, S. Pardhan, “Binocular contrast detection with unequal monocular illuminance,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 7, 373–377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Parish, D. H.

D. H. Parish, G. Sperling, “Object spatial frequencies, retinal spatial frequencies, noise, and the efficiency of letter discrimination,” Vision Res. 31, 1399–1415 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rovamo, J.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Line of five Sloan characters, similar to those found on the Lighthouse–ETDRS chart and those used in the experiments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Monocular and binocular acuities as a function of contrast for four subjects. Error bars indicate ±1 standard error of the mean.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Binocular enhancement (binocular minus best monocular performance) as a function of contrast for four subjects. The dotted line indicates no enhancement. Error bars are ±1 standard error of the mean.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Average binocular acuity (log MAR) for the condition in which one eye was presented with a fixed contrast (low or high) and contrast to the other eye was varied. Contrast of the varying eye is plotted on the x axis. (a) The fixed eye receives a contrast of 0.313 (indicated by the arrow); the other eye is presented with each of the other contrasts. (b) The fixed eye receives a contrast of 0.994 (indicated by the arrow); the other eye views each of the other contrasts. In both (a) and (b) the data are averaged across eyes and across all subjects. Error bars indicate ±1 standard error of the mean.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average binocular enhancement (log MAR) relative to the monocular acuity of the higher-contrast eye for the unequal contrast conditions. These data are the binocular acuities for each contrast-disparity condition (averaged in Fig. 4) minus the corresponding monocular acuities of the higher-contrast eye (shown in Fig. 2). (a) Average data of three subjects (except for AA) for the condition in which the fixed eye receives a contrast of 0.313 (indicated by the arrow). (b) Average data of three subjects (except for EBJ) for the condition in which the fixed eye receives a contrast of 0.994 (indicated by the arrow). In both (a) and (b) the data are averaged across eyes. Error bars indicate ±1 standard error of the mean.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

How binocular summation at contrast threshold can increase spatial-frequency resolution. A, Contrast summation. B, The resultant shift in the high-spatial-frequency cutoff, provided that certain assumptions hold (see text).

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