Abstract

The effects of glaucoma and diabetes on the sensitivities of the opponent and achromatic systems were investigated by measuring thresholds along theoretically defined axes in a three-dimensional color space. Thresholds were measured along two equiluminant chromatic axes and one achromatic axis in patients with diabetes or glaucoma and in glaucoma suspects. The results were compared with measures of sensitivities of short- and middle-wavelength-sensitive-cone pathways [S (Stiles π1) and M (Stiles π4), respectively] and with measures of hue discrimination by use of the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test. The glaucoma suspects and diabetic patients showed preferential S-cone-pathway sensitivity losses. For glaucoma patients, however, these losses were associated with significant decreases in the sensitivity of the L–M opponent system and with decreased sensitivity to achromatic contrast.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. Zwas, H. Weiss, P. McKinnon, “Spectral sensitivity measurements in early diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmic Res. 12, 87–96 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. Adams, F. Zisman, R. Rodic, J. C. Cavender, “Chromaticity and luminosity changes in glaucoma and diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 413–418 (1982).
  3. F. Zisman, A. J. Adams, “Spectral sensitivity of cone mechanisms in juvenile diabetics,” Doc. Ophthal. Proc. Ser. 33, 127–131 (1982).
  4. V. Greenstein, B. Sarter, D. Hood, K. Noble, R. Carr, “Hue discrimination and S cone pathway sensitivity in early diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 1008–1014 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  5. A. J. Adams, R. Rodic, R. Husted, R. Stamper, “Spectral sensitivity and color discrimination in glaucoma and glaucoma-suspect patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 516–542 (1982).
    [PubMed]
  6. F. Zwas, D. H. Shin, P. F. McKinnon, “Early diagnosis of glaucoma in ocular hypertensive patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 25, 193 (1984).
  7. V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes and glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  8. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. I. A. MacLeod, R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1183–1186 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Q. Zaidi, A. Shapiro, D. Hood, “The effect of adaptation on the differential sensitivity of the S-cone color system,” Vision Res. 32, 1297–1318 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Q. Zaidi, D. Halevy, “Visual mechanisms that signal the direction of color changes,” Vision Res. 33, 1037–1051 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. L. Sachtler, Q. Zaidi, “Chromatic and luminance signals in visual memory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 877–894 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Levitt, “Transformed up-down methods in psychoacoustics,”J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 467–477 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. Verriest, J. Van Laetham, A. Uvijis, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).
    [PubMed]
  16. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).
    [PubMed]
  17. G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. A. Bone, J. M. B. Sparrock, “Comparison of macular pigment densities in human eyes,” Vision Res. 11, 1057–1064 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Q. Zaidi, J. Pokorny, V. Smith, “Sources of individual differences in anomaloscope equations for tritan defects,” Clin. Vision Sci. 4, 89–94 (1989).
  20. R. Lakowski, J. G. Airaksinen, S. M. Drance, Y. Yamazaki, “Chromatic functional loss and its relation to the morphology of the retina in the glaucomatous eye,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, B. Drum, G. Verriest, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 289–299.
  21. K. Gunduz, G. B. Arden, S. Perry, G. W. Weinstein, R. A. Hitchings, “Colour vision defects in ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Quantification with a computer-driven colour television system,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 929–935 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. O. Scase, D. H. Foster, W. P. Honan, J. R. Heron, M. C. Gulliford, J. H. B. Scarpello, “Abnormalities in hue discrimination revealed with very brief stimuli in diabetes mellitus and in optic neuritis,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 49–57 (1990).
  23. M. A. Crognale, E. Switkes, J. Rabin, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, A. J. Adams, “Assessment of color vision anomalies with the VEP,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 43–46.
  24. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, T. A. Yeh, “Analysis of tritan detection thresholds and discrimination errors,” in Color Vision Deficiencies, Y. Ohta, ed. (Kugler and Ghedini, Amsterdam, 1990), pp. 191–197.
  25. D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, “Increment threshold (tvi) data and the site of disease action,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 2–5.
  26. M. Kallionatis, R. S. Harwerth, “Differential adaptation of cone mechanisms explains the preferential loss of short-wavelength cone sensitivity in retinal disease,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 52, 353–364 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  27. V. C. Greenstein, A. Shapiro, Q. Zaidi, D. C. Hood, “Psychophysical evidence for post-receptoral sensitivity loss in diabetics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 2781–2790 (1992).
    [PubMed]

1993 (1)

Q. Zaidi, D. Halevy, “Visual mechanisms that signal the direction of color changes,” Vision Res. 33, 1037–1051 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

W. L. Sachtler, Q. Zaidi, “Chromatic and luminance signals in visual memory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 877–894 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zaidi, A. Shapiro, D. Hood, “The effect of adaptation on the differential sensitivity of the S-cone color system,” Vision Res. 32, 1297–1318 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Greenstein, A. Shapiro, Q. Zaidi, D. C. Hood, “Psychophysical evidence for post-receptoral sensitivity loss in diabetics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 2781–2790 (1992).
[PubMed]

1990 (2)

M. O. Scase, D. H. Foster, W. P. Honan, J. R. Heron, M. C. Gulliford, J. H. B. Scarpello, “Abnormalities in hue discrimination revealed with very brief stimuli in diabetes mellitus and in optic neuritis,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 49–57 (1990).

V. Greenstein, B. Sarter, D. Hood, K. Noble, R. Carr, “Hue discrimination and S cone pathway sensitivity in early diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 1008–1014 (1990).
[PubMed]

1989 (3)

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes and glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).
[PubMed]

M. Kallionatis, R. S. Harwerth, “Differential adaptation of cone mechanisms explains the preferential loss of short-wavelength cone sensitivity in retinal disease,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 52, 353–364 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zaidi, J. Pokorny, V. Smith, “Sources of individual differences in anomaloscope equations for tritan defects,” Clin. Vision Sci. 4, 89–94 (1989).

1988 (1)

K. Gunduz, G. B. Arden, S. Perry, G. W. Weinstein, R. A. Hitchings, “Colour vision defects in ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Quantification with a computer-driven colour television system,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 929–935 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

F. Zwas, D. H. Shin, P. F. McKinnon, “Early diagnosis of glaucoma in ocular hypertensive patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 25, 193 (1984).

1982 (5)

A. J. Adams, R. Rodic, R. Husted, R. Stamper, “Spectral sensitivity and color discrimination in glaucoma and glaucoma-suspect patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 516–542 (1982).
[PubMed]

A. J. Adams, F. Zisman, R. Rodic, J. C. Cavender, “Chromaticity and luminosity changes in glaucoma and diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 413–418 (1982).

F. Zisman, A. J. Adams, “Spectral sensitivity of cone mechanisms in juvenile diabetics,” Doc. Ophthal. Proc. Ser. 33, 127–131 (1982).

G. Verriest, J. Van Laetham, A. Uvijis, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).
[PubMed]

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

F. Zwas, H. Weiss, P. McKinnon, “Spectral sensitivity measurements in early diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmic Res. 12, 87–96 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1975 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (2)

H. Levitt, “Transformed up-down methods in psychoacoustics,”J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 467–477 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. M. B. Sparrock, “Comparison of macular pigment densities in human eyes,” Vision Res. 11, 1057–1064 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, A. J.

A. J. Adams, F. Zisman, R. Rodic, J. C. Cavender, “Chromaticity and luminosity changes in glaucoma and diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 413–418 (1982).

F. Zisman, A. J. Adams, “Spectral sensitivity of cone mechanisms in juvenile diabetics,” Doc. Ophthal. Proc. Ser. 33, 127–131 (1982).

A. J. Adams, R. Rodic, R. Husted, R. Stamper, “Spectral sensitivity and color discrimination in glaucoma and glaucoma-suspect patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 516–542 (1982).
[PubMed]

M. A. Crognale, E. Switkes, J. Rabin, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, A. J. Adams, “Assessment of color vision anomalies with the VEP,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 43–46.

Airaksinen, J. G.

R. Lakowski, J. G. Airaksinen, S. M. Drance, Y. Yamazaki, “Chromatic functional loss and its relation to the morphology of the retina in the glaucomatous eye,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, B. Drum, G. Verriest, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 289–299.

Arden, G. B.

K. Gunduz, G. B. Arden, S. Perry, G. W. Weinstein, R. A. Hitchings, “Colour vision defects in ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Quantification with a computer-driven colour television system,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 929–935 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone, J. M. B. Sparrock, “Comparison of macular pigment densities in human eyes,” Vision Res. 11, 1057–1064 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boynton, R. M.

Carr, R.

V. Greenstein, B. Sarter, D. Hood, K. Noble, R. Carr, “Hue discrimination and S cone pathway sensitivity in early diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 1008–1014 (1990).
[PubMed]

Carr, R. E.

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes and glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).
[PubMed]

Cavender, J. C.

A. J. Adams, F. Zisman, R. Rodic, J. C. Cavender, “Chromaticity and luminosity changes in glaucoma and diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 413–418 (1982).

Crognale, M. A.

M. A. Crognale, E. Switkes, J. Rabin, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, A. J. Adams, “Assessment of color vision anomalies with the VEP,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 43–46.

Drance, S. M.

R. Lakowski, J. G. Airaksinen, S. M. Drance, Y. Yamazaki, “Chromatic functional loss and its relation to the morphology of the retina in the glaucomatous eye,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, B. Drum, G. Verriest, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 289–299.

Foster, D. H.

M. O. Scase, D. H. Foster, W. P. Honan, J. R. Heron, M. C. Gulliford, J. H. B. Scarpello, “Abnormalities in hue discrimination revealed with very brief stimuli in diabetes mellitus and in optic neuritis,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 49–57 (1990).

Greenstein, V.

V. Greenstein, B. Sarter, D. Hood, K. Noble, R. Carr, “Hue discrimination and S cone pathway sensitivity in early diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 1008–1014 (1990).
[PubMed]

Greenstein, V. C.

V. C. Greenstein, A. Shapiro, Q. Zaidi, D. C. Hood, “Psychophysical evidence for post-receptoral sensitivity loss in diabetics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 2781–2790 (1992).
[PubMed]

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes and glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).
[PubMed]

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, “Increment threshold (tvi) data and the site of disease action,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 2–5.

Gulliford, M. C.

M. O. Scase, D. H. Foster, W. P. Honan, J. R. Heron, M. C. Gulliford, J. H. B. Scarpello, “Abnormalities in hue discrimination revealed with very brief stimuli in diabetes mellitus and in optic neuritis,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 49–57 (1990).

Gunduz, K.

K. Gunduz, G. B. Arden, S. Perry, G. W. Weinstein, R. A. Hitchings, “Colour vision defects in ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Quantification with a computer-driven colour television system,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 929–935 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G.

M. A. Crognale, E. Switkes, J. Rabin, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, A. J. Adams, “Assessment of color vision anomalies with the VEP,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 43–46.

Halevy, D.

Q. Zaidi, D. Halevy, “Visual mechanisms that signal the direction of color changes,” Vision Res. 33, 1037–1051 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harwerth, R. S.

M. Kallionatis, R. S. Harwerth, “Differential adaptation of cone mechanisms explains the preferential loss of short-wavelength cone sensitivity in retinal disease,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 52, 353–364 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Heeley, D. W.

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heron, J. R.

M. O. Scase, D. H. Foster, W. P. Honan, J. R. Heron, M. C. Gulliford, J. H. B. Scarpello, “Abnormalities in hue discrimination revealed with very brief stimuli in diabetes mellitus and in optic neuritis,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 49–57 (1990).

Hitchings, R. A.

K. Gunduz, G. B. Arden, S. Perry, G. W. Weinstein, R. A. Hitchings, “Colour vision defects in ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Quantification with a computer-driven colour television system,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 929–935 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Honan, W. P.

M. O. Scase, D. H. Foster, W. P. Honan, J. R. Heron, M. C. Gulliford, J. H. B. Scarpello, “Abnormalities in hue discrimination revealed with very brief stimuli in diabetes mellitus and in optic neuritis,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 49–57 (1990).

Hood, D.

Q. Zaidi, A. Shapiro, D. Hood, “The effect of adaptation on the differential sensitivity of the S-cone color system,” Vision Res. 32, 1297–1318 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Greenstein, B. Sarter, D. Hood, K. Noble, R. Carr, “Hue discrimination and S cone pathway sensitivity in early diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 1008–1014 (1990).
[PubMed]

Hood, D. C.

V. C. Greenstein, A. Shapiro, Q. Zaidi, D. C. Hood, “Psychophysical evidence for post-receptoral sensitivity loss in diabetics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 2781–2790 (1992).
[PubMed]

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes and glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).
[PubMed]

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, “Increment threshold (tvi) data and the site of disease action,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 2–5.

Husted, R.

A. J. Adams, R. Rodic, R. Husted, R. Stamper, “Spectral sensitivity and color discrimination in glaucoma and glaucoma-suspect patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 516–542 (1982).
[PubMed]

Kallionatis, M.

M. Kallionatis, R. S. Harwerth, “Differential adaptation of cone mechanisms explains the preferential loss of short-wavelength cone sensitivity in retinal disease,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 52, 353–364 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakowski, R.

R. Lakowski, J. G. Airaksinen, S. M. Drance, Y. Yamazaki, “Chromatic functional loss and its relation to the morphology of the retina in the glaucomatous eye,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, B. Drum, G. Verriest, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 289–299.

Levitt, H.

H. Levitt, “Transformed up-down methods in psychoacoustics,”J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 467–477 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

McKinnon, P.

F. Zwas, H. Weiss, P. McKinnon, “Spectral sensitivity measurements in early diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmic Res. 12, 87–96 (1980).
[CrossRef]

McKinnon, P. F.

F. Zwas, D. H. Shin, P. F. McKinnon, “Early diagnosis of glaucoma in ocular hypertensive patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 25, 193 (1984).

Noble, K.

V. Greenstein, B. Sarter, D. Hood, K. Noble, R. Carr, “Hue discrimination and S cone pathway sensitivity in early diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 1008–1014 (1990).
[PubMed]

Pass, A. S.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).
[PubMed]

Perry, S.

K. Gunduz, G. B. Arden, S. Perry, G. W. Weinstein, R. A. Hitchings, “Colour vision defects in ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Quantification with a computer-driven colour television system,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 929–935 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

Q. Zaidi, J. Pokorny, V. Smith, “Sources of individual differences in anomaloscope equations for tritan defects,” Clin. Vision Sci. 4, 89–94 (1989).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).
[PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, T. A. Yeh, “Analysis of tritan detection thresholds and discrimination errors,” in Color Vision Deficiencies, Y. Ohta, ed. (Kugler and Ghedini, Amsterdam, 1990), pp. 191–197.

Rabin, J.

M. A. Crognale, E. Switkes, J. Rabin, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, A. J. Adams, “Assessment of color vision anomalies with the VEP,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 43–46.

Ritch, R.

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes and glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).
[PubMed]

Rodic, R.

A. J. Adams, R. Rodic, R. Husted, R. Stamper, “Spectral sensitivity and color discrimination in glaucoma and glaucoma-suspect patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 516–542 (1982).
[PubMed]

A. J. Adams, F. Zisman, R. Rodic, J. C. Cavender, “Chromaticity and luminosity changes in glaucoma and diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 413–418 (1982).

Sachtler, W. L.

Sarter, B.

V. Greenstein, B. Sarter, D. Hood, K. Noble, R. Carr, “Hue discrimination and S cone pathway sensitivity in early diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 1008–1014 (1990).
[PubMed]

Scarpello, J. H. B.

M. O. Scase, D. H. Foster, W. P. Honan, J. R. Heron, M. C. Gulliford, J. H. B. Scarpello, “Abnormalities in hue discrimination revealed with very brief stimuli in diabetes mellitus and in optic neuritis,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 49–57 (1990).

Scase, M. O.

M. O. Scase, D. H. Foster, W. P. Honan, J. R. Heron, M. C. Gulliford, J. H. B. Scarpello, “Abnormalities in hue discrimination revealed with very brief stimuli in diabetes mellitus and in optic neuritis,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 49–57 (1990).

Shapiro, A.

Q. Zaidi, A. Shapiro, D. Hood, “The effect of adaptation on the differential sensitivity of the S-cone color system,” Vision Res. 32, 1297–1318 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Greenstein, A. Shapiro, Q. Zaidi, D. C. Hood, “Psychophysical evidence for post-receptoral sensitivity loss in diabetics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 2781–2790 (1992).
[PubMed]

Shin, D. H.

F. Zwas, D. H. Shin, P. F. McKinnon, “Early diagnosis of glaucoma in ocular hypertensive patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 25, 193 (1984).

Smith, V.

Q. Zaidi, J. Pokorny, V. Smith, “Sources of individual differences in anomaloscope equations for tritan defects,” Clin. Vision Sci. 4, 89–94 (1989).

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).
[PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, T. A. Yeh, “Analysis of tritan detection thresholds and discrimination errors,” in Color Vision Deficiencies, Y. Ohta, ed. (Kugler and Ghedini, Amsterdam, 1990), pp. 191–197.

Sparrock, J. M. B.

R. A. Bone, J. M. B. Sparrock, “Comparison of macular pigment densities in human eyes,” Vision Res. 11, 1057–1064 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamper, R.

A. J. Adams, R. Rodic, R. Husted, R. Stamper, “Spectral sensitivity and color discrimination in glaucoma and glaucoma-suspect patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 516–542 (1982).
[PubMed]

Steinberger, D.

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes and glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).
[PubMed]

Switkes, E.

M. A. Crognale, E. Switkes, J. Rabin, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, A. J. Adams, “Assessment of color vision anomalies with the VEP,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 43–46.

Uvijis, A.

G. Verriest, J. Van Laetham, A. Uvijis, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).
[PubMed]

Van Laetham, J.

G. Verriest, J. Van Laetham, A. Uvijis, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).
[PubMed]

Verriest, G.

G. Verriest, J. Van Laetham, A. Uvijis, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).
[PubMed]

Weinstein, G. W.

K. Gunduz, G. B. Arden, S. Perry, G. W. Weinstein, R. A. Hitchings, “Colour vision defects in ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Quantification with a computer-driven colour television system,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 929–935 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, H.

F. Zwas, H. Weiss, P. McKinnon, “Spectral sensitivity measurements in early diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmic Res. 12, 87–96 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamazaki, Y.

R. Lakowski, J. G. Airaksinen, S. M. Drance, Y. Yamazaki, “Chromatic functional loss and its relation to the morphology of the retina in the glaucomatous eye,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, B. Drum, G. Verriest, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 289–299.

Yeh, T. A.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, T. A. Yeh, “Analysis of tritan detection thresholds and discrimination errors,” in Color Vision Deficiencies, Y. Ohta, ed. (Kugler and Ghedini, Amsterdam, 1990), pp. 191–197.

Zaidi, Q.

Q. Zaidi, D. Halevy, “Visual mechanisms that signal the direction of color changes,” Vision Res. 33, 1037–1051 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Sachtler, Q. Zaidi, “Chromatic and luminance signals in visual memory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 877–894 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zaidi, A. Shapiro, D. Hood, “The effect of adaptation on the differential sensitivity of the S-cone color system,” Vision Res. 32, 1297–1318 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Greenstein, A. Shapiro, Q. Zaidi, D. C. Hood, “Psychophysical evidence for post-receptoral sensitivity loss in diabetics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 2781–2790 (1992).
[PubMed]

Q. Zaidi, J. Pokorny, V. Smith, “Sources of individual differences in anomaloscope equations for tritan defects,” Clin. Vision Sci. 4, 89–94 (1989).

Zisman, F.

A. J. Adams, F. Zisman, R. Rodic, J. C. Cavender, “Chromaticity and luminosity changes in glaucoma and diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 413–418 (1982).

F. Zisman, A. J. Adams, “Spectral sensitivity of cone mechanisms in juvenile diabetics,” Doc. Ophthal. Proc. Ser. 33, 127–131 (1982).

Zwas, F.

F. Zwas, D. H. Shin, P. F. McKinnon, “Early diagnosis of glaucoma in ocular hypertensive patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 25, 193 (1984).

F. Zwas, H. Weiss, P. McKinnon, “Spectral sensitivity measurements in early diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmic Res. 12, 87–96 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

G. Verriest, J. Van Laetham, A. Uvijis, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).
[PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).
[PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

K. Gunduz, G. B. Arden, S. Perry, G. W. Weinstein, R. A. Hitchings, “Colour vision defects in ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Quantification with a computer-driven colour television system,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 929–935 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Vision Sci. (2)

M. O. Scase, D. H. Foster, W. P. Honan, J. R. Heron, M. C. Gulliford, J. H. B. Scarpello, “Abnormalities in hue discrimination revealed with very brief stimuli in diabetes mellitus and in optic neuritis,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 49–57 (1990).

Q. Zaidi, J. Pokorny, V. Smith, “Sources of individual differences in anomaloscope equations for tritan defects,” Clin. Vision Sci. 4, 89–94 (1989).

Doc. Ophthal. Proc. Ser. (1)

F. Zisman, A. J. Adams, “Spectral sensitivity of cone mechanisms in juvenile diabetics,” Doc. Ophthal. Proc. Ser. 33, 127–131 (1982).

Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. (2)

A. J. Adams, F. Zisman, R. Rodic, J. C. Cavender, “Chromaticity and luminosity changes in glaucoma and diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 413–418 (1982).

M. Kallionatis, R. S. Harwerth, “Differential adaptation of cone mechanisms explains the preferential loss of short-wavelength cone sensitivity in retinal disease,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 52, 353–364 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (4)

V. C. Greenstein, A. Shapiro, Q. Zaidi, D. C. Hood, “Psychophysical evidence for post-receptoral sensitivity loss in diabetics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 2781–2790 (1992).
[PubMed]

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes and glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).
[PubMed]

V. Greenstein, B. Sarter, D. Hood, K. Noble, R. Carr, “Hue discrimination and S cone pathway sensitivity in early diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31, 1008–1014 (1990).
[PubMed]

A. J. Adams, R. Rodic, R. Husted, R. Stamper, “Spectral sensitivity and color discrimination in glaucoma and glaucoma-suspect patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 516–542 (1982).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. (1)

F. Zwas, D. H. Shin, P. F. McKinnon, “Early diagnosis of glaucoma in ocular hypertensive patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 25, 193 (1984).

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

H. Levitt, “Transformed up-down methods in psychoacoustics,”J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 467–477 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Ophthalmic Res. (1)

F. Zwas, H. Weiss, P. McKinnon, “Spectral sensitivity measurements in early diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmic Res. 12, 87–96 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (6)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zaidi, A. Shapiro, D. Hood, “The effect of adaptation on the differential sensitivity of the S-cone color system,” Vision Res. 32, 1297–1318 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zaidi, D. Halevy, “Visual mechanisms that signal the direction of color changes,” Vision Res. 33, 1037–1051 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. M. B. Sparrock, “Comparison of macular pigment densities in human eyes,” Vision Res. 11, 1057–1064 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

R. Lakowski, J. G. Airaksinen, S. M. Drance, Y. Yamazaki, “Chromatic functional loss and its relation to the morphology of the retina in the glaucomatous eye,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, B. Drum, G. Verriest, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 289–299.

M. A. Crognale, E. Switkes, J. Rabin, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, A. J. Adams, “Assessment of color vision anomalies with the VEP,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 43–46.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, T. A. Yeh, “Analysis of tritan detection thresholds and discrimination errors,” in Color Vision Deficiencies, Y. Ohta, ed. (Kugler and Ghedini, Amsterdam, 1990), pp. 191–197.

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, “Increment threshold (tvi) data and the site of disease action,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 2–5.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three-dimensional cardinal color space. White, RG/YV equiluminant plane; light gray, RG/LD plane; dark gray, YV/LD plane. RG axis: L- and M-cone excitations change linearly in equal but opposite steps; (L + M)- and S-cone excitations remain constant. YV axis: S-cone excitations change linearly; L- and M-cone excitations remain constant. LD axis:S-, M-, and L-cone excitations change proportionately from dark to light. The maximum values attainable on the axes are (L,M,S) excitations in MacLeod–Boynton coordinates10: W = (0.66,0.34,0.023); L = (1.32,0.68,0.046); D = (0,0,0); R = (0.71,0.29,0.023); G = (0.61,0.39,0.023); Y = (0.66,0.34,0.004); V = (0.66, 0.34,0.041). Midwhite (W) is at 50 cd/m2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spatial and temporal paradigm for the measurement of chromatic- and achromatic-discrimination thresholds.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean threshold differences for the six cardinal directions for (a) eight OAG patients (filled circles), (b) six glaucoma suspects (large circles), and (c) seven diabetic patients (squares). Small open circles represent controls; vertical bars represent ±1 SD.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Difference scores for the FM 100-hue test as a function of the degree of visual-field loss for eight OAG patients (filled circles) and six glaucoma suspects (open circles). (b) Difference scores as a function of the level of retinopathy for seven diabetic patients. The dashed lines at +2.8 and −2.8 represent ±2 SD.15

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mean threshold differences for an S (π1)-and an M (π4)-cone pathway for (a) eight OAG patients (filled circles), (b) six glaucoma suspects (large open circles), and (c) seven diabetic patients (squares). Small open circles represent controls; vertical bars represent ±1 SD.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Clinical Characteristics of Diabetic Patientsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Clinical Characteristics of Glaucoma Patients and Glaucoma Suspects

Tables Icon

Table 3 Threshold Differences

Metrics