Abstract

Clinical color-vision tests are evaluated within the framework of a model of chromatic discrimination in terms of cone excitation. The motivation for this study was to derive a method for evaluation of test design, test sensitivity, and observer performance. The discrimination model is based on the assumption that chromatic discrimination is mediated in two independent channels, one for short-wavelength cones and one for long- and middle-wavelength cones. Luminance-dependent templates are derived for each channel, and they describe chromatic-discrimination behavior of the young color-normal observer. The templates incorporate receptor-and opponent-level gain controls. We show how the chromaticities of clinical tests can be calculated in cone-excitation units and how discrimination behavior on the tests can be plotted on the templates. The tests include the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue, the Farnsworth Panel D-15, the Farnsworth Panel D-15 desaturated, the American Optical Hardy–Rand–Rittler, the Farnsworth F2 plate, the Standard Pseudoisochromatic Plates, Part II, the Ishihara, and the Minimalist tests. Clinical-test data collected on young color-normal observers at different illumination levels show the validity of the techniques.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  46. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time-course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation processes,” Vision Res. 27, 1981–1996 (1987).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  48. J. Krauskopf, K. Gegenfurtner, “Adaptation and color discrimination,” in From Pigments to Perception, A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, eds. (Plenum, London, 1991), pp. 379–389.
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

J. Krauskopf, K. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Vingrys, D. A. Atchison, K. J. Bowman, “The use of colour difference vectors in diagnosing congenital colour vision deficiencies with the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 12, 38–45 (1992).

1990 (2)

1988 (2)

P. Lennie, M. D. D’Zmura, “Mechanisms of color vision,” CRC Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. 3, 333–400 (1988).

A. J. Vingrys, P. E. King-Smith, “A quantitative scoring technique for panel tests of color vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 50–63 (1988).
[PubMed]

1987 (3)

1985 (1)

L. N. Went, N. Pronk, “The genetics of tritan disturbances,” Hum. Genet. 69, 255–262 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,”J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

1982 (2)

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Adelson, “Saturation and adaptation of the rod system,” Vision Res. 22, 1299–1312 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

W. S. Geisler, “Effect of bleaching and backgrounds on the flash response of the cone system,”J. Physiol. (London) 312, 413–434 (1981).

1980 (1)

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

E. N. J. Pugh, J. D. Mollon, “A theory of the π-1 and π-3 color mechanisms of Stiles,” Vision Res. 19, 293–312 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (3)

J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
[Crossref]

P. Lanthony, “The desaturated Panel D-15,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 46, 185–189 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lanthony, “The new color test,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 46, 191–199 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

1966 (1)

R. Lakowski, “A critical evaluation of colour vision tests,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 23, 186–209 (1966).
[PubMed]

1955 (1)

H. Kalmus, “The familial distribution of congenital tritanopia with some remarks on some similar conditions,” Ann. Hum. Genet. 20, 39–56 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1954 (1)

1949 (1)

1943 (1)

1942 (1)

1941 (1)

W. D. Wright, “The sensitivity of the eye to small colour differences,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 53, 93–112 (1941).
[Crossref]

Adelson, E. H.

E. H. Adelson, “Saturation and adaptation of the rod system,” Vision Res. 22, 1299–1312 (1982).
[Crossref]

Astell, S.

J. D. Mollon, S. Astell, J. Reffin, “A minimalist test of colour vision,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 59–67.
[Crossref]

Atchison, D. A.

A. J. Vingrys, D. A. Atchison, K. J. Bowman, “The use of colour difference vectors in diagnosing congenital colour vision deficiencies with the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 12, 38–45 (1992).

Benimoff, N. I.

M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time-course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation processes,” Vision Res. 27, 1981–1996 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bowman, K. J.

A. J. Vingrys, D. A. Atchison, K. J. Bowman, “The use of colour difference vectors in diagnosing congenital colour vision deficiencies with the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 12, 38–45 (1992).

Boynton, R. M.

A. L. Nagy, R. T. Eskew, R. M. Boynton, “Analysis of color-matching ellipses in a cone-excitation space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 756–768 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[Crossref]

Brown, W. R. J.

D’Zmura, M. D.

P. Lennie, M. D. D’Zmura, “Mechanisms of color vision,” CRC Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. 3, 333–400 (1988).

Derrington, A. M.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,”J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

Eckhardt, T.

M. Marré, E. Marré, T. Eckhardt, “Evaluation of the SPP-II test,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 161–165.
[Crossref]

Eskew, R. T.

Farnsworth, D.

D. Farnsworth, “The Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue and dichotomous tests for color vision,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 568–578 (1943).
[Crossref]

D. Farnsworth, “The Farnsworth dichotomous test for color blindness–Panel D-15” (Psychological Corporation, New York, 1947).

Gegenfurtner, K.

J. Krauskopf, K. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Krauskopf, K. Gegenfurtner, “Adaptation and color discrimination,” in From Pigments to Perception, A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, eds. (Plenum, London, 1991), pp. 379–389.
[Crossref]

Geisler, W. S.

W. S. Geisler, “Effect of bleaching and backgrounds on the flash response of the cone system,”J. Physiol. (London) 312, 413–434 (1981).

Greenstein, V.

D. C. Hood, V. Greenstein, “Models of the normal and abnormal rod system,” Vision Res. 30, 51–68 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hardy, L. H.

Hayhoe, M.

M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time-course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation processes,” Vision Res. 27, 1981–1996 (1987).
[Crossref]

Heeley, D. W.

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hood, D. C.

D. C. Hood, V. Greenstein, “Models of the normal and abnormal rod system,” Vision Res. 30, 51–68 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time-course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation processes,” Vision Res. 27, 1981–1996 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hukami, K.

H. Ichikawa, K. Hukami, S. Tanabe, Standard Pseudoisochromatic Plates. Part 2. For Acquired Color Vision Defects (Igaku-Shoin, Tokyo, 1983).

Ichikawa, H.

K. Ichikawa, H. Ichikawa, S. Tanabe, “Detection of acquired color vision defects by Standard Pseudoisochromatic Plates. Part 2,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies VIII, G. Verriest, ed., Vol. 46 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1987), pp. 133–140.
[Crossref]

H. Ichikawa, K. Hukami, S. Tanabe, Standard Pseudoisochromatic Plates. Part 2. For Acquired Color Vision Defects (Igaku-Shoin, Tokyo, 1983).

Ichikawa, K.

K. Ichikawa, H. Ichikawa, S. Tanabe, “Detection of acquired color vision defects by Standard Pseudoisochromatic Plates. Part 2,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies VIII, G. Verriest, ed., Vol. 46 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1987), pp. 133–140.
[Crossref]

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, “Report of U.S. Secretariat Committee on Colorimetry and Artificial Daylight,” in CIE Proceedings, Twelfth Session, Stockholm (Bureau Central CIE, Paris, 1951), Vol. 1, Pt. 7, pp. 1–60.

Kalmus, H.

H. Kalmus, “The familial distribution of congenital tritanopia with some remarks on some similar conditions,” Ann. Hum. Genet. 20, 39–56 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kambe, N.

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[Crossref]

Kaplan, E.

E. Kaplan, B. B. Lee, R. M. Shapley, “New views of primate retinal function,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. Osborne, J. Chader, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1990), pp. 273–336.
[Crossref]

King-Smith, P. E.

A. J. Vingrys, P. E. King-Smith, “A quantitative scoring technique for panel tests of color vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 50–63 (1988).
[PubMed]

Kozak, J.

R. Lakowski, M. Yamazaki, J. Kozak, “Objective data for the SPP test, Part 2 (for acquired color vision defects),” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, B. Drum, G. Verriest, eds., Vol. 52 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 469–477.
[Crossref]

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf, K. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,”J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Krauskopf, K. Gegenfurtner, “Adaptation and color discrimination,” in From Pigments to Perception, A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, eds. (Plenum, London, 1991), pp. 379–389.
[Crossref]

Kudo, H.

H. Kudo, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of five screening tests for tritan discrimination as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 119–127.
[Crossref]

Lakowski, R.

R. Lakowski, “A critical evaluation of colour vision tests,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 23, 186–209 (1966).
[PubMed]

R. Lakowski, M. Yamazaki, J. Kozak, “Objective data for the SPP test, Part 2 (for acquired color vision defects),” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, B. Drum, G. Verriest, eds., Vol. 52 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 469–477.
[Crossref]

Lanthony, P.

P. Lanthony, “The desaturated Panel D-15,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 46, 185–189 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lanthony, “The new color test,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 46, 191–199 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B. B.

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2223–2236 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kaplan, B. B. Lee, R. M. Shapley, “New views of primate retinal function,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. Osborne, J. Chader, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1990), pp. 273–336.
[Crossref]

LeGrand, Y.

Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour and Vision (Chapman & Hall, London, 1957).

Lennie, P.

P. Lennie, M. D. D’Zmura, “Mechanisms of color vision,” CRC Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. 3, 333–400 (1988).

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,”J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

MacAdam, D. L.

Marré, E.

M. Marré, E. Marré, T. Eckhardt, “Evaluation of the SPP-II test,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 161–165.
[Crossref]

Marré, M.

M. Marré, E. Marré, T. Eckhardt, “Evaluation of the SPP-II test,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 161–165.
[Crossref]

Martin, P. R.

Miyahara, E.

Mollon, J. D.

E. N. J. Pugh, J. D. Mollon, “A theory of the π-1 and π-3 color mechanisms of Stiles,” Vision Res. 19, 293–312 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. D. Mollon, S. Astell, J. Reffin, “A minimalist test of colour vision,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 59–67.
[Crossref]

Nagy, A. L.

Pokorny, J.

E. Miyahara, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “How surrounds affect chromaticity discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 545–553 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2223–2236 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Swanson, T. Ueno, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Temporal modulation sensitivity and pulse detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance perturbations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1992–2005 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vision Res. (to be published).

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, T. Yeh, “Analysis of tritan detection thresholds and discrimination errors,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 94–97.

H. Kudo, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of five screening tests for tritan discrimination as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 119–127.
[Crossref]

J. A. M. van Everdingen, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of tritan screening tests as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991) pp. 167–175.
[Crossref]

V. C. Smith, J. A. M. van Everdingen, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of arrangement tests as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 177–185.
[Crossref]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “S-cone discrimination and the 100-hue test,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 212–215.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, T. Yeh, “Chromaticities of the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test in cone discrimination space,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 281–291.
[Crossref]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “S-cone discrimination sensitivity and the performance on arrangement tests,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 293–303.
[Crossref]

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L. N. Went, N. Pronk, “The genetics of tritan disturbances,” Hum. Genet. 69, 255–262 (1985).
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Rand, G.

Reffin, J.

J. D. Mollon, S. Astell, J. Reffin, “A minimalist test of colour vision,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 59–67.
[Crossref]

Rittler, M. C.

Shapley, R. M.

E. Kaplan, B. B. Lee, R. M. Shapley, “New views of primate retinal function,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. Osborne, J. Chader, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1990), pp. 273–336.
[Crossref]

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E. Miyahara, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “How surrounds affect chromaticity discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 545–553 (1993).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vision Res. (to be published).

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, T. Yeh, “Analysis of tritan detection thresholds and discrimination errors,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 94–97.

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “S-cone discrimination sensitivity and the performance on arrangement tests,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 293–303.
[Crossref]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “S-cone discrimination and the 100-hue test,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 212–215.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, T. Yeh, “Chromaticities of the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test in cone discrimination space,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 281–291.
[Crossref]

J. A. M. van Everdingen, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of tritan screening tests as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991) pp. 167–175.
[Crossref]

V. C. Smith, J. A. M. van Everdingen, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of arrangement tests as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 177–185.
[Crossref]

H. Kudo, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of five screening tests for tritan discrimination as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 119–127.
[Crossref]

Sondhi, M. M.

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K. Ichikawa, H. Ichikawa, S. Tanabe, “Detection of acquired color vision defects by Standard Pseudoisochromatic Plates. Part 2,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies VIII, G. Verriest, ed., Vol. 46 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1987), pp. 133–140.
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H. Ichikawa, K. Hukami, S. Tanabe, Standard Pseudoisochromatic Plates. Part 2. For Acquired Color Vision Defects (Igaku-Shoin, Tokyo, 1983).

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V. C. Smith, J. A. M. van Everdingen, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of arrangement tests as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 177–185.
[Crossref]

J. A. M. van Everdingen, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of tritan screening tests as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991) pp. 167–175.
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A. J. Vingrys, D. A. Atchison, K. J. Bowman, “The use of colour difference vectors in diagnosing congenital colour vision deficiencies with the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 12, 38–45 (1992).

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J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
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R. Lakowski, M. Yamazaki, J. Kozak, “Objective data for the SPP test, Part 2 (for acquired color vision defects),” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, B. Drum, G. Verriest, eds., Vol. 52 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 469–477.
[Crossref]

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T. Yeh, “Colorimetric purity discrimination: theory and data,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., 1991).

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vision Res. (to be published).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, T. Yeh, “Chromaticities of the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test in cone discrimination space,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 281–291.
[Crossref]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “S-cone discrimination sensitivity and the performance on arrangement tests,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 293–303.
[Crossref]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, T. Yeh, “Analysis of tritan detection thresholds and discrimination errors,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 94–97.

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “S-cone discrimination and the 100-hue test,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 212–215.

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[Crossref]

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
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H. Ichikawa, K. Hukami, S. Tanabe, Standard Pseudoisochromatic Plates. Part 2. For Acquired Color Vision Defects (Igaku-Shoin, Tokyo, 1983).

K. Ichikawa, H. Ichikawa, S. Tanabe, “Detection of acquired color vision defects by Standard Pseudoisochromatic Plates. Part 2,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies VIII, G. Verriest, ed., Vol. 46 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1987), pp. 133–140.
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M. Marré, E. Marré, T. Eckhardt, “Evaluation of the SPP-II test,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 161–165.
[Crossref]

J. D. Mollon, S. Astell, J. Reffin, “A minimalist test of colour vision,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 59–67.
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J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, T. Yeh, “Analysis of tritan detection thresholds and discrimination errors,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 94–97.

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “S-cone discrimination and the 100-hue test,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 212–215.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, T. Yeh, “Chromaticities of the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test in cone discrimination space,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 281–291.
[Crossref]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “S-cone discrimination sensitivity and the performance on arrangement tests,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 293–303.
[Crossref]

J. A. M. van Everdingen, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of tritan screening tests as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991) pp. 167–175.
[Crossref]

V. C. Smith, J. A. M. van Everdingen, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of arrangement tests as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds., Vol. 54 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 177–185.
[Crossref]

H. Kudo, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of five screening tests for tritan discrimination as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed., Vol. 56 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 119–127.
[Crossref]

E. Kaplan, B. B. Lee, R. M. Shapley, “New views of primate retinal function,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. Osborne, J. Chader, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1990), pp. 273–336.
[Crossref]

T. Yeh, “Colorimetric purity discrimination: theory and data,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., 1991).

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vision Res. (to be published).

R. Lakowski, M. Yamazaki, J. Kozak, “Objective data for the SPP test, Part 2 (for acquired color vision defects),” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, B. Drum, G. Verriest, eds., Vol. 52 of Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 469–477.
[Crossref]

J. Krauskopf, K. Gegenfurtner, “Adaptation and color discrimination,” in From Pigments to Perception, A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, eds. (Plenum, London, 1991), pp. 379–389.
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Discrimination templates calculated from the equations given in the text and shown for a series of illuminance levels. Each curve represents a fixed retinal illuminance calculated equivalent to a 0.2-luminance-factor sample (Table 1), for illumination levels ranging from 63 to 0.1 lx. The adapting chromaticity is standard Illuminant C. (a) SWS-cone-mediated discriminations calculated by use of Eq. (1) for wavelengths between 400 and 630 nm for six illumination levels plotted as a function of S cone trolands. The fitting parameters are Log Sth = −0.011, IR = 0.024, Sopp = 0.0473. (b) LWS/(LWS + MWS) discriminations calculated by use of Eq. (2) for wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm and six illumination levels plotted as a function of L cone trolands. The fitting parameters are Log Lth = −1.229, LR = 0.143, Lopp = 0.536.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cone discrimination and the FM 100-hue. (a) Two-cap Δ‘s from the portions of the test that are sensitive to tritan errors are shown with six SWS-cone discrimination templates as in Fig. 1(a). For clarity, only a portion of each SWS template (490–510 nm) is shown. The two-cap Δ’s are plotted as a function of the lower cap number and form two clusters at each luminance level. (b) Two-cap Δ’s from the portions of the test that are sensitive to red–green errors are shown with the six discrimination templates replotted from Fig. 1(b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cone discrimination and the Minimalist. The distance from each cap to Illuminant C is plotted as a function of the excitation level for Illuminant C. (a) Caps 1–5 from the tritan series are shown with six SWS-cone discrimination templates as in Fig. 1(a). For clarity only a portion of each S template (490–510 nm) is shown. (b) Caps 2–7 from the deutan series are shown with the six discrimination templates replotted from Fig. 1(b).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Conversion from Lux to Effective Trolands

Equations (27)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ S = [ S th ] [ 1 + I R ( L + M ) ] / [ G ( S - S A ) ] ,
G ( S - S A ) = 1 / ( 1 + S opp { S - S A / [ 1 + I R ( L × M ) ] } ) .
Δ L = [ L th ] / [ 1 / ( l max + L R L A ) ] + 1 / ( m max + L R M A ) ] / [ G ( L - M ) ] ,
G ( L - M ) = 1 / { 1 + L opp [ L / ( l max + L R L A ) - M / ( m max + L R M A ) ] } .
L v A = Y ( E v ) / π ,
x = ( 1.0271 x - 0.00008 y - 0.00009 ) / ( 0.03845 x + 0.01496 y + 1 ) ,
y = ( 0.00376 x + 1.0072 y + 0.00764 ) / ( 0.03845 x + 0.01496 y + 1 ) .
L = Td [ LWS ( λ ) ] = Td [ ( 0.15514 x / y + 0.54312 - ( 0.03286 z / y ) ] ,
M = Td - L ,
S = Td [ SWS ( λ ) ] 62.2 = Td ( z / y ) ,
G ( I ) = I o / ( I o + I ) = 1 / ( 1 + I R I ) ,
O = K I [ G ( I ) ] ,
O + δ = K ( I + Δ I ) [ G ( I ) ] .
Δ I = δ / K [ 1 / G ( I ) ] = [ I th ] [ ( 1 + I R I ) ] ,
G ( S ) = 1 / ( 1 + S R S ) ,
Δ S = S th [ 1 + S R ( S ) ] ,
δ = K [ ( Δ S ) / f ( L + M ) ] { G [ S / f ( L + M ) ] } ,
f ( L + M ) = [ 1 + I R ( L + M ) ] ,
Δ S = S th [ G ( L + M ) ] { 1 + ( S R S ) / [ G ( L + M ) ] }
= S th [ 1 + I R ( L + M ) ] { 1 + ( S R S ) / [ 1 + I R ( L + M ) ] } ,
O = K { ( S - S A ) / [ 1 + I R ( L + M ) ] } [ G ( S - S A ) ] ,
O + δ = K { ( S + Δ S - S A ) / [ 1 + I R ( L + M ) ] } [ G ( S - S A ) ] ,
O = K [ L / l max G ( L A / l max ) - M / m max G ( M A / m max ) ] × [ G ( L - M ) ] ,
O + δ = K [ ( L + Δ L ) / l max G ( L A / l max ) - ( M + Δ M ) / m max G ( M A / m max ) ] [ G ( L - M ) ] ,
L / l max G ( L A / l max ) = L / ( l max + L R L A ) .
δ = K ( Δ L ) [ 1 / ( l max + L R L A ) + 1 / ( m max + L R M A ) ] × [ G ( L - M ) ] .
Δ L = L th [ L R L A / ( 1 + L A / M A ) ] × [ 1 + L opp L - L A ( 1 + L A / M A ) / L R L A ] ,

Metrics