Abstract

The retinal image quality characterized by the modulation-transfer function of the eye was measured for two groups of subjects aged in the late twenties and mid sixties, respectively. In both groups, we obtained modulation transfer functions by using a double-pass method under the same experimental conditions: 4-mm artificial pupil, paralyzed accommodation, and objective control of the refractive state and centering. Results showed lower values of modulation in the retinal image for older subjects compared with the younger subjects. The modulation transfer function ratio is similar to that previously found for contrast-sensitivity measurements with subjects in the same age groups. These results suggest that a significant fraction of the loss in spatial vision with age has an optical origin. Apart from the well-known increase in intraocular scattering, there also appears to be an increment in ocular aberration that causes an additional reduction in the contrast of retinal images.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. A. Weale, The Aging Eye (H. K. Lewis, London, 1063).
  2. C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Vision and aging,” in Handbook of Neuropsychology, F. Boller, J. Grafman, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), Vol. 4, pp. 229–249.
  3. J. S. Werner, D. H. Peterzell, A. J. Scheetz, “Light, vision and aging,” Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 2114–2229 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Weale, “Senile changes in visual acuity,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. 95, 36–38 (1975).
  5. G. Derefeldt, G. Lenerstrand, B. Lundh, “Age variations in normal human contrast sensitivity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 57, 679–690 (1979).
  6. C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. A. Johnson, D. Choy, “On the definition of age-related norms for visual function testing,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1057–1063 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. E. Higgins, M. J. Jaffe, R. C. Caruso, F. M. de Monasterio, “Spatial contrast sensitivity: effects of age, testretest, and psychophysical method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2173–2180 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, C. Jackson, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminances,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Arnulf, O. Dupuy, “Le transmision des contrastes par le systeme optique de l’oeil et les seuils de contrastes retiniennes,”C. R. Acad. Sci. 250, 2757–2759 (1960).
  11. F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,”J. Physiol. (London) 181, 575–593 (1965).
  12. M. Dressler, B. Rassow, “Neural contrast sensitivity measurements with a laser interference system for clinical screening and applications,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 737–744 (1981).
    [PubMed]
  13. D. B. Elliot, “Contrast sensitivity decline with aging: a neural or optical phenomenon?” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 7, 415–419 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. B. Burton, C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Aging and neural spatial contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. (to be published).
  15. C. Owsley, T. Gardner, R. Sekuler, H. Lieberman, “Role of the crystalline lens in the spatial vision loss of the elderly,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1165–1170 (1985).
    [PubMed]
  16. J. Santamaría, P. Artal, J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of the human eye using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Navarro, P. Artal, D. R. Williams, “Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 201–212 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Artal, R. Navarro, “Simultaneous measurement of two-point-spread functions at different locations across the human fovea,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3646–3565 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Arnulf, J. Santamaría, J. Bescós, “A cinematographic method for the dynamic study of the image formation by the human eye. Microfluctuations of the accommodation,”J. Opt. 12, 123–128 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980).
  21. P. Artal, “Calculations of two-dimensional foveal retinal images in real eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1374–1381 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of pupil centration and diameter on ocular performance,” Vision Res. 28, 659–665 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Navarro, M. Ferro, P. Artal, I. Miranda, “Modulation transfer function of eyes implanted with intraocular lenses,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  24. P. Artal, J. Santamaría, J. Bescós, “Retrieval of the wave aberration from actual point-spread function data,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1201–1206 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. G. Block, W. M. Rosenblum, “MTF measurements on the human crystalline lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, P7 (1987).
  26. J. M. Gorrand, “Reflection characteristics of the human fovea assessed by reflecto-modulometry,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 9, 53–60 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. M. Gorrand, Universite de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont, France (personal communication).
  28. J. M. Harrison, R. A. Appelgate, J. T. Yates, C. Ballentine, “Contrast sensitivity, glare susceptibility and age in the range from 20–50 years old,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 33, 1380 (1992).

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

P. Artal, R. Navarro, “Simultaneous measurement of two-point-spread functions at different locations across the human fovea,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3646–3565 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Harrison, R. A. Appelgate, J. T. Yates, C. Ballentine, “Contrast sensitivity, glare susceptibility and age in the range from 20–50 years old,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 33, 1380 (1992).

1990 (2)

J. S. Werner, D. H. Peterzell, A. J. Scheetz, “Light, vision and aging,” Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 2114–2229 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, “Calculations of two-dimensional foveal retinal images in real eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1374–1381 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

J. M. Gorrand, “Reflection characteristics of the human fovea assessed by reflecto-modulometry,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 9, 53–60 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (4)

K. E. Higgins, M. J. Jaffe, R. C. Caruso, F. M. de Monasterio, “Spatial contrast sensitivity: effects of age, testretest, and psychophysical method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2173–2180 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of pupil centration and diameter on ocular performance,” Vision Res. 28, 659–665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, C. Jackson, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminances,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, J. Santamaría, J. Bescós, “Retrieval of the wave aberration from actual point-spread function data,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1201–1206 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (4)

J. Santamaría, P. Artal, J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of the human eye using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Johnson, D. Choy, “On the definition of age-related norms for visual function testing,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1057–1063 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Block, W. M. Rosenblum, “MTF measurements on the human crystalline lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, P7 (1987).

D. B. Elliot, “Contrast sensitivity decline with aging: a neural or optical phenomenon?” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 7, 415–419 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

C. Owsley, T. Gardner, R. Sekuler, H. Lieberman, “Role of the crystalline lens in the spatial vision loss of the elderly,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1165–1170 (1985).
[PubMed]

1983 (1)

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (2)

A. Arnulf, J. Santamaría, J. Bescós, “A cinematographic method for the dynamic study of the image formation by the human eye. Microfluctuations of the accommodation,”J. Opt. 12, 123–128 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Dressler, B. Rassow, “Neural contrast sensitivity measurements with a laser interference system for clinical screening and applications,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 737–744 (1981).
[PubMed]

1979 (1)

G. Derefeldt, G. Lenerstrand, B. Lundh, “Age variations in normal human contrast sensitivity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 57, 679–690 (1979).

1975 (1)

R. A. Weale, “Senile changes in visual acuity,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. 95, 36–38 (1975).

1965 (1)

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,”J. Physiol. (London) 181, 575–593 (1965).

1960 (1)

A. Arnulf, O. Dupuy, “Le transmision des contrastes par le systeme optique de l’oeil et les seuils de contrastes retiniennes,”C. R. Acad. Sci. 250, 2757–2759 (1960).

Appelgate, R. A.

J. M. Harrison, R. A. Appelgate, J. T. Yates, C. Ballentine, “Contrast sensitivity, glare susceptibility and age in the range from 20–50 years old,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 33, 1380 (1992).

Arnulf, A.

A. Arnulf, J. Santamaría, J. Bescós, “A cinematographic method for the dynamic study of the image formation by the human eye. Microfluctuations of the accommodation,”J. Opt. 12, 123–128 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnulf, O. Dupuy, “Le transmision des contrastes par le systeme optique de l’oeil et les seuils de contrastes retiniennes,”C. R. Acad. Sci. 250, 2757–2759 (1960).

Artal, P.

Ballentine, C.

J. M. Harrison, R. A. Appelgate, J. T. Yates, C. Ballentine, “Contrast sensitivity, glare susceptibility and age in the range from 20–50 years old,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 33, 1380 (1992).

Bescós, J.

Block, M. G.

M. G. Block, W. M. Rosenblum, “MTF measurements on the human crystalline lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, P7 (1987).

Burton, K. B.

K. B. Burton, C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Aging and neural spatial contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. (to be published).

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,”J. Physiol. (London) 181, 575–593 (1965).

Caruso, R. C.

Charman, W. N.

G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of pupil centration and diameter on ocular performance,” Vision Res. 28, 659–665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choy, D.

M. A. Johnson, D. Choy, “On the definition of age-related norms for visual function testing,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1057–1063 (1987).
[CrossRef]

de Monasterio, F. M.

Derefeldt, G.

G. Derefeldt, G. Lenerstrand, B. Lundh, “Age variations in normal human contrast sensitivity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 57, 679–690 (1979).

Dressler, M.

M. Dressler, B. Rassow, “Neural contrast sensitivity measurements with a laser interference system for clinical screening and applications,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 737–744 (1981).
[PubMed]

Dupuy, O.

A. Arnulf, O. Dupuy, “Le transmision des contrastes par le systeme optique de l’oeil et les seuils de contrastes retiniennes,”C. R. Acad. Sci. 250, 2757–2759 (1960).

Elliot, D. B.

D. B. Elliot, “Contrast sensitivity decline with aging: a neural or optical phenomenon?” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 7, 415–419 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ferro, M.

R. Navarro, M. Ferro, P. Artal, I. Miranda, “Modulation transfer function of eyes implanted with intraocular lenses,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Gardner, T.

C. Owsley, T. Gardner, R. Sekuler, H. Lieberman, “Role of the crystalline lens in the spatial vision loss of the elderly,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1165–1170 (1985).
[PubMed]

Gorrand, J. M.

J. M. Gorrand, “Reflection characteristics of the human fovea assessed by reflecto-modulometry,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 9, 53–60 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gorrand, Universite de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont, France (personal communication).

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,”J. Physiol. (London) 181, 575–593 (1965).

Harrison, J. M.

J. M. Harrison, R. A. Appelgate, J. T. Yates, C. Ballentine, “Contrast sensitivity, glare susceptibility and age in the range from 20–50 years old,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 33, 1380 (1992).

Higgins, K. E.

Jackson, C.

M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, C. Jackson, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminances,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jaffe, M. J.

Johnson, M. A.

M. A. Johnson, D. Choy, “On the definition of age-related norms for visual function testing,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1057–1063 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lenerstrand, G.

G. Derefeldt, G. Lenerstrand, B. Lundh, “Age variations in normal human contrast sensitivity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 57, 679–690 (1979).

Lieberman, H.

C. Owsley, T. Gardner, R. Sekuler, H. Lieberman, “Role of the crystalline lens in the spatial vision loss of the elderly,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1165–1170 (1985).
[PubMed]

Lundh, B.

G. Derefeldt, G. Lenerstrand, B. Lundh, “Age variations in normal human contrast sensitivity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 57, 679–690 (1979).

Miranda, I.

R. Navarro, M. Ferro, P. Artal, I. Miranda, “Modulation transfer function of eyes implanted with intraocular lenses,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Navarro, R.

Owsley, C.

M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, C. Jackson, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminances,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Owsley, T. Gardner, R. Sekuler, H. Lieberman, “Role of the crystalline lens in the spatial vision loss of the elderly,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1165–1170 (1985).
[PubMed]

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Vision and aging,” in Handbook of Neuropsychology, F. Boller, J. Grafman, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), Vol. 4, pp. 229–249.

K. B. Burton, C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Aging and neural spatial contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. (to be published).

Peterzell, D. H.

J. S. Werner, D. H. Peterzell, A. J. Scheetz, “Light, vision and aging,” Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 2114–2229 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rassow, B.

M. Dressler, B. Rassow, “Neural contrast sensitivity measurements with a laser interference system for clinical screening and applications,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 737–744 (1981).
[PubMed]

Rosenblum, W. M.

M. G. Block, W. M. Rosenblum, “MTF measurements on the human crystalline lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, P7 (1987).

Santamaría, J.

Scheetz, A. J.

J. S. Werner, D. H. Peterzell, A. J. Scheetz, “Light, vision and aging,” Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 2114–2229 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sekuler, R.

C. Owsley, T. Gardner, R. Sekuler, H. Lieberman, “Role of the crystalline lens in the spatial vision loss of the elderly,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1165–1170 (1985).
[PubMed]

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siemsen, D.

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sliney, D.

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980).

Sloane, M. E.

M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, C. Jackson, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminances,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Vision and aging,” in Handbook of Neuropsychology, F. Boller, J. Grafman, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), Vol. 4, pp. 229–249.

K. B. Burton, C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Aging and neural spatial contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. (to be published).

Walsh, G.

G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of pupil centration and diameter on ocular performance,” Vision Res. 28, 659–665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, “Senile changes in visual acuity,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. 95, 36–38 (1975).

R. A. Weale, The Aging Eye (H. K. Lewis, London, 1063).

Werner, J. S.

J. S. Werner, D. H. Peterzell, A. J. Scheetz, “Light, vision and aging,” Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 2114–2229 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

Wolbarsht, M.

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980).

Yates, J. T.

J. M. Harrison, R. A. Appelgate, J. T. Yates, C. Ballentine, “Contrast sensitivity, glare susceptibility and age in the range from 20–50 years old,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 33, 1380 (1992).

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

G. Derefeldt, G. Lenerstrand, B. Lundh, “Age variations in normal human contrast sensitivity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 57, 679–690 (1979).

Appl. Opt. (2)

M. A. Johnson, D. Choy, “On the definition of age-related norms for visual function testing,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1057–1063 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, R. Navarro, “Simultaneous measurement of two-point-spread functions at different locations across the human fovea,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3646–3565 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

A. Arnulf, O. Dupuy, “Le transmision des contrastes par le systeme optique de l’oeil et les seuils de contrastes retiniennes,”C. R. Acad. Sci. 250, 2757–2759 (1960).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

M. Dressler, B. Rassow, “Neural contrast sensitivity measurements with a laser interference system for clinical screening and applications,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 737–744 (1981).
[PubMed]

C. Owsley, T. Gardner, R. Sekuler, H. Lieberman, “Role of the crystalline lens in the spatial vision loss of the elderly,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1165–1170 (1985).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. (1)

J. M. Harrison, R. A. Appelgate, J. T. Yates, C. Ballentine, “Contrast sensitivity, glare susceptibility and age in the range from 20–50 years old,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 33, 1380 (1992).

J. Opt. (1)

A. Arnulf, J. Santamaría, J. Bescós, “A cinematographic method for the dynamic study of the image formation by the human eye. Microfluctuations of the accommodation,”J. Opt. 12, 123–128 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (6)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,”J. Physiol. (London) 181, 575–593 (1965).

Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. (2)

D. B. Elliot, “Contrast sensitivity decline with aging: a neural or optical phenomenon?” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 7, 415–419 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gorrand, “Reflection characteristics of the human fovea assessed by reflecto-modulometry,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 9, 53–60 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vision Sci. (1)

J. S. Werner, D. H. Peterzell, A. J. Scheetz, “Light, vision and aging,” Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 2114–2229 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. (1)

R. A. Weale, “Senile changes in visual acuity,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. 95, 36–38 (1975).

Vision Res. (3)

M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, C. Jackson, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminances,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of pupil centration and diameter on ocular performance,” Vision Res. 28, 659–665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

R. Navarro, M. Ferro, P. Artal, I. Miranda, “Modulation transfer function of eyes implanted with intraocular lenses,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

J. M. Gorrand, Universite de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont, France (personal communication).

R. A. Weale, The Aging Eye (H. K. Lewis, London, 1063).

C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Vision and aging,” in Handbook of Neuropsychology, F. Boller, J. Grafman, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), Vol. 4, pp. 229–249.

K. B. Burton, C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Aging and neural spatial contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. (to be published).

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. AP, artificial pupil (4-mm spot); BS, pellicle beam splitter; BD, light trap; CB, centering micro-metric stage; D, spot; DF, high-density ND filter (ND = 1.6); FB, focusing block, II, image intensifier; L, lens; Li, lens forming the aerial retinal image on the II; Lc, lens forming the II-screen image on a second CCD camera; M, microscope objective; O, point object; ODF, optional ND filter (ND = 0.2–1.6); P, pinhole; R, rotary solenoid (shutter); Z, zoom lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Aerial retinal images for four subjects: (a) younger subjects, (b) older subjects. The xy axis is in minutes of arc.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Averaged one-dimensional radial profiles of the MTF’s for younger subjects (mean age 29 years; solid curve) and older subjects (mean age 64 years; dashed curve). Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean to show the variability of the results.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ratios of CSF’s and MTF’s for groups of younger and older subjects: MTF ratio (solid curve and filled circles), clinical CSF ratios for the same subjects (open circles), and CSF ratios from Owsley et al.6 (dashed curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of mean MTF’s obtained for the older group (mean age 64 years; dashed curve) and for older patients (five subjects) implanted with monofocal IOL’s (solid curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Retinal aerial images for a young subject (MG) (32 old). (a) His left eye with an implanted monofocal IOL. His right, normal eye. The scale is the same in both graphs (minutes of arc) to permit a direct comparison.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Mean MTF for five older subjects implanted with monofocal IOL’s (solid curve), MTF for subject MG’s left eye (implanted with an IOL; dashed curve), and MTF for MG’s right (normal) eye (dashed curve with filled symbols).

Metrics