Abstract

Evidence suggests that the psychophysically determined Stiles–Crawford effect of the first kind (SCE) reflects waveguide properties of human photoreceptors. The peak of the SCE data set is assumed to reflect the principal alignment tendencies, and the spread (e.g., ρ value, the curvature or width at half-height) is assumed to reflect the directionality (i.e., interreceptor differences in alignment) of the population of photoreceptors being tested. As such, disruption of the normal SCE can be used and/or has been used (1) to document early natural history of retinal pathology involving the photoreceptors, (2) to provide a firm rationale for therapeutic intervention, and (3) to provide a method for monitoring therapies designed to alter the natural course of retinal-disease processes. We report large-sample norms for foveal SCE peak location and spread (horizontal peak location, nasal 0.51 ± 0.72, horizontal ρ value 0.047 ± 0.013, vertical peak location, superior 0.20 ± 0.64, vertical ρ value 0.053 ± 0.012), compare these norms with values determined in other laboratories, and discuss the various mathematical forms used for the empirical description of SCE data sets.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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1991 (1)

J. E. Bailey, V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “The Stiles–Crawford function in an aphakic subject with retinitis pigmentosa,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 6, 165–170 (1991).

1990 (1)

J. M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A method for assessing photoreceptor directionality,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 31, 425 (1990).

1989 (1)

J. M. Gorrand, “Use of reflecto-modulometry to study the optical quality of the inner retina,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 9, 198–204 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (3)

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “The MacLeod selective adaptation paradigm in cases with modest cataracts,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 3, 155–156 (1988).

G. A. Geri, G. L. Kandel, C. R. Genter, H. E. Breed, “Meridional differences in the directional sensitivity of human color mechanisms,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 880–889 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and the Stiles–Crawford effect in observers with early age-related macular changes,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 5, 2113–2121 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (3)

V. Lakshminarayanan, M. L. Calvo, “Initial field and energy flux in absorbing optical waveguides. II. Implications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2133–2140 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, R. D. Hamer, V. Lakshminarayanan, T. Yasuma, D. G. Birch, S. Yamade, “Effect of monocular light exclusion on the Stiles–Crawford function,” Vision Res. 27, 507–510 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. Yamade, V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “Comparison of two fast quantitative methods for evaluating the Stiles–Crawford function,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64, 621–626 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

G. J. van Blokland, “Directionality and alignment of the foveal receptors, assessed with light scattered from the human fundus in vivo,” Vision Res. 26, 495–500 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Hamer, V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, J. J. O’Donnell, “Selective adaptation of the Stiles–Crawford function in a patient with gyrate atrophy,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 103–106 (1986).

1985 (1)

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “Shape of the Stiles–Crawford function for traverses of the entrance pupil not passing through the peak of sensitivity,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 127–128 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

C. M. Sorenson, R. A. Applegate, “The location of the Stiles–Crawford peak and the centers of the dilated and naturally constricted pupil,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60, 26 (1983).

1982 (2)

D. G. Birch, M. A. Sandberg, “Psychophysical studies of cone optical bandwidth in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Vision Res. 22, 1113–1117 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Birch, M. A. Sandberg, E. L. Berson, “The Stiles–Crawford effect in retinitis pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 22, 157–164 (1982).
[PubMed]

1981 (5)

D. van Norren, J. van der Kraats, “A continuously recording retinal densitometer,” Vision Res. 21, 897–905 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Applegate, A. B. Bonds, “Induced movement of receptor alignment toward a new pupillary aperture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 869–873 (1981).
[PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, D. G. Birch, “Inferred positive phototropic activity in human photoreceptors,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 291, 323–351 (1981).
[Crossref]

H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, C. R. Fitzgerald, “Photoreceptor orientation: a graded disturbance bordering a region of choroidal atrophy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99, 1841–1844 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, C. R. Fitzgerald, “A graded disturbance bordering a region of choroidal atrophy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99, 1841–1844 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (3)

J. M. Enoch, D. G. Birch, “Evidence for alteration in photoreceptor orientation,” Ophthalmology 87, 821–834 (1980).
[PubMed]

C. R. Fitzgerald, D. G. Birch, J. M. Enoch, “Functional analysis of vision in patients following retinal detachment repair,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 1237–1244 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, J. T. Ernest, “Macular color vision defects: specialized psychophysical testing in acquired and hereditary choroiretinal diseases,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 20, 53–81 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (3)

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. B. Johnston, “Photoreceptor misalignment accompanying a fibrous scar,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 97, 867–869 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, “A study of the Stiles–Crawford function at 35 degrees in the temporal field and the stability of the foveal Stiles–Crawford function over time,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 435–442 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, H. E. Bedell, “Specification of the directionality of the Stiles–Crawford function,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56, 341–344 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (4)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, J. T. Ernest, S. J. Starr, “Visual function in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 192–199 (1978).
[PubMed]

E. C. Campos, H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, C. R. Fitzgerald, “Retinal receptive field-like properties and Stiles–Crawford effect in a patient with traumatic choroidal rupture,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 45, 381–395 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and Stiles–Crawford effect in central serous choroidopathy,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 19, 284–295 (1978).

J. E. Bailey, G. G. Heath, “Flicker effects of receptor directional sensitivity,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55, 807–812 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (4)

J. M. Enoch, “Marked accommodation, retinal stretch, monocular space perception and retinal receptor orientation,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 52, 375–392 (1975).
[Crossref]

K. Blank, R. R. Provine, J. M. Enoch, “Shift in the peak of the photopic Stiles–Crawford function with marked accommodation,” Vision Res. 15, 499–507 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. VanLoo, J. M. Enoch, “The scotopic Stiles–Crawford effect,” Vision Res. 15, 1005–1009 (1975).
[Crossref]

F. L. Tobey, J. M. Enoch, J. H. Scandrett, “Experimentally determined optical properties of goldfish cones and rods,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 14, 7–23 (1975).
[PubMed]

1974 (1)

D. I. A. MacLeod, “Directionally selective light adaptation: a visual consequence of receptor disarray?” Vision Res. 14, 369–378 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (2)

J. M. Enoch, G. M. Hope, “Directional sensitivity of the foveal and parafoveal retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 12, 497–503 (1973).
[PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, J. A. VanLoo, E. Okun, “Realignment of photoreceptors disturbed in orientation secondary to retinal detachment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 12, 849–853 (1973).
[PubMed]

1972 (2)

J. M. Enoch, G. M. Hope, “An analysis of retinal receptor orientation. III. Results of initial psychophysical tests,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 765–782 (1972).
[PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, G. M. Hope, “An analysis of retinal receptor orientation. IV Center of the entrance pupil and the center of convergence of orientation and directional sensitivity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 1017–1021 (1972).
[PubMed]

1971 (4)

A. Safir, L. Hyams, J. Philpot, “The retinal directional effect: a model based on the Gaussian distribution of cone orientations,” Vision Res. 11, 819–831 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Safir, L. Hyams, J. Philpot, “Movement of the Stiles–Crawford effect,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 9, 820–825 (1971).

J. R. Coble, W. A. H. Rushton, “Stiles–Crawford effect and the bleaching of cone pigments,”J. Physiol. London 217, 231–242 (1971).

J. Mellerio, “Light absorption and scatter in the human lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (2)

1967 (1)

G. Westheimer, “Dependence of the magnitude of the Stiles–Crawford effect on retinal location,”J. Physiol. London 192, 309–315 (1967).

1964 (2)

H. H. Ripps, R. A. Weale, “Photolabile changes and the directional sensitivity of the human fovea,”J. Physiol. (London) 173, 57–64 (1964).

N. O. Miller, “The changes in Stiles–Crawford effect with high luminance adapting fields,” Am. J. Optom. 41, 599–608 (1964).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

J. J. Vos, A. Huigen, “A clinical Stiles–Crawford apparatus,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 39, 68–76 (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (2)

F. Fankhauser, J. M. Enoch, P. Cibis, “Receptor orientation in retinal pathology,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 767–783 (1961).

R. A. Weale, “Notes on the photometric significance of the human crystalline lens,” Vision Res. 1, 183–191 (1961).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

J. M. Enoch, “Further studies on the relationship between amblyopia and the Stiles–Crawford effect,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 36, 111–128 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1958 (1)

1956 (1)

A. M. Ercoles, L. Ronchi, G. Toraldo di Francia, “The relation between pupil efficiencies for small and extended pupils of entry,” Opt. Acta 3, 84–89 (1956).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

M. Aguilar, A. Plaza, “Effecto Stiles–Crawford en vision extrafoveal,” An. R. Soc. Esp. Fis. Quim. 50, 119–126 (1954).

1949 (1)

G. Toraldo di Francia, “The radiation pattern of retinal receptors,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Ser. B 62, 461–462 (1949).
[Crossref]

1947 (1)

F. Flamant, W. S. Stiles, “The directional and spectral sensitivities of the retinal rods to adapting fields of different wave-lengths,”J. Physiol. (London) 107, 187–202 (1947).

1946 (1)

1944 (1)

1939 (1)

W. S. Stiles, “The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivities of the rods and cones,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 127, 64–105 (1939).
[Crossref]

1937 (2)

B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of light entering the eye pupil at different points and its relation to brightness threshold measurement,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 124, 81–96 (1937).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, “The luminous efficiency of monochromatic rays entering the eye pupil at different points and a new color effect,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 123, 90–118 (1937).
[Crossref]

1936 (2)

W. D. Wright, J. H. Nelson, “The relation between the apparent intensity of a beam of light and the angle at which the beam strikes the retina,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 48, 401–405 (1936).
[Crossref]

C. F. Goodeve, “Relative luminosity in the extreme red,” Proc. E. Soc. London Ser. A 155, 644–683 (1936).

1933 (1)

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[Crossref]

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar, A. Plaza, “Effecto Stiles–Crawford en vision extrafoveal,” An. R. Soc. Esp. Fis. Quim. 50, 119–126 (1954).

Applegate, R. A.

C. M. Sorenson, R. A. Applegate, “The location of the Stiles–Crawford peak and the centers of the dilated and naturally constricted pupil,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60, 26 (1983).

R. A. Applegate, A. B. Bonds, “Induced movement of receptor alignment toward a new pupillary aperture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 869–873 (1981).
[PubMed]

R. A. Applegate, “Aperture effects on phototropic orientation properties of human photoreceptors,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif., 1983).

R. A. Applegate, R. W. Massof, “Interpreting the Stiles–Crawford effect in patients with cataracts,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 6 of 1985 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), pp. WA6-1–WA6-4.

R. A. Applegate, D. L. Meade, C. M. Sorenson, “Normal variation in the Stiles–Crawford function,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 4 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987, pp. MA4-1–MA4-4.

R. A. Applegate, R. W. Massof, “The Stiles–Crawford effect in retinal disease: interpretation in the presence of cataract,” in Vision Science Symposium: A Tribute to Gordon G. Heath (Indiana U. Press, Bloomington, Ind., 1988), pp. 27–45.

Bailey, J. E.

J. E. Bailey, V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “The Stiles–Crawford function in an aphakic subject with retinitis pigmentosa,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 6, 165–170 (1991).

J. E. Bailey, G. G. Heath, “Flicker effects of receptor directional sensitivity,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55, 807–812 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. E. Bailey, J. M. Enoch, “The optics of phakic, pseudophakic, and aphakic eyes: effects on the Stiles–Crawford function,” Optom. Vis. Sci. (to be published).

Bedell, H. E.

H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, C. R. Fitzgerald, “Photoreceptor orientation: a graded disturbance bordering a region of choroidal atrophy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99, 1841–1844 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, C. R. Fitzgerald, “A graded disturbance bordering a region of choroidal atrophy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99, 1841–1844 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, “A study of the Stiles–Crawford function at 35 degrees in the temporal field and the stability of the foveal Stiles–Crawford function over time,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 435–442 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, H. E. Bedell, “Specification of the directionality of the Stiles–Crawford function,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56, 341–344 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. C. Campos, H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, C. R. Fitzgerald, “Retinal receptive field-like properties and Stiles–Crawford effect in a patient with traumatic choroidal rupture,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 45, 381–395 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Bedell, “Retinal receptor orientation in amblyopic and nonamblyopic eyes assessed at several retinal locations using the psychophysical Stiles–Crawford function,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., 1978).

Berson, E. L.

D. G. Birch, M. A. Sandberg, E. L. Berson, “The Stiles–Crawford effect in retinitis pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 22, 157–164 (1982).
[PubMed]

Birch, D. G.

J. M. Enoch, R. D. Hamer, V. Lakshminarayanan, T. Yasuma, D. G. Birch, S. Yamade, “Effect of monocular light exclusion on the Stiles–Crawford function,” Vision Res. 27, 507–510 (1987).
[Crossref]

D. G. Birch, M. A. Sandberg, E. L. Berson, “The Stiles–Crawford effect in retinitis pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 22, 157–164 (1982).
[PubMed]

D. G. Birch, M. A. Sandberg, “Psychophysical studies of cone optical bandwidth in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Vision Res. 22, 1113–1117 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, D. G. Birch, “Inferred positive phototropic activity in human photoreceptors,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 291, 323–351 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. M. Enoch, D. G. Birch, “Evidence for alteration in photoreceptor orientation,” Ophthalmology 87, 821–834 (1980).
[PubMed]

C. R. Fitzgerald, D. G. Birch, J. M. Enoch, “Functional analysis of vision in patients following retinal detachment repair,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 1237–1244 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blank, K.

K. Blank, R. R. Provine, J. M. Enoch, “Shift in the peak of the photopic Stiles–Crawford function with marked accommodation,” Vision Res. 15, 499–507 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonds, A. B.

R. A. Applegate, A. B. Bonds, “Induced movement of receptor alignment toward a new pupillary aperture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 869–873 (1981).
[PubMed]

Breed, H. E.

G. A. Geri, G. L. Kandel, C. R. Genter, H. E. Breed, “Meridional differences in the directional sensitivity of human color mechanisms,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 880–889 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. M. Gorrand, M. R. Kreitz, “Variability in color matching, photoreceptor alignment, and the Stiles–Crawford II effect, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 24.

Calvo, M. L.

Campos, E. C.

E. C. Campos, H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, C. R. Fitzgerald, “Retinal receptive field-like properties and Stiles–Crawford effect in a patient with traumatic choroidal rupture,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 45, 381–395 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cibis, P.

F. Fankhauser, J. M. Enoch, P. Cibis, “Receptor orientation in retinal pathology,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 767–783 (1961).

Coble, J. R.

J. R. Coble, W. A. H. Rushton, “Stiles–Crawford effect and the bleaching of cone pigments,”J. Physiol. London 217, 231–242 (1971).

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of light entering the eye pupil at different points and its relation to brightness threshold measurement,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 124, 81–96 (1937).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[Crossref]

Delori, F. C.

J. M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A method for assessing photoreceptor directionality,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 31, 425 (1990).

Diddie, K. R.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and the Stiles–Crawford effect in observers with early age-related macular changes,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 5, 2113–2121 (1988).
[Crossref]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and Stiles–Crawford effect in central serous choroidopathy,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 19, 284–295 (1978).

Dunnewold, C. J. W.

C. J. W. Dunnewold, “On the Campbell and Stiles–Crawford effects and their clinical importance,” Ph.D. dissertation (Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1964), pp. 1–84.

Elsner, A. E.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. M. Gorrand, M. R. Kreitz, “Variability in color matching, photoreceptor alignment, and the Stiles–Crawford II effect, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 24.

Enoch, J. M.

J. E. Bailey, V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “The Stiles–Crawford function in an aphakic subject with retinitis pigmentosa,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 6, 165–170 (1991).

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “The MacLeod selective adaptation paradigm in cases with modest cataracts,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 3, 155–156 (1988).

S. Yamade, V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “Comparison of two fast quantitative methods for evaluating the Stiles–Crawford function,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64, 621–626 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, R. D. Hamer, V. Lakshminarayanan, T. Yasuma, D. G. Birch, S. Yamade, “Effect of monocular light exclusion on the Stiles–Crawford function,” Vision Res. 27, 507–510 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. D. Hamer, V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, J. J. O’Donnell, “Selective adaptation of the Stiles–Crawford function in a patient with gyrate atrophy,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 103–106 (1986).

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “Shape of the Stiles–Crawford function for traverses of the entrance pupil not passing through the peak of sensitivity,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 127–128 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, C. R. Fitzgerald, “Photoreceptor orientation: a graded disturbance bordering a region of choroidal atrophy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99, 1841–1844 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, D. G. Birch, “Inferred positive phototropic activity in human photoreceptors,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 291, 323–351 (1981).
[Crossref]

H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, C. R. Fitzgerald, “A graded disturbance bordering a region of choroidal atrophy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99, 1841–1844 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, D. G. Birch, “Evidence for alteration in photoreceptor orientation,” Ophthalmology 87, 821–834 (1980).
[PubMed]

C. R. Fitzgerald, D. G. Birch, J. M. Enoch, “Functional analysis of vision in patients following retinal detachment repair,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 1237–1244 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, H. E. Bedell, “Specification of the directionality of the Stiles–Crawford function,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56, 341–344 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, “A study of the Stiles–Crawford function at 35 degrees in the temporal field and the stability of the foveal Stiles–Crawford function over time,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 435–442 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. C. Campos, H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, C. R. Fitzgerald, “Retinal receptive field-like properties and Stiles–Crawford effect in a patient with traumatic choroidal rupture,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 45, 381–395 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, “Marked accommodation, retinal stretch, monocular space perception and retinal receptor orientation,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 52, 375–392 (1975).
[Crossref]

F. L. Tobey, J. M. Enoch, J. H. Scandrett, “Experimentally determined optical properties of goldfish cones and rods,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 14, 7–23 (1975).
[PubMed]

K. Blank, R. R. Provine, J. M. Enoch, “Shift in the peak of the photopic Stiles–Crawford function with marked accommodation,” Vision Res. 15, 499–507 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. VanLoo, J. M. Enoch, “The scotopic Stiles–Crawford effect,” Vision Res. 15, 1005–1009 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. M. Enoch, J. A. VanLoo, E. Okun, “Realignment of photoreceptors disturbed in orientation secondary to retinal detachment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 12, 849–853 (1973).
[PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, G. M. Hope, “Directional sensitivity of the foveal and parafoveal retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 12, 497–503 (1973).
[PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, G. M. Hope, “An analysis of retinal receptor orientation. III. Results of initial psychophysical tests,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 765–782 (1972).
[PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, G. M. Hope, “An analysis of retinal receptor orientation. IV Center of the entrance pupil and the center of convergence of orientation and directional sensitivity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 1017–1021 (1972).
[PubMed]

F. Fankhauser, J. M. Enoch, P. Cibis, “Receptor orientation in retinal pathology,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 767–783 (1961).

J. M. Enoch, “Further studies on the relationship between amblyopia and the Stiles–Crawford effect,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 36, 111–128 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, “Summated response of the retina to light entering different parts of the pupil,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 392–405 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, “Retinal fiber optics,” in Vision and Visual Dysfunction, N. Charman, ed. (Macmillan, London, 1991), Vol. 1, pp. 280–309.

J. M. Enoch, “Vertebrate rod receptors are directionally sensitive,” in Photoreceptor Optics, A. W. Snyder, R. Menzel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), pp. 17–37.
[Crossref]

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. E. Bailey, J. M. Enoch, “The optics of phakic, pseudophakic, and aphakic eyes: effects on the Stiles–Crawford function,” Optom. Vis. Sci. (to be published).

Ercoles, A. M.

A. M. Ercoles, L. Ronchi, G. Toraldo di Francia, “The relation between pupil efficiencies for small and extended pupils of entry,” Opt. Acta 3, 84–89 (1956).
[Crossref]

Ernest, J. T.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, J. T. Ernest, “Macular color vision defects: specialized psychophysical testing in acquired and hereditary choroiretinal diseases,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 20, 53–81 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, J. T. Ernest, S. J. Starr, “Visual function in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 192–199 (1978).
[PubMed]

Fankhauser, F.

F. Fankhauser, J. M. Enoch, P. Cibis, “Receptor orientation in retinal pathology,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 767–783 (1961).

Fitzgerald, C. R.

H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, C. R. Fitzgerald, “Photoreceptor orientation: a graded disturbance bordering a region of choroidal atrophy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99, 1841–1844 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, C. R. Fitzgerald, “A graded disturbance bordering a region of choroidal atrophy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99, 1841–1844 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Fitzgerald, D. G. Birch, J. M. Enoch, “Functional analysis of vision in patients following retinal detachment repair,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 1237–1244 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. C. Campos, H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, C. R. Fitzgerald, “Retinal receptive field-like properties and Stiles–Crawford effect in a patient with traumatic choroidal rupture,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 45, 381–395 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flamant, F.

F. Flamant, W. S. Stiles, “The directional and spectral sensitivities of the retinal rods to adapting fields of different wave-lengths,”J. Physiol. (London) 107, 187–202 (1947).

Genter, C. R.

G. A. Geri, G. L. Kandel, C. R. Genter, H. E. Breed, “Meridional differences in the directional sensitivity of human color mechanisms,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 880–889 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geri, G. A.

G. A. Geri, G. L. Kandel, C. R. Genter, H. E. Breed, “Meridional differences in the directional sensitivity of human color mechanisms,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 880–889 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goodeve, C. F.

C. F. Goodeve, “Relative luminosity in the extreme red,” Proc. E. Soc. London Ser. A 155, 644–683 (1936).

Gorrand, J. M.

J. M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A method for assessing photoreceptor directionality,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 31, 425 (1990).

J. M. Gorrand, “Use of reflecto-modulometry to study the optical quality of the inner retina,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 9, 198–204 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. M. Gorrand, M. R. Kreitz, “Variability in color matching, photoreceptor alignment, and the Stiles–Crawford II effect, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 24.

Hamer, R. D.

J. M. Enoch, R. D. Hamer, V. Lakshminarayanan, T. Yasuma, D. G. Birch, S. Yamade, “Effect of monocular light exclusion on the Stiles–Crawford function,” Vision Res. 27, 507–510 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. D. Hamer, V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, J. J. O’Donnell, “Selective adaptation of the Stiles–Crawford function in a patient with gyrate atrophy,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 103–106 (1986).

Heath, G. G.

J. E. Bailey, G. G. Heath, “Flicker effects of receptor directional sensitivity,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55, 807–812 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hope, G. M.

J. M. Enoch, G. M. Hope, “Directional sensitivity of the foveal and parafoveal retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 12, 497–503 (1973).
[PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, G. M. Hope, “An analysis of retinal receptor orientation. III. Results of initial psychophysical tests,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 765–782 (1972).
[PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, G. M. Hope, “An analysis of retinal receptor orientation. IV Center of the entrance pupil and the center of convergence of orientation and directional sensitivity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 1017–1021 (1972).
[PubMed]

Huigen, A.

J. J. Vos, A. Huigen, “A clinical Stiles–Crawford apparatus,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 39, 68–76 (1962).
[Crossref]

Hyams, L.

A. Safir, L. Hyams, J. Philpot, “The retinal directional effect: a model based on the Gaussian distribution of cone orientations,” Vision Res. 11, 819–831 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Safir, L. Hyams, J. Philpot, “Movement of the Stiles–Crawford effect,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 9, 820–825 (1971).

A. Safir, L. Hyams, “Distribution of cone orientations as an explanation for the Stiles–Crawford effect,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 757–765 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnston, P. B.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. B. Johnston, “Photoreceptor misalignment accompanying a fibrous scar,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 97, 867–869 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kandel, G. L.

G. A. Geri, G. L. Kandel, C. R. Genter, H. E. Breed, “Meridional differences in the directional sensitivity of human color mechanisms,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 880–889 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinnear, P.

P. Kinnear, M. Marre, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, “Specialized methods of evaluating color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, New York, 1979), pp. 137–181.

Kreitz, M. R.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. M. Gorrand, M. R. Kreitz, “Variability in color matching, photoreceptor alignment, and the Stiles–Crawford II effect, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 24.

Lakshminarayanan, V.

J. E. Bailey, V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “The Stiles–Crawford function in an aphakic subject with retinitis pigmentosa,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 6, 165–170 (1991).

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “The MacLeod selective adaptation paradigm in cases with modest cataracts,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 3, 155–156 (1988).

J. M. Enoch, R. D. Hamer, V. Lakshminarayanan, T. Yasuma, D. G. Birch, S. Yamade, “Effect of monocular light exclusion on the Stiles–Crawford function,” Vision Res. 27, 507–510 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. Yamade, V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “Comparison of two fast quantitative methods for evaluating the Stiles–Crawford function,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64, 621–626 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Lakshminarayanan, M. L. Calvo, “Initial field and energy flux in absorbing optical waveguides. II. Implications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2133–2140 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Hamer, V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, J. J. O’Donnell, “Selective adaptation of the Stiles–Crawford function in a patient with gyrate atrophy,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 103–106 (1986).

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “Shape of the Stiles–Crawford function for traverses of the entrance pupil not passing through the peak of sensitivity,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 127–128 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. E. Bailey, J. M. Enoch, “The optics of phakic, pseudophakic, and aphakic eyes: effects on the Stiles–Crawford function,” Optom. Vis. Sci. (to be published).

J. M. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, “Retinal fiber optics,” in Vision and Visual Dysfunction, N. Charman, ed. (Macmillan, London, 1991), Vol. 1, pp. 280–309.

Laties, A. M.

A. M. Laties, “Histological techniques for study of photoreceptor orientation,” Tissue Cell 1, 63–81 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. I. A. MacLeod, “Directionally selective light adaptation: a visual consequence of receptor disarray?” Vision Res. 14, 369–378 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marre, M.

P. Kinnear, M. Marre, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, “Specialized methods of evaluating color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, New York, 1979), pp. 137–181.

Massof, R. W.

R. A. Applegate, R. W. Massof, “Interpreting the Stiles–Crawford effect in patients with cataracts,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 6 of 1985 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), pp. WA6-1–WA6-4.

R. A. Applegate, R. W. Massof, “The Stiles–Crawford effect in retinal disease: interpretation in the presence of cataract,” in Vision Science Symposium: A Tribute to Gordon G. Heath (Indiana U. Press, Bloomington, Ind., 1988), pp. 27–45.

Meade, D. L.

R. A. Applegate, D. L. Meade, C. M. Sorenson, “Normal variation in the Stiles–Crawford function,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 4 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987, pp. MA4-1–MA4-4.

Mellerio, J.

J. Mellerio, “Light absorption and scatter in the human lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, N. O.

N. O. Miller, “The changes in Stiles–Crawford effect with high luminance adapting fields,” Am. J. Optom. 41, 599–608 (1964).
[Crossref]

Moon, P.

Nelson, J. H.

W. D. Wright, J. H. Nelson, “The relation between the apparent intensity of a beam of light and the angle at which the beam strikes the retina,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 48, 401–405 (1936).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, B.

O’Donnell, J. J.

R. D. Hamer, V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, J. J. O’Donnell, “Selective adaptation of the Stiles–Crawford function in a patient with gyrate atrophy,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 103–106 (1986).

Okun, E.

J. M. Enoch, J. A. VanLoo, E. Okun, “Realignment of photoreceptors disturbed in orientation secondary to retinal detachment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 12, 849–853 (1973).
[PubMed]

Philpot, J.

A. Safir, L. Hyams, J. Philpot, “Movement of the Stiles–Crawford effect,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 9, 820–825 (1971).

A. Safir, L. Hyams, J. Philpot, “The retinal directional effect: a model based on the Gaussian distribution of cone orientations,” Vision Res. 11, 819–831 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plaza, A.

M. Aguilar, A. Plaza, “Effecto Stiles–Crawford en vision extrafoveal,” An. R. Soc. Esp. Fis. Quim. 50, 119–126 (1954).

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and the Stiles–Crawford effect in observers with early age-related macular changes,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 5, 2113–2121 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, J. T. Ernest, “Macular color vision defects: specialized psychophysical testing in acquired and hereditary choroiretinal diseases,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 20, 53–81 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. B. Johnston, “Photoreceptor misalignment accompanying a fibrous scar,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 97, 867–869 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and Stiles–Crawford effect in central serous choroidopathy,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 19, 284–295 (1978).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, J. T. Ernest, S. J. Starr, “Visual function in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 192–199 (1978).
[PubMed]

P. Kinnear, M. Marre, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, “Specialized methods of evaluating color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, New York, 1979), pp. 137–181.

Provine, R. R.

K. Blank, R. R. Provine, J. M. Enoch, “Shift in the peak of the photopic Stiles–Crawford function with marked accommodation,” Vision Res. 15, 499–507 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ripps, H. H.

H. H. Ripps, R. A. Weale, “Photolabile changes and the directional sensitivity of the human fovea,”J. Physiol. (London) 173, 57–64 (1964).

Ronchi, L.

A. M. Ercoles, L. Ronchi, G. Toraldo di Francia, “The relation between pupil efficiencies for small and extended pupils of entry,” Opt. Acta 3, 84–89 (1956).
[Crossref]

Rushton, W. A. H.

J. R. Coble, W. A. H. Rushton, “Stiles–Crawford effect and the bleaching of cone pigments,”J. Physiol. London 217, 231–242 (1971).

Safir, A.

A. Safir, L. Hyams, J. Philpot, “The retinal directional effect: a model based on the Gaussian distribution of cone orientations,” Vision Res. 11, 819–831 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Safir, L. Hyams, J. Philpot, “Movement of the Stiles–Crawford effect,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 9, 820–825 (1971).

A. Safir, L. Hyams, “Distribution of cone orientations as an explanation for the Stiles–Crawford effect,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 757–765 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandberg, M. A.

D. G. Birch, M. A. Sandberg, “Psychophysical studies of cone optical bandwidth in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Vision Res. 22, 1113–1117 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Birch, M. A. Sandberg, E. L. Berson, “The Stiles–Crawford effect in retinitis pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 22, 157–164 (1982).
[PubMed]

Scandrett, J. H.

F. L. Tobey, J. M. Enoch, J. H. Scandrett, “Experimentally determined optical properties of goldfish cones and rods,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 14, 7–23 (1975).
[PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and the Stiles–Crawford effect in observers with early age-related macular changes,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 5, 2113–2121 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, J. T. Ernest, “Macular color vision defects: specialized psychophysical testing in acquired and hereditary choroiretinal diseases,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 20, 53–81 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. B. Johnston, “Photoreceptor misalignment accompanying a fibrous scar,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 97, 867–869 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and Stiles–Crawford effect in central serous choroidopathy,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 19, 284–295 (1978).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, J. T. Ernest, S. J. Starr, “Visual function in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 192–199 (1978).
[PubMed]

P. Kinnear, M. Marre, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, “Specialized methods of evaluating color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, New York, 1979), pp. 137–181.

Sorenson, C. M.

C. M. Sorenson, R. A. Applegate, “The location of the Stiles–Crawford peak and the centers of the dilated and naturally constricted pupil,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60, 26 (1983).

R. A. Applegate, D. L. Meade, C. M. Sorenson, “Normal variation in the Stiles–Crawford function,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 4 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987, pp. MA4-1–MA4-4.

Sorsby, A.

A. Sorsby, The Incidence and Causes of Blindness in England and Wales. Reports on Public Health and Medical Subjects (H. M. Stationary Office, London, 1966).

Spencer, D.

Starr, S. J.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, J. T. Ernest, S. J. Starr, “Visual function in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 192–199 (1978).
[PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

F. Flamant, W. S. Stiles, “The directional and spectral sensitivities of the retinal rods to adapting fields of different wave-lengths,”J. Physiol. (London) 107, 187–202 (1947).

W. S. Stiles, “The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivities of the rods and cones,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 127, 64–105 (1939).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, “The luminous efficiency of monochromatic rays entering the eye pupil at different points and a new color effect,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 123, 90–118 (1937).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[Crossref]

Tobey, F. L.

F. L. Tobey, J. M. Enoch, J. H. Scandrett, “Experimentally determined optical properties of goldfish cones and rods,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 14, 7–23 (1975).
[PubMed]

Toraldo di Francia, G.

A. M. Ercoles, L. Ronchi, G. Toraldo di Francia, “The relation between pupil efficiencies for small and extended pupils of entry,” Opt. Acta 3, 84–89 (1956).
[Crossref]

G. Toraldo di Francia, “The radiation pattern of retinal receptors,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Ser. B 62, 461–462 (1949).
[Crossref]

van Blokland, G. J.

G. J. van Blokland, “Directionality and alignment of the foveal receptors, assessed with light scattered from the human fundus in vivo,” Vision Res. 26, 495–500 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Kraats, J.

D. van Norren, J. van der Kraats, “A continuously recording retinal densitometer,” Vision Res. 21, 897–905 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Norren, D.

D. van Norren, J. van der Kraats, “A continuously recording retinal densitometer,” Vision Res. 21, 897–905 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

VanLoo, J. A.

J. A. VanLoo, J. M. Enoch, “The scotopic Stiles–Crawford effect,” Vision Res. 15, 1005–1009 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. M. Enoch, J. A. VanLoo, E. Okun, “Realignment of photoreceptors disturbed in orientation secondary to retinal detachment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 12, 849–853 (1973).
[PubMed]

Verriest, G.

P. Kinnear, M. Marre, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, “Specialized methods of evaluating color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, New York, 1979), pp. 137–181.

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, A. Huigen, “A clinical Stiles–Crawford apparatus,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 39, 68–76 (1962).
[Crossref]

Weale, R. A.

H. H. Ripps, R. A. Weale, “Photolabile changes and the directional sensitivity of the human fovea,”J. Physiol. (London) 173, 57–64 (1964).

R. A. Weale, “Notes on the photometric significance of the human crystalline lens,” Vision Res. 1, 183–191 (1961).
[Crossref]

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, “Dependence of the magnitude of the Stiles–Crawford effect on retinal location,”J. Physiol. London 192, 309–315 (1967).

Williams, E. J.

E. J. Williams, Regression Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1959).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, J. H. Nelson, “The relation between the apparent intensity of a beam of light and the angle at which the beam strikes the retina,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 48, 401–405 (1936).
[Crossref]

Yamade, S.

J. M. Enoch, R. D. Hamer, V. Lakshminarayanan, T. Yasuma, D. G. Birch, S. Yamade, “Effect of monocular light exclusion on the Stiles–Crawford function,” Vision Res. 27, 507–510 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. Yamade, V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “Comparison of two fast quantitative methods for evaluating the Stiles–Crawford function,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64, 621–626 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasuma, T.

J. M. Enoch, R. D. Hamer, V. Lakshminarayanan, T. Yasuma, D. G. Birch, S. Yamade, “Effect of monocular light exclusion on the Stiles–Crawford function,” Vision Res. 27, 507–510 (1987).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, J. T. Ernest, S. J. Starr, “Visual function in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 192–199 (1978).
[PubMed]

F. Fankhauser, J. M. Enoch, P. Cibis, “Receptor orientation in retinal pathology,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 767–783 (1961).

Am. J. Optom. (1)

N. O. Miller, “The changes in Stiles–Crawford effect with high luminance adapting fields,” Am. J. Optom. 41, 599–608 (1964).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. (2)

J. J. Vos, A. Huigen, “A clinical Stiles–Crawford apparatus,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 39, 68–76 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. M. Enoch, “Further studies on the relationship between amblyopia and the Stiles–Crawford effect,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 36, 111–128 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (7)

C. M. Sorenson, R. A. Applegate, “The location of the Stiles–Crawford peak and the centers of the dilated and naturally constricted pupil,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60, 26 (1983).

S. Yamade, V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “Comparison of two fast quantitative methods for evaluating the Stiles–Crawford function,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64, 621–626 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, “Marked accommodation, retinal stretch, monocular space perception and retinal receptor orientation,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 52, 375–392 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. E. Bailey, G. G. Heath, “Flicker effects of receptor directional sensitivity,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55, 807–812 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Geri, G. L. Kandel, C. R. Genter, H. E. Breed, “Meridional differences in the directional sensitivity of human color mechanisms,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 880–889 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “Shape of the Stiles–Crawford function for traverses of the entrance pupil not passing through the peak of sensitivity,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 127–128 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, H. E. Bedell, “Specification of the directionality of the Stiles–Crawford function,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56, 341–344 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An. R. Soc. Esp. Fis. Quim. (1)

M. Aguilar, A. Plaza, “Effecto Stiles–Crawford en vision extrafoveal,” An. R. Soc. Esp. Fis. Quim. 50, 119–126 (1954).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (4)

H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, C. R. Fitzgerald, “Photoreceptor orientation: a graded disturbance bordering a region of choroidal atrophy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99, 1841–1844 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Fitzgerald, D. G. Birch, J. M. Enoch, “Functional analysis of vision in patients following retinal detachment repair,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 1237–1244 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, C. R. Fitzgerald, “A graded disturbance bordering a region of choroidal atrophy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99, 1841–1844 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. B. Johnston, “Photoreceptor misalignment accompanying a fibrous scar,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 97, 867–869 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Vis. Sci. (3)

J. E. Bailey, V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “The Stiles–Crawford function in an aphakic subject with retinitis pigmentosa,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 6, 165–170 (1991).

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, “The MacLeod selective adaptation paradigm in cases with modest cataracts,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 3, 155–156 (1988).

R. D. Hamer, V. Lakshminarayanan, J. M. Enoch, J. J. O’Donnell, “Selective adaptation of the Stiles–Crawford function in a patient with gyrate atrophy,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 103–106 (1986).

Doc. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. C. Campos, H. E. Bedell, J. M. Enoch, C. R. Fitzgerald, “Retinal receptive field-like properties and Stiles–Crawford effect in a patient with traumatic choroidal rupture,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 45, 381–395 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. (1)

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, J. T. Ernest, “Macular color vision defects: specialized psychophysical testing in acquired and hereditary choroiretinal diseases,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 20, 53–81 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. (5)

J. M. Enoch, G. M. Hope, “An analysis of retinal receptor orientation. IV Center of the entrance pupil and the center of convergence of orientation and directional sensitivity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 1017–1021 (1972).
[PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, G. M. Hope, “Directional sensitivity of the foveal and parafoveal retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 12, 497–503 (1973).
[PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, G. M. Hope, “An analysis of retinal receptor orientation. III. Results of initial psychophysical tests,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 765–782 (1972).
[PubMed]

F. L. Tobey, J. M. Enoch, J. H. Scandrett, “Experimentally determined optical properties of goldfish cones and rods,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 14, 7–23 (1975).
[PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, J. A. VanLoo, E. Okun, “Realignment of photoreceptors disturbed in orientation secondary to retinal detachment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 12, 849–853 (1973).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

R. A. Applegate, A. B. Bonds, “Induced movement of receptor alignment toward a new pupillary aperture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 869–873 (1981).
[PubMed]

D. G. Birch, M. A. Sandberg, E. L. Berson, “The Stiles–Crawford effect in retinitis pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 22, 157–164 (1982).
[PubMed]

A. Safir, L. Hyams, J. Philpot, “Movement of the Stiles–Crawford effect,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 9, 820–825 (1971).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. (1)

J. M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A method for assessing photoreceptor directionality,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 31, 425 (1990).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Physiol. (London) (2)

H. H. Ripps, R. A. Weale, “Photolabile changes and the directional sensitivity of the human fovea,”J. Physiol. (London) 173, 57–64 (1964).

F. Flamant, W. S. Stiles, “The directional and spectral sensitivities of the retinal rods to adapting fields of different wave-lengths,”J. Physiol. (London) 107, 187–202 (1947).

J. Physiol. London (2)

J. R. Coble, W. A. H. Rushton, “Stiles–Crawford effect and the bleaching of cone pigments,”J. Physiol. London 217, 231–242 (1971).

G. Westheimer, “Dependence of the magnitude of the Stiles–Crawford effect on retinal location,”J. Physiol. London 192, 309–315 (1967).

Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and Stiles–Crawford effect in central serous choroidopathy,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 19, 284–295 (1978).

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

J. M. Gorrand, “Use of reflecto-modulometry to study the optical quality of the inner retina,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 9, 198–204 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

J. M. Enoch, D. G. Birch, “Evidence for alteration in photoreceptor orientation,” Ophthalmology 87, 821–834 (1980).
[PubMed]

Opt. Acta (1)

A. M. Ercoles, L. Ronchi, G. Toraldo di Francia, “The relation between pupil efficiencies for small and extended pupils of entry,” Opt. Acta 3, 84–89 (1956).
[Crossref]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B (1)

J. M. Enoch, D. G. Birch, “Inferred positive phototropic activity in human photoreceptors,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 291, 323–351 (1981).
[Crossref]

Proc. E. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

C. F. Goodeve, “Relative luminosity in the extreme red,” Proc. E. Soc. London Ser. A 155, 644–683 (1936).

Proc. Phys. Soc. London (1)

W. D. Wright, J. H. Nelson, “The relation between the apparent intensity of a beam of light and the angle at which the beam strikes the retina,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 48, 401–405 (1936).
[Crossref]

Proc. Phys. Soc. London Ser. B (1)

G. Toraldo di Francia, “The radiation pattern of retinal receptors,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Ser. B 62, 461–462 (1949).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B (4)

W. S. Stiles, “The luminous efficiency of monochromatic rays entering the eye pupil at different points and a new color effect,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 123, 90–118 (1937).
[Crossref]

B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of light entering the eye pupil at different points and its relation to brightness threshold measurement,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 124, 81–96 (1937).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, “The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivities of the rods and cones,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 127, 64–105 (1939).
[Crossref]

Tissue Cell (1)

A. M. Laties, “Histological techniques for study of photoreceptor orientation,” Tissue Cell 1, 63–81 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (10)

K. Blank, R. R. Provine, J. M. Enoch, “Shift in the peak of the photopic Stiles–Crawford function with marked accommodation,” Vision Res. 15, 499–507 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Weale, “Notes on the photometric significance of the human crystalline lens,” Vision Res. 1, 183–191 (1961).
[Crossref]

J. Mellerio, “Light absorption and scatter in the human lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. VanLoo, J. M. Enoch, “The scotopic Stiles–Crawford effect,” Vision Res. 15, 1005–1009 (1975).
[Crossref]

D. van Norren, J. van der Kraats, “A continuously recording retinal densitometer,” Vision Res. 21, 897–905 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. van Blokland, “Directionality and alignment of the foveal receptors, assessed with light scattered from the human fundus in vivo,” Vision Res. 26, 495–500 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Safir, L. Hyams, J. Philpot, “The retinal directional effect: a model based on the Gaussian distribution of cone orientations,” Vision Res. 11, 819–831 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. I. A. MacLeod, “Directionally selective light adaptation: a visual consequence of receptor disarray?” Vision Res. 14, 369–378 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Birch, M. A. Sandberg, “Psychophysical studies of cone optical bandwidth in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Vision Res. 22, 1113–1117 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, R. D. Hamer, V. Lakshminarayanan, T. Yasuma, D. G. Birch, S. Yamade, “Effect of monocular light exclusion on the Stiles–Crawford function,” Vision Res. 27, 507–510 (1987).
[Crossref]

Other (15)

R. A. Applegate, “Aperture effects on phototropic orientation properties of human photoreceptors,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif., 1983).

R. A. Applegate, R. W. Massof, “Interpreting the Stiles–Crawford effect in patients with cataracts,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 6 of 1985 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), pp. WA6-1–WA6-4.

E. J. Williams, Regression Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1959).

H. E. Bedell, “Retinal receptor orientation in amblyopic and nonamblyopic eyes assessed at several retinal locations using the psychophysical Stiles–Crawford function,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., 1978).

R. A. Applegate, D. L. Meade, C. M. Sorenson, “Normal variation in the Stiles–Crawford function,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 4 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987, pp. MA4-1–MA4-4.

C. J. W. Dunnewold, “On the Campbell and Stiles–Crawford effects and their clinical importance,” Ph.D. dissertation (Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1964), pp. 1–84.

J. M. Enoch, “Vertebrate rod receptors are directionally sensitive,” in Photoreceptor Optics, A. W. Snyder, R. Menzel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), pp. 17–37.
[Crossref]

R. A. Applegate, R. W. Massof, “The Stiles–Crawford effect in retinal disease: interpretation in the presence of cataract,” in Vision Science Symposium: A Tribute to Gordon G. Heath (Indiana U. Press, Bloomington, Ind., 1988), pp. 27–45.

V. Lakshminarayanan, J. E. Bailey, J. M. Enoch, “The optics of phakic, pseudophakic, and aphakic eyes: effects on the Stiles–Crawford function,” Optom. Vis. Sci. (to be published).

J. M. Enoch, F. L. Tobey, eds., Vertebrate Photoreceptor Optics, Vol. 23 of Springer Series in Optics Science (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).
[Crossref]

J. M. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, “Retinal fiber optics,” in Vision and Visual Dysfunction, N. Charman, ed. (Macmillan, London, 1991), Vol. 1, pp. 280–309.

P. Kinnear, M. Marre, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, “Specialized methods of evaluating color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, New York, 1979), pp. 137–181.

Summary and Critique of Available Data on the Prevalence and Economic and Social Costs of Visual Disorders and Disabilities (Westat, Inc., Rockville, Md., 1976).

A. Sorsby, The Incidence and Causes of Blindness in England and Wales. Reports on Public Health and Medical Subjects (H. M. Stationary Office, London, 1966).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. M. Gorrand, M. R. Kreitz, “Variability in color matching, photoreceptor alignment, and the Stiles–Crawford II effect, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 24.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Idealized model of the SCE within the eye’s pupil graphically displayed as log relative sensitivity as a function of pupil entry. The circular pedestal represents the dilated 8-mm pupil. Notice that the peak SB is slightly nasal (0.50 mm) and superior (0.20 mm) to the pupil center.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Typical graphical representation of the SCE illustrating that sensitivity is measured experimentally at discrete pupillary locations along a single pupil traverse (data points) and best fit with a describing function (curve). (b) Cross section of Fig. 1 illustrating that the SCE is quantified by psychophysically measuring the log relative sensitivity along a single central meridian.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Parabolic curves illustrating changes in sensitivity for ρ parameters ranging between 0.000 (a line) and 0.100. A typical foveal ρ value for either horizontal or vertical SCE data sets is ~0.050.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Figure 7 from Ref. 24, illustrating that a Gaussian curve (solid curve) is a better fit to the data (circles) than is a parabolic curve (dashed curve). (b) Figure 8 from Ref. 24, illustrating that both the Gaussian (solid curve) and parabolic (dashed curve) fit are good representations of the SCE data set (circles) when the data set considered is limited to ±3 mm from the peak of the SCE.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Graphical display of two horizontal SCE data sets illustrating a potential pitfall of limiting SCE data sampling to one pupillary meridian. Note the misleadingly flat SCE peaking 1.25 mm temporal. The circles represent data collection during two separate tests. Horizontal pupil entry is in millimeters. This figure is a reprint of Fig. VI-1 from Ref. 41. (b) Graphical display of two vertical SCE data sets for the same subject as in (a), illustrating a typical SCE spread (ρ value) with a markedly inferior displaced peak location. The marked flattening of the vertical SCE ~3 mm from the peak illustrates the limitation of fitting SCE data sets with parabolic functions beyond ±3 mm from the SCE peak location [see also Fig. 4(a)]. The circles represent data collection during two separate tests. Vertical pupil entry is in millimeters. This figure is a reprint of Fig. VI-2 from Ref. 41.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) SCE displayed as a log sensitivity contour map calculated from SCE samples in seven evenly spaced pupillary meridians, illustrating the peak location of the SCE to be markedly inferior and nasal. The lines represent the horizontal and vertical pupillary meridians sampled in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b). Pupil entry is in millimeters. This figure is a reprint of Fig. VI-3 from Ref. 41. (b) Three-dimensional graphical display of the SCE contour map provides easy visualization of the peak location and the potential problems of limiting data sampling to a single pupillary meridian. This figure is a reprint of Fig. VI-4 from Ref. 41.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Two-component model analysis of SCE behavior in a patient with a diffuse cataract: (a) the model’s best-fitting function to the cataract-contaminated SCE data set; (b) the loss in log sensitivity resulting from the model’s estimate of the cataract’s maximum density A, peak location of maximum density d, and spread σ; (c) the two-component model’s estimate of the best-fitting parabola (solid curve; coefficients listed in the right-hand corner) and the traditional single-component model’s estimate of the best-fitting parabola (dashed curve; coefficients listed in the left-hand corner). This figure is a reprint of Fig. 5 from Ref. 34.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Two-component model analysis of SCE behavior in a patient with a small dense posterior subcapsular cataract: (a) the model’s best-fitting function to the cataract-contaminated SCE data set; (b) the loss in log sensitivity resulting from the model’s estimate of the cataract’s maximum density A, peak location of maximum density d, and spread σ; (c) the two-component model’s estimate of the best-fitting parabola (curve; coefficients listed in the right-hand corner). The traditional single-component parabolic model cannot be meaningfully used to model this patient’s measured SCE. This figure is a reprint of Fig. 8 from Ref. 34.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic of the two-channel Maxwellian-view system used to generate normative data (its operation is described in the text): S’s, sources; A’s, apertures; BS’s, beam splitters; L’s, lenses; AR, alignment ring; FSM’s, front surface mirrors; C, refractive correction; VC, video camera; M, monitor.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

SCE horizontal and vertical peak locations for the right eyes of 49 normal subjects (circles). The square represents the average peak location, and the error bars reflect ±1 SD.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

SCE horizontal and vertical ρ values for the right eyes of 49 normal subjects (circles). The square represents the average ρ value, and the error bars reflect ±1 SD. There is a slight nonsignificant tendency for the vertical ρ value to be greater than the horizontal ρ value, as indicated by the majority of the data falling above the diagonal of slope equal to 1.0.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Normative Data for SCE Peak Location

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Table 2 Normative Data for SCE ρ Values

Equations (11)

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η = η max 10 - ρ ( x - x max ) 2 ,
log η = log η max - ρ ( x - x max ) 2 ,
y = a x 2 + b x + c .
ρ = - a , x max = - ( b / 2 a ) , log η max = c - ( b 2 / 4 a ) .
η = ( 1 - a ) + a cos b x .
( 1 - a ) + a cos b x = ( 1 - a ) + a [ 1 - b 2 x 2 / 2 ! + b 4 x 2 / 4 ! - ] = 1 - ( a b 2 / 2 ! ) x 2 + ( a b 4 / 24 ) x 4 - .
η = A ( 1 + cos B θ ) 2 ,
η = 4 - 1.5 B 2 θ 2 + ( 1 / 6 + B 2 / 4 ) B 2 θ 4 .
log η - K 1 = K 2 + A exp [ - B ( x - c ) 2 ] .
half - width = ( 0.30 / ρ ) 1 / 2 .
log η = a x 2 + b x + c - A exp [ ( x - d ) 2 / σ 2 ] ,

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