Abstract

Sensitivity to motion was measured by the percentage of trials on which an observer reported seeing motion of briefly presented high-contrast sinusoidal gratings moving over a range of velocities. The psychometric curve was remeasured following adaptation to a grating moving in one direction for an extended period of time. Adaptation shifted the minimum of the psychometric curve toward the direction of the adapting stimulus. The shift was smaller when the adapting field was larger than the test. In a second set of experiments we measured the effect of motion adaptation on contrast thresholds for moving gratings of different sizes. Threshold elevation was maximal when adapting and test sizes matched. We present a mechanistic model of the motion aftereffect that consists of independent multiplicative gain controls in motion-sensing mechanisms tuned to different rates of motion. In addition, we discuss a model of size effects in motion adaptation that invokes diffuse inhibitory connections among motion-sensing mechanisms.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. M. Taylor, “Tracking the decay of the after-effect of seen rotary movement,” Percept. Mot. Skills 16, 119–129 (1963).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. J. Keck, T. D. Palella, A. Pantle, “Motion aftereffect as a function of the contrast of sinusoidal gratings,” Vision Res. 16, 187–191 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Pantle, “Motion aftereffect magnitude as a measure of the spatio-temporal response properties of direction-selective analyzers,” Vision Res. 14, 1229–1236 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. W. J. Lovegrove, R. Over, J. Broerse, “Colour selectivity in motion after-effect,” Nature (London) 238, 334–335 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  9. O. E. Favreau, V. F. Emerson, M. C. Corballis, “Motion perception: a color-contingent aftereffect,” Science 176, 78–79 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. K. T. Mullen, C. L. Baker, “A motion aftereffect from an isoluminant stimulus,” Vision Res. 25, 685–688 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. E. W. Mayhew, S. M. Anstis, “Movement aftereffects contingent on color, intensity, and pattern,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 77–85 (1972).
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  12. A. M. Derrington, D. R. Badcock, “The low level motion system has both chromatic and luminance inputs,” Vision Res. 25, 1879–1884 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  16. C. R. Sharpe, D. J. Tolhurst, “Orientation and spatial frequency channels in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 13, 2103–2112 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. D. J. Tolhurst, “Separate channels for the analysis of the shape and the movement of a moving visual stimulus,”J. Physiol. (London) 231, 385–402 (1973).
  18. R. W. Sekuler, E. L. Rubin, W. H. Cushman, “Selectivities of human visual mechanisms for direction of movement and contour orientation,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1146–1150 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  23. D. J. Tolhurst, C. R. Sharpe, G. Hart, “The analysis of the drift rate of moving sinusoidal gratings,” Vision Res. 13, 2545–2555 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. M. Green, “Psychophysical relationship among mechanisms sensitive to pattern, motion and flicker,” Vision Res. 21, 971–983 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. M. Anstis, A. H. Reinhardt-Rutland, “Interactions between motion aftereffects and induced movement,” Vision Res. 16, 1391–1394 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. C. Bonnet, V. Poutahs, “Interactions between spatial and kinetic dimensions in movement aftereffect,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 193–200 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  27. K. Nakayama, D. J. Roberts, “Line length detectors in the human visual system: evidence from selective adaptation,” Vision Res. 12, 1709–1713 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. G. Westheimer, “Eye movement responses to a horizontally moving visual stimulus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 52, 932–941 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  29. G. C. Grindley, R. T. Wilkinson, “The aftereffect of seen movement on a plain field,”Q. J. Exper. Psychol. 5, 183–184 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. Green, M. Chilcoat, C. F. Stromeyer, “Rapid motion aftereffect seen within uniform flickering test fields,” Nature (London) 304, 61–62 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  31. C. H. Graham, Vision and Visual Perception (Wiley, New York, 1965).
  32. R. Cords, E. T. v. Bruecke, “Ueber die Geschwindigkeit des Bewegungsnachbildes,” Pfluegers Arch. Ges. Physiol. 119, 54–76 (1907).
    [Crossref]
  33. R. G. Bennett, G. Westheimer, “A shift in the perceived simultaneity of adjacent visual stimuli following adaptation to stroboscopic motion along the same axis,” Vision Res. 25, 565–569 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. J. P. H. van Santen, G. Sperling, “Elaborated Reichardt detectors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 300–321 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. A. B. Watson, A. J. Ahumada, “Model of human visual-motion sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 322–342 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. E. H. Adelson, J. R. Bergen, “Spatiotemporal energy models for the perception of motion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 284–299 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. R. W. Sekuler, L. Ganz, “Aftereffect of seen motion with a stabilized retinal image,” Science 139, 419–420 (1963).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. A. J. Pantle, R. W. Sekuler, “Velocity-sensitive elements in human vision: initial psychophysical evidence,” Vision Res. 8, 445–450 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. T. Cornsweet, “The staircase method in psychophysics,” Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  40. Q. Zaidi, W. L. Sachtler, “Motion adaptation from surrounding stimuli,” Perception 20, 703–714 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  41. N. S. Sutherland, “Figural after-effects and apparent size,”Q. J. Exper. Psychol. 13, 222–228 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  42. A. B. Clymer, “The effect of seen motion on the apparent speed of subsequent test velocities: speed tuning of movement,” Ph.D. dissertation (Columbia University, New York, 1973).
  43. P. Thompson, “Velocity after-effects: the effect of adaptation to moving stimuli on the perception of subsequently seen moving stimuli,” Vision Res. 21, 337–345 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  44. R. C. Emerson, J. R. Bergen, E. H. Adelson, “Directionally selective complex cells and the computation of motion energy in cat visual cortex,” Vision Res. 32, 203–218 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  45. R. F. Quick, “A vector-magnitude model of contrast detection,” Kybernetik 16, 65–67 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  46. D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields and functional architecture in two nonstriate visual areas (18 and 19) of the cat,”J. Neurophysiol. 28, 229–289 (1965).
    [PubMed]
  47. G. A. Orban, H. Kennedy, H. Maes, “Response to movement of neurons in areas 17 and 18 of the cat: velocity sensitivity,”J. Neurophysiol. 45, 1043–1058 (1981).
    [PubMed]
  48. J. H. R. Maunsell, D. C. Van Essen, “Functional properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area of the macaque monkey. I. Selectivity for stimulus direction, speed, and orientation,”J. Neurophysiol. 49, 1127–1147 (1983).
    [PubMed]
  49. P. Cavanagh, “The contribution of color to motion,” in From Pigments to Perception. Advances in Understanding Visual Processes, A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, eds., Vol. 203 of NATO ASI Series, Series A: Life Sciences (Plenum, New York, 1991), pp. 151–164.
    [Crossref]
  50. M. O’Shea, C. H. F. Rowell, “Protection from habituation by lateral inhibition,” Nature (London) 254, 53–55 (1975).
    [Crossref]

1992 (2)

Q. Zaidi, W. L. Sachtler, “Motion adaptation from surrounding stimuli,” Perception 20, 703–714 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. C. Emerson, J. R. Bergen, E. H. Adelson, “Directionally selective complex cells and the computation of motion energy in cat visual cortex,” Vision Res. 32, 203–218 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (7)

R. G. Bennett, G. Westheimer, “A shift in the perceived simultaneity of adjacent visual stimuli following adaptation to stroboscopic motion along the same axis,” Vision Res. 25, 565–569 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. H. van Santen, G. Sperling, “Elaborated Reichardt detectors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 300–321 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Watson, A. J. Ahumada, “Model of human visual-motion sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 322–342 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Adelson, J. R. Bergen, “Spatiotemporal energy models for the perception of motion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 284–299 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, C. L. Baker, “A motion aftereffect from an isoluminant stimulus,” Vision Res. 25, 685–688 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Derrington, D. R. Badcock, “The low level motion system has both chromatic and luminance inputs,” Vision Res. 25, 1879–1884 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cavanagh, O. E. Favreau, “Color and luminance share a common motion pathway,” Vision Res. 25, 1595–1601 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1983 (2)

M. Green, M. Chilcoat, C. F. Stromeyer, “Rapid motion aftereffect seen within uniform flickering test fields,” Nature (London) 304, 61–62 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. H. R. Maunsell, D. C. Van Essen, “Functional properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area of the macaque monkey. I. Selectivity for stimulus direction, speed, and orientation,”J. Neurophysiol. 49, 1127–1147 (1983).
[PubMed]

1981 (3)

G. A. Orban, H. Kennedy, H. Maes, “Response to movement of neurons in areas 17 and 18 of the cat: velocity sensitivity,”J. Neurophysiol. 45, 1043–1058 (1981).
[PubMed]

P. Thompson, “Velocity after-effects: the effect of adaptation to moving stimuli on the perception of subsequently seen moving stimuli,” Vision Res. 21, 337–345 (1981).
[Crossref]

M. Green, “Psychophysical relationship among mechanisms sensitive to pattern, motion and flicker,” Vision Res. 21, 971–983 (1981).
[Crossref]

1976 (2)

S. M. Anstis, A. H. Reinhardt-Rutland, “Interactions between motion aftereffects and induced movement,” Vision Res. 16, 1391–1394 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Keck, T. D. Palella, A. Pantle, “Motion aftereffect as a function of the contrast of sinusoidal gratings,” Vision Res. 16, 187–191 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (3)

E. Levinson, R. Sekuler, “The independence of channels in human vision selective for direction of movement,”J. Physiol. (London) 250, 347–366 (1975).

E. Levinson, R. Sekuler, “Inhibition and disinhibition of direction-specific mechanisms in human vision,” Nature (London) 254, 692–694 (1975).
[Crossref]

M. O’Shea, C. H. F. Rowell, “Protection from habituation by lateral inhibition,” Nature (London) 254, 53–55 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (2)

R. F. Quick, “A vector-magnitude model of contrast detection,” Kybernetik 16, 65–67 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pantle, “Motion aftereffect magnitude as a measure of the spatio-temporal response properties of direction-selective analyzers,” Vision Res. 14, 1229–1236 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (4)

D. J. Tolhurst, C. R. Sharpe, G. Hart, “The analysis of the drift rate of moving sinusoidal gratings,” Vision Res. 13, 2545–2555 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Sharpe, D. J. Tolhurst, “Orientation and spatial frequency channels in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 13, 2103–2112 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Tolhurst, “Separate channels for the analysis of the shape and the movement of a moving visual stimulus,”J. Physiol. (London) 231, 385–402 (1973).

C. R. Sharpe, D. J. Tolhurst, “The effects of temporal modulation on the orientation channels of the human visual system,” Perception 2, 23–29 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (6)

C. Bonnet, V. Poutahs, “Interactions between spatial and kinetic dimensions in movement aftereffect,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 193–200 (1972).
[Crossref]

K. Nakayama, D. J. Roberts, “Line length detectors in the human visual system: evidence from selective adaptation,” Vision Res. 12, 1709–1713 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Tolhurst, “Adaptation to square-wave gratings: inhibition between spatial frequency channels in the human visual system,”J. Physiol. (London) 226, 231–248 (1972).

W. J. Lovegrove, R. Over, J. Broerse, “Colour selectivity in motion after-effect,” Nature (London) 238, 334–335 (1972).
[Crossref]

O. E. Favreau, V. F. Emerson, M. C. Corballis, “Motion perception: a color-contingent aftereffect,” Science 176, 78–79 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. W. Mayhew, S. M. Anstis, “Movement aftereffects contingent on color, intensity, and pattern,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 77–85 (1972).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

1968 (2)

R. W. Sekuler, E. L. Rubin, W. H. Cushman, “Selectivities of human visual mechanisms for direction of movement and contour orientation,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1146–1150 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Pantle, R. W. Sekuler, “Velocity-sensitive elements in human vision: initial psychophysical evidence,” Vision Res. 8, 445–450 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

R. Sekuler, A. Pantle, “A model for after-effects of seen movement,” Vision Res. 7, 427–439 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields and functional architecture in two nonstriate visual areas (18 and 19) of the cat,”J. Neurophysiol. 28, 229–289 (1965).
[PubMed]

1963 (2)

M. M. Taylor, “Tracking the decay of the after-effect of seen rotary movement,” Percept. Mot. Skills 16, 119–129 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Sekuler, L. Ganz, “Aftereffect of seen motion with a stabilized retinal image,” Science 139, 419–420 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

T. Cornsweet, “The staircase method in psychophysics,” Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485 (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

N. S. Sutherland, “Figural after-effects and apparent size,”Q. J. Exper. Psychol. 13, 222–228 (1961).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

G. Westheimer, “Eye movement responses to a horizontally moving visual stimulus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 52, 932–941 (1954).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

G. C. Grindley, R. T. Wilkinson, “The aftereffect of seen movement on a plain field,”Q. J. Exper. Psychol. 5, 183–184 (1953).
[Crossref]

1911 (1)

A. Wohlgemuth, “On the aftereffect of seen movement,” Br. J. Psychol. Monogr. Suppl. 1, 1–117 (1911).

1907 (1)

R. Cords, E. T. v. Bruecke, “Ueber die Geschwindigkeit des Bewegungsnachbildes,” Pfluegers Arch. Ges. Physiol. 119, 54–76 (1907).
[Crossref]

Adelson, E. H.

R. C. Emerson, J. R. Bergen, E. H. Adelson, “Directionally selective complex cells and the computation of motion energy in cat visual cortex,” Vision Res. 32, 203–218 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Adelson, J. R. Bergen, “Spatiotemporal energy models for the perception of motion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 284–299 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahumada, A. J.

Anstis, S.

S. Anstis, “Motion perception in the frontal plane. Sensory aspects,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Vol. I.

Anstis, S. M.

S. M. Anstis, A. H. Reinhardt-Rutland, “Interactions between motion aftereffects and induced movement,” Vision Res. 16, 1391–1394 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. W. Mayhew, S. M. Anstis, “Movement aftereffects contingent on color, intensity, and pattern,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 77–85 (1972).
[Crossref]

Badcock, D. R.

A. M. Derrington, D. R. Badcock, “The low level motion system has both chromatic and luminance inputs,” Vision Res. 25, 1879–1884 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, C. L.

K. T. Mullen, C. L. Baker, “A motion aftereffect from an isoluminant stimulus,” Vision Res. 25, 685–688 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, R. G.

R. G. Bennett, G. Westheimer, “A shift in the perceived simultaneity of adjacent visual stimuli following adaptation to stroboscopic motion along the same axis,” Vision Res. 25, 565–569 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergen, J. R.

R. C. Emerson, J. R. Bergen, E. H. Adelson, “Directionally selective complex cells and the computation of motion energy in cat visual cortex,” Vision Res. 32, 203–218 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Adelson, J. R. Bergen, “Spatiotemporal energy models for the perception of motion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 284–299 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonnet, C.

C. Bonnet, V. Poutahs, “Interactions between spatial and kinetic dimensions in movement aftereffect,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 193–200 (1972).
[Crossref]

Broerse, J.

W. J. Lovegrove, R. Over, J. Broerse, “Colour selectivity in motion after-effect,” Nature (London) 238, 334–335 (1972).
[Crossref]

Bruecke, E. T. v.

R. Cords, E. T. v. Bruecke, “Ueber die Geschwindigkeit des Bewegungsnachbildes,” Pfluegers Arch. Ges. Physiol. 119, 54–76 (1907).
[Crossref]

Cavanagh, P.

P. Cavanagh, O. E. Favreau, “Color and luminance share a common motion pathway,” Vision Res. 25, 1595–1601 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cavanagh, “The contribution of color to motion,” in From Pigments to Perception. Advances in Understanding Visual Processes, A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, eds., Vol. 203 of NATO ASI Series, Series A: Life Sciences (Plenum, New York, 1991), pp. 151–164.
[Crossref]

Chilcoat, M.

M. Green, M. Chilcoat, C. F. Stromeyer, “Rapid motion aftereffect seen within uniform flickering test fields,” Nature (London) 304, 61–62 (1983).
[Crossref]

Clymer, A. B.

A. B. Clymer, “The effect of seen motion on the apparent speed of subsequent test velocities: speed tuning of movement,” Ph.D. dissertation (Columbia University, New York, 1973).

Corballis, M. C.

O. E. Favreau, V. F. Emerson, M. C. Corballis, “Motion perception: a color-contingent aftereffect,” Science 176, 78–79 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cords, R.

R. Cords, E. T. v. Bruecke, “Ueber die Geschwindigkeit des Bewegungsnachbildes,” Pfluegers Arch. Ges. Physiol. 119, 54–76 (1907).
[Crossref]

Cornsweet, T.

T. Cornsweet, “The staircase method in psychophysics,” Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485 (1962).
[Crossref]

Cushman, W. H.

Derrington, A. M.

A. M. Derrington, D. R. Badcock, “The low level motion system has both chromatic and luminance inputs,” Vision Res. 25, 1879–1884 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emerson, R. C.

R. C. Emerson, J. R. Bergen, E. H. Adelson, “Directionally selective complex cells and the computation of motion energy in cat visual cortex,” Vision Res. 32, 203–218 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emerson, V. F.

O. E. Favreau, V. F. Emerson, M. C. Corballis, “Motion perception: a color-contingent aftereffect,” Science 176, 78–79 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Favreau, O. E.

P. Cavanagh, O. E. Favreau, “Color and luminance share a common motion pathway,” Vision Res. 25, 1595–1601 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. E. Favreau, V. F. Emerson, M. C. Corballis, “Motion perception: a color-contingent aftereffect,” Science 176, 78–79 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ganz, L.

R. W. Sekuler, L. Ganz, “Aftereffect of seen motion with a stabilized retinal image,” Science 139, 419–420 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graham, C. H.

C. H. Graham, Vision and Visual Perception (Wiley, New York, 1965).

Green, M.

M. Green, M. Chilcoat, C. F. Stromeyer, “Rapid motion aftereffect seen within uniform flickering test fields,” Nature (London) 304, 61–62 (1983).
[Crossref]

M. Green, “Psychophysical relationship among mechanisms sensitive to pattern, motion and flicker,” Vision Res. 21, 971–983 (1981).
[Crossref]

Grindley, G. C.

G. C. Grindley, R. T. Wilkinson, “The aftereffect of seen movement on a plain field,”Q. J. Exper. Psychol. 5, 183–184 (1953).
[Crossref]

Hart, G.

D. J. Tolhurst, C. R. Sharpe, G. Hart, “The analysis of the drift rate of moving sinusoidal gratings,” Vision Res. 13, 2545–2555 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holland, H. C.

H. C. Holland, The Spiral Aftereffect (Pergamon, London, 1965).

Hubel, D. H.

D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields and functional architecture in two nonstriate visual areas (18 and 19) of the cat,”J. Neurophysiol. 28, 229–289 (1965).
[PubMed]

Keck, M. J.

M. J. Keck, T. D. Palella, A. Pantle, “Motion aftereffect as a function of the contrast of sinusoidal gratings,” Vision Res. 16, 187–191 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kennedy, H.

G. A. Orban, H. Kennedy, H. Maes, “Response to movement of neurons in areas 17 and 18 of the cat: velocity sensitivity,”J. Neurophysiol. 45, 1043–1058 (1981).
[PubMed]

Kronauer, R. E.

Levinson, E.

E. Levinson, R. Sekuler, “Inhibition and disinhibition of direction-specific mechanisms in human vision,” Nature (London) 254, 692–694 (1975).
[Crossref]

E. Levinson, R. Sekuler, “The independence of channels in human vision selective for direction of movement,”J. Physiol. (London) 250, 347–366 (1975).

Lovegrove, W. J.

W. J. Lovegrove, R. Over, J. Broerse, “Colour selectivity in motion after-effect,” Nature (London) 238, 334–335 (1972).
[Crossref]

Madsen, J. C.

Maes, H.

G. A. Orban, H. Kennedy, H. Maes, “Response to movement of neurons in areas 17 and 18 of the cat: velocity sensitivity,”J. Neurophysiol. 45, 1043–1058 (1981).
[PubMed]

Maunsell, J. H. R.

J. H. R. Maunsell, D. C. Van Essen, “Functional properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area of the macaque monkey. I. Selectivity for stimulus direction, speed, and orientation,”J. Neurophysiol. 49, 1127–1147 (1983).
[PubMed]

Mayhew, J. E. W.

J. E. W. Mayhew, S. M. Anstis, “Movement aftereffects contingent on color, intensity, and pattern,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 77–85 (1972).
[Crossref]

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen, C. L. Baker, “A motion aftereffect from an isoluminant stimulus,” Vision Res. 25, 685–688 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakayama, K.

K. Nakayama, D. J. Roberts, “Line length detectors in the human visual system: evidence from selective adaptation,” Vision Res. 12, 1709–1713 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Shea, M.

M. O’Shea, C. H. F. Rowell, “Protection from habituation by lateral inhibition,” Nature (London) 254, 53–55 (1975).
[Crossref]

Orban, G. A.

G. A. Orban, H. Kennedy, H. Maes, “Response to movement of neurons in areas 17 and 18 of the cat: velocity sensitivity,”J. Neurophysiol. 45, 1043–1058 (1981).
[PubMed]

Over, R.

W. J. Lovegrove, R. Over, J. Broerse, “Colour selectivity in motion after-effect,” Nature (London) 238, 334–335 (1972).
[Crossref]

Palella, T. D.

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C. Bonnet, V. Poutahs, “Interactions between spatial and kinetic dimensions in movement aftereffect,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 193–200 (1972).
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R. F. Quick, “A vector-magnitude model of contrast detection,” Kybernetik 16, 65–67 (1974).
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Kybernetik (1)

R. F. Quick, “A vector-magnitude model of contrast detection,” Kybernetik 16, 65–67 (1974).
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Nature (London) (4)

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Percept. Mot. Skills (1)

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Perception (2)

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[Crossref]

Science (2)

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M. J. Keck, T. D. Palella, A. Pantle, “Motion aftereffect as a function of the contrast of sinusoidal gratings,” Vision Res. 16, 187–191 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pantle, “Motion aftereffect magnitude as a measure of the spatio-temporal response properties of direction-selective analyzers,” Vision Res. 14, 1229–1236 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

S. M. Anstis, A. H. Reinhardt-Rutland, “Interactions between motion aftereffects and induced movement,” Vision Res. 16, 1391–1394 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sekuler, A. Pantle, “A model for after-effects of seen movement,” Vision Res. 7, 427–439 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Sharpe, D. J. Tolhurst, “Orientation and spatial frequency channels in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 13, 2103–2112 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Pantle, R. W. Sekuler, “Velocity-sensitive elements in human vision: initial psychophysical evidence,” Vision Res. 8, 445–450 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Nakayama, D. J. Roberts, “Line length detectors in the human visual system: evidence from selective adaptation,” Vision Res. 12, 1709–1713 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. Bennett, G. Westheimer, “A shift in the perceived simultaneity of adjacent visual stimuli following adaptation to stroboscopic motion along the same axis,” Vision Res. 25, 565–569 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thompson, “Velocity after-effects: the effect of adaptation to moving stimuli on the perception of subsequently seen moving stimuli,” Vision Res. 21, 337–345 (1981).
[Crossref]

R. C. Emerson, J. R. Bergen, E. H. Adelson, “Directionally selective complex cells and the computation of motion energy in cat visual cortex,” Vision Res. 32, 203–218 (1992).
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[Crossref]

C. H. Graham, Vision and Visual Perception (Wiley, New York, 1965).

A. B. Clymer, “The effect of seen motion on the apparent speed of subsequent test velocities: speed tuning of movement,” Ph.D. dissertation (Columbia University, New York, 1973).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Stimuli used in Experiment 1. (a) Vertical achromatic gratings at 95% contrast were shown within a thin horizontal window. The remainder of the screen was kept at an equal-energy white of 50 cd/m2. All tests were 0.25 deg high. The observer fixated a spot at the center of the screen (not shown here). Gratings were presented for 75 ms and moved left or right at a fixed velocity throughout their presentation time. Three tones cued the onset of a trial. The observer adapted to a uniform screen for 2 min before trials began in the baseline condition (left-hand panel). The observer’s task was to determine whether he had seen the gratings move. In another set of trials, an adapting grating identical to the test grating was presented for 10 min, moving leftward at 5 Hz (center panel). The observer fixated the spot at the center of the screen. Following adaptation, tests were again presented for 75 ms (right-hand panel). Test trials alternated with 5 s of top-up adaptation. (b) Results for two observers for gratings of a spatial frequency of 0.4 cycle/deg. (c) Results for 4.0 cycles/deg. In the cases for both (b) and (c), adapting gratings were of the same spatial frequency as the test gratings. Negative values indicate motion to the left. Filled circles, preadaptation results; open squares, postadaptation results. Lines connect points for clarity and do not have theoretical significance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Stimuli used in Experiment 2. (a) Postadaptation tests were 0.25 deg high, as in Experiment 1. The adapting grating was 9.0 deg high. Results for gratings of (b) 0.4 and (c) 4.0 cycles/deg. Filled triangles, results for tests 0.25 deg high following adaptation with a grating 9.0 deg high. For comparison, results from Experiment 1 (adapting and testing with gratings 0.25 deg high) are shown again as open squares.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of Experiment 3. Tests were presented for 1 s, moving leftward or rightward at 5 Hz. We varied the contrast of the gratings to determine contrast threshold for detection of the moving gratings. Results for two observers for (a) 0.4-cycle/deg gratings and (b) 4.0-cycle/deg gratings. The abscissas are divided into the four experimental conditions tested. The particular adapting and testsize configurations for each category are shown below the graphs. Desensitization indexes plotted on the ordinate reflect the amount of contrast threshold elevation following adaptation with a grating at 95% contrast. The total desensitization index compares contrast thresholds for tests moving in the same direction as the adapting grating before and after adaptation [see Eq. (1)]. Positive values indicate that thresholds were elevated following adaptation (open circles). The index of directional desensitization compares postadaptation thresholds for the two test directions [see Eq. (2)]. Positive values indicate that thresholds for tests moving in the same direction as the adapting grating were elevated more than thresholds for tests moving in the opposite direction (filled squares).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of a motion-sensing mechanism with adaptable properties whose output is used to generate probabilities of detection for gratings moving at different velocities. (a) Spatiotemporal filters tuned to leftward (L) and rightward (R) motion, (b) output of L and R channels as a function of the speed and direction of a moving grating, (c) independent multiplicative gain-control mechanisms for L and R channels. (d) The absolute value of the opponent output M is fed into a function, Ψ, which generates a probability of detection of motion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Application of the model with the use of one set of spatiotemporal filters tuned to 5 Hz. Panels show responses at different stages of the model shown in Fig. 4. Left-hand column preadaptation responses; right-hand column, corresponding postadaptation responses. Adapting and test gratings were assumed to be the same size, as in Experiment 1. (a) Output of the spatiotemporal filters in response to gratings at 100% contrast moving at different velocities. The arrow labeled a indicates the point on the abscissa that corresponds to the adapting grating moving leftward at 5 Hz. The responses of the L and R channel to that velocity are used to set the gain values. (b) Absolute value of the opponent response. (c) Close-up of the shaded region in (b); the scale on the abscissa changes accordingly. (d) The value of M is fed into the Quick psychometric function [see Eq. (8)], producing a probability of detection. Open circles preadaptation psychometric curve for the detection of motion of 0.4-cycle/deg gratings measured in Experiment 1 for observer WLS; asterisks, experimental results following adaptation. See text for model parameter settings.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Expanded model that encompasses independent motion-sensing mechanisms preferentially tuned to different temporal rates. The absolute value of the opponent output is then pooled by means of probability summation in the psychometric function.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Application of the model with the use of two sets of independent spatiotemporal filters. Left-hand column, preadaptation responses; right-hand column, postadaptation responses. (a) Solid curves, responses of filters tuned to 5 Hz; dashed curves, those of filters tuned to 16 Hz. (b) Absolute values of opponent responses of the two sets of mechanisms. (c) Close-up of shaded region in (b). (d) Curves M1 and M2 are combined through probability summation into one curve that gives probability of detection of moving gratings (dashed curve). Circles and asterisks show the preadaptation and postadaptation results, respectively, for the detection of motion of 0.4-cycle/deg gratings measured in Experiment 1 for observer WLS.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Model that is reasonable but that nevertheless does not produce responses consistent with the experimental data. Left column, preadaptation responses; right column, postadaptation responses. (a) Leftward- and rightward-sensitive channels respond only to motion in their preferred direction. Following adaptation with a stimulus moving to the left, only the response of the L channel is reduced. (b) The absolute value of the opponent response is symmetric around zero velocity before adaptation. Following adaptation, the curve opens to the left and the minimum remains at zero velocity, which is contrary to the experimental results.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic of inhibitory connections among motion-sensing mechanisms. (a) Inhibition occurs independently for L and R channels, which are shown schematically as ellipses with inscribed arrows indicating their preferred direction of motion. Inhibitory connections are shown as dashed lines. Inhibition takes place among units along an axis orthogonal to the preferred direction of motion. A dash inside a circle represents the summed inhibitory inputs received by a mechanism, as shown in the bottom unit, which receives inhibitory inputs from its nearest neighbor and from the top unit. Not all connections are shown in the diagram; all connections are in fact reciprocal, as shown for the middle and bottom units.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Inhibitory inputs from spatiotemporal filters are weighted by distance in visual space. Ellipses represent receptive fields of filters tuned to leftward motion. The remainder of the model is not shown. For simplicity, receptive fields do not overlap. (a) The stimulus consists of a vertical grating at 100% contrast moving leftward. (b) All filters completely covered by the stimulus respond with equal magnitude. Filters not exposed to the stimulus are silent. The curve shows the magnitude of the inhibitory signal received by the shaded unit from surrounding units. Signals from nearby units are given a greater weight than inhibitory signals from units farther away in visual space. The gap at the peak of the curve indicates that units do not inhibit themselves. The total inhibitory signal is the weighted sum of inhibitory inputs from surrounding units. (c) The shaded unit near the edge, of the moving stimulus receives less inhibition, since signals from units that are far removed are given only a small weight.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Schematic of a motion-sensing unit that receives inhibitory inputs. (a) L, R, Outputs of spatiotemporal filters tuned to opposite directions of motion. The inhibitory output signals branch off at this point but are not shown in the diagram. The responses of the L and R channels to stimuli at different velocities are shown in (e), below the diagram. Lt, Rt, Responses of the two channels to test stimuli moving leftward at 5 Hz. As a simplification around contrast thresholds, we assume that the responses for the L and R channels scale linearly with the contrast of the test stimulus. (b) Summed inhibitory input occurs after the inhibitory output and before the gain-control stage. Inhibitory input is subtracted from the L and R channels; the ensuing signals are labeled L′ and R′. (c) GL, GR, Independent gain control for the left and right channels, respectively. Signals L′ and R′ are multiplied by the corresponding gain factors to generate L* and R*, respectively. (d) The absolute value of the opponent response, M, is passed through the Quick psychometric function to generate a probability of detection.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Responses of motion-sensing units to tall adapting and test stimuli. All gratings are assumed to be optimal for the spatiotemporal filters. Gratings are at 100% contrast, which elicits a response equal to one. (a) Tall adapting stimulus. (b) Motion-sensing units are distributed along the vertical axis. Responses to the adapting stimulus are plotted along the horizontal axis. *, Responses of L channels; ○, responses of R channels. Dashed curve, difference between L and R channels. The smallest response shown is not zero. (c) Gain factor for L and R channels. Symbols correspond to those used in (b). (d) Tall test stimulus. (e) Preadaptation responses of L and R channels. (f) Postadaptation responses of channels.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Responses of motion-sensing units to short adapting and test stimuli. (a) Short adapting stimulus. (b) Only one motion-sensing unit is covered by the stimulus. Surrounding units are silent. (c) Gain factor for the unit that responds to the adapting stimulus. Gains for other units are equal to one. (d) Short test stimulus. (e) Preadaptation response of the unit exposed to the stimulus. (f) Postadaptation response.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Responses of motion-sensing units to tall adapting stimuli and short test stimuli. (a) Tall adapting stimulus. (b) Response to adapting stimulus. (c) Gain for each unit. (d) Short test grating. (e) Response of L and R channels to a short test grating before adaptation. (f) Response to a short test grating following exposure to a tall adapting grating. The response is greater than in Fig. 13(f).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Contrast thresholds generated by the model for the conditions shown in Figs. 12 and 14. Opponent outputs of all active units were pooled in the Quick psychometric function to generate a probability of detection. Contrast was varied until the probability of detection reached 80%. Parameters were set so that preadaptation thresholds had the same values as results for 0.4-cycle/deg gratings in Experiment 3 for observer WLS. Indices for total desensitization and directional desensitization were calculated as in Experiment 3 and are plotted as open circles and filled squares, respectively. Schematics of the adapting and testing conditions are shown on the abscissa. For parameter settings, see text.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

total desensitization = log [ threshold ( postadapt same direction ) threshold ( preadapt same direction ) ] .
directional desensitization = log [ threshold ( postadapt same direction ) threshold ( postadapt opposite direction ) ] .
G L = k k + ( L a ) p ,
G R = k k + ( R a ) p ,
L * = L * G L ,
R * = R * G R .
M = R * - L * .
Ψ = 1 - i = 1 N [ 1 - ( 1 - 2 - R i α ) ] ,
L = contrast * L t ,             L t = 1 ,
R = contrast * R t ,             R t < 1 ,
L = L - i = 1 N ( L i * b * exp { - 1 2 * [ distance ( i ) σ inhib ] 2 } ) ,
R = R - i = 1 N ( R i * b * exp { - 1 2 * [ distance ( i ) σ inhib ] 2 } ) .
G L = k k + ( L ) p ,
G R = k k + ( R ) p ,
L * = L * G L ,
R * = R * G R .

Metrics