Abstract

To evaluate the effects of chromatic adaptation on spectral sensitivity at temporal frequencies within the region of high-frequency linearity, critical flicker frequency was measured as a function of red–green luminance ratio for counterphase flicker of 649- and 555-nm light. For eight observers, the relative weight of the contribution of the long-wavelength-sensitive cones to flicker detection was smaller on long-wavelength adapting fields than on middle-wavelength adapting fields even though long-wavelength-sensitive-cone modulations were high. These data indicate that chromatic adaptation can confound the interpretation of flicker-sensitivity data that are gathered with long-wavelength test lights or with equiluminant heterochromatic flicker and that there can be considerable interobserver variability in the effects of chromatic adaptation.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. The early literature on HFP is reviewed, and large-parametric data sets are presented, in the following series of papers: H. E. Ives, “Studies in the photometry of lights of different colours. I–V,” Philos. Mag. J. Sci. 24, 149–188, 352–370, 744–751, 845–853, 853–863 (1912).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. C. Bornstein, L. E. Marks, “Photopic luminosity measured by the method of critical frequency,” Vision Res. 12, 2023–2033 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. P. E. King-Smith, D. Carden, “Luminance and opponent-color contributions to visual detection and adaptation and to temporal and spatial integration,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 709–717 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. L. de Vries, “The luminosity curve of the eye as determined by measurements with the flicker photometer,” Physica 14, 319–348 (1948).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Eisner, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Flicker photometric study of chromatic adaptation: selective suppression of cone inputs by colored backgrounds,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 705–718 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Eisner, “Comparison of flicker-photometric and flicker-threshold spectral sensitivities while the eye is adapted to colored backgrounds,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 517–518 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Heterochromatic modulation photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1618–1623 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. W. H. Swanson, “Time, color and phase,” in Visual Science and Engineering: Models and Applications, D. H. Kelly, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1993).
  10. C. R. Ingling, B. H. Tsou, T. J. Gast, S. A. Burns, J. O. Emrick, L. Riesenberg, “The achromatic channel. I. The non-additivity of minimum border and flicker matches,” Vision Res. 18, 379–390 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  11. W. H. Swanson, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effects of chromatic adaptation on phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1976–1982 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Refs. 5 and 6 refer to a suppression of L-cone input. For the argument in the current paper the change in spectral sensitivity need not be due to suppression. For example, if the weight of the M-cone input increased at the same time that the weight of the L-cone input decreased, spectral tuning would change but threshold might not, so high-frequency linearity might hold for a given wavelength despite the change in spectral tuning.
  13. Reviewed by A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Sensory processes and Perception, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds., Vol. I of Handbook of Perception and Human Performance (Wiley, New York, 1986), Chap. 6.
  14. D. H. Kelly, “Visual responses to time-dependent stimuli. I. Amplitude sensitivity measurements,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 422–428 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  15. W. H. Swanson, T. Ueno, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Temporal modulation sensitivity and pulse-detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance perturbations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1992–2005 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. N. Graham, D. C. Hood, “Modeling the dynamics of light adaptation: the merging of two traditions,” Vision Res. 32, 1373–1393 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. C. W. Tyler, R. D. Hamer, “Analysis of visual modulation sensitivity. IV Validity of the Ferry–Porter law,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 743–758 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. R. D. Hamer, C. W. Tyler, “Analysis of visual modulation sensitivity. V. Faster visual response for G- than for R-cone pathway?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1889–1904 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. Although changes in flicker spectral sensitivities with mean luminance have been noted by a number of authors (see, e.g., Refs. 1 and 2), these results at high temporal frequencies are not necessarily evidence of effects of chromatic adaptation. In fact, Hamer and Tyler18 have argued that high-frequency linearity suggests that such data cannot be due to effects of chromatic adaptation and instead reflect different temporal properties for the L and M cones.
  20. T. D. Lamb, “Properties of cone photoreceptors in relation to color vision,” in Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Color Vision, D. Ottoson, S. Zeki, eds. (Macmillan, London, 1985), pp. 151–164.
  21. S. J. Daly, R. A. Normann, “Temporal information processing in cones: effects of light adaptation on temporal summation and modulation,” Vision Res. 25, 1197–1206 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. W. Seiple, K. Holopigian, V. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. The monochromatic flicker was produced by using the green LED, which has a bandwidth of 27 nm and is not truly monochromatic. However, it is metameric to 555 nm and, for the purposes of analyzing L- and M-cone responses, is equivalent to a monochromatic source.
  24. W. H. Swanson, “Heterochromatic modulation photometry in heterozygous carriers of congenital color defects,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1991), pp. 457–471.
    [Crossref]
  25. R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal luminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982). The accuracy of the United Detector Technologies photometric filter at long wavelengths was checked with the spectroradiometer; the two instruments were within 0.05 log unit for wavelengths as long as 670 nm.
    [Crossref]
  26. There were three rates of frequency change available to the observer. The first rate was 1 step/click of the bidirectional switch (a spring returned the position to neutral when released, so single clicks were easy to make) or 1 step/quarter turn of the optical encoder. This permitted the observer to make extremely precise adjustments near CFF. The second rate was 4 steps/s as long as the requests for change were made continuously for more than 0.25 s. This permitted the observer to make slightly larger changes by holding the switch for slightly longer than a single click or by continuous turning of the optical encoder. The third rate was 2 steps/cycle of the square wave, obtained by making requests for change continuously for more than 1 s. This allowed the observer to bring the frequency near CFF rapidly, so that most of the time for the setting would involve single clicks that bracketed CFF.
  27. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  29. W. B. Cushman, J. Z. Levinson, “Phase shift in red and green counterphase flicker at high frequencies,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1557–1561 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. D. T. Lindsey, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 921–927 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. W. H. Swanson, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effects of temporal frequency on phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2266–2273 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. For observer KH, fits to the data gathered on the 510-nm adapting field reached a plateau and hence required a second-order polynomial. For observer PV, data gathered on the 670-nm 3.6-log-Td adapting field showed no change with log(R/G), so only the residual CFF parameter was required. Therefore the long-wavelength log(L/M) for PV in Table 2 is for the 670-nm field at 2.9 log Td rather than the 3.6-log Td field that was used for the other observers.
  33. J. Pokorny, Q. Jin, V. C. Smith, “Spectral-luminosity functions, scalar linearity, and chromatic adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1304–1313 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. B. A. Drum, “Cone interactions at high flicker frequencies: evidence for cone latency differences,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1601–1603 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  35. A. Eisner, “Losses of foveal flicker sensitivity during dark adaptation following extended bleaches,” Vision Res. 29, 1401–1423 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. N. J. Coletta, A. J. Adams, “Rod–cone interaction in flicker detection,” Vision Res. 24, 1333–1340 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  37. G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, W. Vernon, S. Hewlett, “Rod–cone interaction in increment threshold in congenital achromatopsia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 702 (1992).
  38. D. H. Kelly, D. van Norren, “Two-band model of heterochromatic flicker,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1081–1091 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. D. C. Varner, D. M. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, “Temporal sensitivities related to color theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 474–481 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. J. Pokorny, J. D. Moreland, V. C. Smith, “Aberrant flicker sensitivity revealed by heterochromatic modulation photometry,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1933).
  41. B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 404, 323–347 (1988).
  42. B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “A nonlinearity summation of M- and L-cones inputs to phasic retinal ganglion cells of the macaque,” J. Neurosci. 9, 1433–1442 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  43. V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,”J. Physiol. (London) 458, 191–221 (1992).
  44. R. J. Mason, R. S. Snelgar, D. H. Foster, J. R. Heron, R. E. Jones, “Abnormalities of chromatic and luminance critical flicker frequency in multiple sclerosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 246–252 (1982).
    [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (5)

W. Seiple, K. Holopigian, V. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, W. Vernon, S. Hewlett, “Rod–cone interaction in increment threshold in congenital achromatopsia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 702 (1992).

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,”J. Physiol. (London) 458, 191–221 (1992).

N. Graham, D. C. Hood, “Modeling the dynamics of light adaptation: the merging of two traditions,” Vision Res. 32, 1373–1393 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Hamer, C. W. Tyler, “Analysis of visual modulation sensitivity. V. Faster visual response for G- than for R-cone pathway?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1889–1904 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1989 (3)

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Heterochromatic modulation photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1618–1623 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Eisner, “Losses of foveal flicker sensitivity during dark adaptation following extended bleaches,” Vision Res. 29, 1401–1423 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “A nonlinearity summation of M- and L-cones inputs to phasic retinal ganglion cells of the macaque,” J. Neurosci. 9, 1433–1442 (1989).
[PubMed]

1988 (2)

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 404, 323–347 (1988).

W. H. Swanson, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effects of chromatic adaptation on phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1976–1982 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (3)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

S. J. Daly, R. A. Normann, “Temporal information processing in cones: effects of light adaptation on temporal summation and modulation,” Vision Res. 25, 1197–1206 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

D. C. Varner, D. M. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, “Temporal sensitivities related to color theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 474–481 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. Coletta, A. J. Adams, “Rod–cone interaction in flicker detection,” Vision Res. 24, 1333–1340 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

1982 (3)

R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal luminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982). The accuracy of the United Detector Technologies photometric filter at long wavelengths was checked with the spectroradiometer; the two instruments were within 0.05 log unit for wavelengths as long as 670 nm.
[Crossref]

R. J. Mason, R. S. Snelgar, D. H. Foster, J. R. Heron, R. E. Jones, “Abnormalities of chromatic and luminance critical flicker frequency in multiple sclerosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 246–252 (1982).
[PubMed]

A. Eisner, “Comparison of flicker-photometric and flicker-threshold spectral sensitivities while the eye is adapted to colored backgrounds,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 517–518 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

C. R. Ingling, B. H. Tsou, T. J. Gast, S. A. Burns, J. O. Emrick, L. Riesenberg, “The achromatic channel. I. The non-additivity of minimum border and flicker matches,” Vision Res. 18, 379–390 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (2)

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

M. C. Bornstein, L. E. Marks, “Photopic luminosity measured by the method of critical frequency,” Vision Res. 12, 2023–2033 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1961 (1)

1948 (1)

H. L. de Vries, “The luminosity curve of the eye as determined by measurements with the flicker photometer,” Physica 14, 319–348 (1948).
[Crossref]

1912 (1)

The early literature on HFP is reviewed, and large-parametric data sets are presented, in the following series of papers: H. E. Ives, “Studies in the photometry of lights of different colours. I–V,” Philos. Mag. J. Sci. 24, 149–188, 352–370, 744–751, 845–853, 853–863 (1912).
[Crossref]

Adams, A. J.

N. J. Coletta, A. J. Adams, “Rod–cone interaction in flicker detection,” Vision Res. 24, 1333–1340 (1984).
[Crossref]

Bornstein, M. C.

M. C. Bornstein, L. E. Marks, “Photopic luminosity measured by the method of critical frequency,” Vision Res. 12, 2023–2033 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[Crossref]

Burns, S. A.

C. R. Ingling, B. H. Tsou, T. J. Gast, S. A. Burns, J. O. Emrick, L. Riesenberg, “The achromatic channel. I. The non-additivity of minimum border and flicker matches,” Vision Res. 18, 379–390 (1978).
[Crossref]

Carden, D.

Cole, G. R.

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coletta, N. J.

N. J. Coletta, A. J. Adams, “Rod–cone interaction in flicker detection,” Vision Res. 24, 1333–1340 (1984).
[Crossref]

Cushman, W. B.

Daly, S. J.

S. J. Daly, R. A. Normann, “Temporal information processing in cones: effects of light adaptation on temporal summation and modulation,” Vision Res. 25, 1197–1206 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Vries, H. L.

H. L. de Vries, “The luminosity curve of the eye as determined by measurements with the flicker photometer,” Physica 14, 319–348 (1948).
[Crossref]

Drum, B. A.

Eisner, A.

Emrick, J. O.

C. R. Ingling, B. H. Tsou, T. J. Gast, S. A. Burns, J. O. Emrick, L. Riesenberg, “The achromatic channel. I. The non-additivity of minimum border and flicker matches,” Vision Res. 18, 379–390 (1978).
[Crossref]

Foster, D. H.

R. J. Mason, R. S. Snelgar, D. H. Foster, J. R. Heron, R. E. Jones, “Abnormalities of chromatic and luminance critical flicker frequency in multiple sclerosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 246–252 (1982).
[PubMed]

Frumkes, T. E.

R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal luminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982). The accuracy of the United Detector Technologies photometric filter at long wavelengths was checked with the spectroradiometer; the two instruments were within 0.05 log unit for wavelengths as long as 670 nm.
[Crossref]

Gast, T. J.

C. R. Ingling, B. H. Tsou, T. J. Gast, S. A. Burns, J. O. Emrick, L. Riesenberg, “The achromatic channel. I. The non-additivity of minimum border and flicker matches,” Vision Res. 18, 379–390 (1978).
[Crossref]

Graham, N.

N. Graham, D. C. Hood, “Modeling the dynamics of light adaptation: the merging of two traditions,” Vision Res. 32, 1373–1393 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenstein, V.

W. Seiple, K. Holopigian, V. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, W. Vernon, S. Hewlett, “Rod–cone interaction in increment threshold in congenital achromatopsia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 702 (1992).

Hamer, R. D.

Heron, J. R.

R. J. Mason, R. S. Snelgar, D. H. Foster, J. R. Heron, R. E. Jones, “Abnormalities of chromatic and luminance critical flicker frequency in multiple sclerosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 246–252 (1982).
[PubMed]

Hewlett, S.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, W. Vernon, S. Hewlett, “Rod–cone interaction in increment threshold in congenital achromatopsia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 702 (1992).

Holopigian, K.

W. Seiple, K. Holopigian, V. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hood, D. C.

W. Seiple, K. Holopigian, V. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Graham, D. C. Hood, “Modeling the dynamics of light adaptation: the merging of two traditions,” Vision Res. 32, 1373–1393 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hurvich, L. M.

Ingling, C. R.

C. R. Ingling, B. H. Tsou, T. J. Gast, S. A. Burns, J. O. Emrick, L. Riesenberg, “The achromatic channel. I. The non-additivity of minimum border and flicker matches,” Vision Res. 18, 379–390 (1978).
[Crossref]

Ives, H. E.

The early literature on HFP is reviewed, and large-parametric data sets are presented, in the following series of papers: H. E. Ives, “Studies in the photometry of lights of different colours. I–V,” Philos. Mag. J. Sci. 24, 149–188, 352–370, 744–751, 845–853, 853–863 (1912).
[Crossref]

Jameson, D. M.

Jin, Q.

Jones, R. E.

R. J. Mason, R. S. Snelgar, D. H. Foster, J. R. Heron, R. E. Jones, “Abnormalities of chromatic and luminance critical flicker frequency in multiple sclerosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 246–252 (1982).
[PubMed]

Kambe, N.

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[Crossref]

Kelly, D. H.

King-Smith, P. E.

Kronauer, R. E.

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamb, T. D.

T. D. Lamb, “Properties of cone photoreceptors in relation to color vision,” in Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Color Vision, D. Ottoson, S. Zeki, eds. (Macmillan, London, 1985), pp. 151–164.

Lee, B. B.

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,”J. Physiol. (London) 458, 191–221 (1992).

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “A nonlinearity summation of M- and L-cones inputs to phasic retinal ganglion cells of the macaque,” J. Neurosci. 9, 1433–1442 (1989).
[PubMed]

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 404, 323–347 (1988).

Levinson, J. Z.

Lindsey, D. T.

Lutze, M.

MacLeod, D. I. A.

Marks, L. E.

M. C. Bornstein, L. E. Marks, “Photopic luminosity measured by the method of critical frequency,” Vision Res. 12, 2023–2033 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, P. R.

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,”J. Physiol. (London) 458, 191–221 (1992).

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “A nonlinearity summation of M- and L-cones inputs to phasic retinal ganglion cells of the macaque,” J. Neurosci. 9, 1433–1442 (1989).
[PubMed]

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 404, 323–347 (1988).

Mason, R. J.

R. J. Mason, R. S. Snelgar, D. H. Foster, J. R. Heron, R. E. Jones, “Abnormalities of chromatic and luminance critical flicker frequency in multiple sclerosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 246–252 (1982).
[PubMed]

Moreland, J. D.

J. Pokorny, J. D. Moreland, V. C. Smith, “Aberrant flicker sensitivity revealed by heterochromatic modulation photometry,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1933).

Normann, R. A.

S. J. Daly, R. A. Normann, “Temporal information processing in cones: effects of light adaptation on temporal summation and modulation,” Vision Res. 25, 1197–1206 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nygaard, R. W.

R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal luminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982). The accuracy of the United Detector Technologies photometric filter at long wavelengths was checked with the spectroradiometer; the two instruments were within 0.05 log unit for wavelengths as long as 670 nm.
[Crossref]

Pokorny, J.

J. Pokorny, Q. Jin, V. C. Smith, “Spectral-luminosity functions, scalar linearity, and chromatic adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1304–1313 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,”J. Physiol. (London) 458, 191–221 (1992).

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Heterochromatic modulation photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1618–1623 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Swanson, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effects of chromatic adaptation on phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1976–1982 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Swanson, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effects of temporal frequency on phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2266–2273 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Swanson, T. Ueno, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Temporal modulation sensitivity and pulse-detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance perturbations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1992–2005 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. Lindsey, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 921–927 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, J. D. Moreland, V. C. Smith, “Aberrant flicker sensitivity revealed by heterochromatic modulation photometry,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1933).

Riesenberg, L.

C. R. Ingling, B. H. Tsou, T. J. Gast, S. A. Burns, J. O. Emrick, L. Riesenberg, “The achromatic channel. I. The non-additivity of minimum border and flicker matches,” Vision Res. 18, 379–390 (1978).
[Crossref]

Seiple, W.

W. Seiple, K. Holopigian, V. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

J. Pokorny, Q. Jin, V. C. Smith, “Spectral-luminosity functions, scalar linearity, and chromatic adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1304–1313 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,”J. Physiol. (London) 458, 191–221 (1992).

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Heterochromatic modulation photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1618–1623 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Swanson, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effects of chromatic adaptation on phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1976–1982 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Swanson, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effects of temporal frequency on phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2266–2273 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Swanson, T. Ueno, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Temporal modulation sensitivity and pulse-detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance perturbations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1992–2005 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. Lindsey, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 921–927 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, J. D. Moreland, V. C. Smith, “Aberrant flicker sensitivity revealed by heterochromatic modulation photometry,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1933).

Snelgar, R. S.

R. J. Mason, R. S. Snelgar, D. H. Foster, J. R. Heron, R. E. Jones, “Abnormalities of chromatic and luminance critical flicker frequency in multiple sclerosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 246–252 (1982).
[PubMed]

Stromeyer, C. F.

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, W. H.

Tsou, B. H.

C. R. Ingling, B. H. Tsou, T. J. Gast, S. A. Burns, J. O. Emrick, L. Riesenberg, “The achromatic channel. I. The non-additivity of minimum border and flicker matches,” Vision Res. 18, 379–390 (1978).
[Crossref]

Tyler, C. W.

Ueno, T.

Valberg, A.

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,”J. Physiol. (London) 458, 191–221 (1992).

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “A nonlinearity summation of M- and L-cones inputs to phasic retinal ganglion cells of the macaque,” J. Neurosci. 9, 1433–1442 (1989).
[PubMed]

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 404, 323–347 (1988).

van Norren, D.

Varner, D. C.

Vernon, W.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, W. Vernon, S. Hewlett, “Rod–cone interaction in increment threshold in congenital achromatopsia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 702 (1992).

Watson, A. B.

Reviewed by A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Sensory processes and Perception, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds., Vol. I of Handbook of Perception and Human Performance (Wiley, New York, 1986), Chap. 6.

Color Res. Appl. (1)

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, W. Vernon, S. Hewlett, “Rod–cone interaction in increment threshold in congenital achromatopsia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 702 (1992).

R. J. Mason, R. S. Snelgar, D. H. Foster, J. R. Heron, R. E. Jones, “Abnormalities of chromatic and luminance critical flicker frequency in multiple sclerosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 246–252 (1982).
[PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (1)

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “A nonlinearity summation of M- and L-cones inputs to phasic retinal ganglion cells of the macaque,” J. Neurosci. 9, 1433–1442 (1989).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (9)

W. H. Swanson, T. Ueno, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Temporal modulation sensitivity and pulse-detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance perturbations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1992–2005 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Swanson, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effects of chromatic adaptation on phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1976–1982 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Tyler, R. D. Hamer, “Analysis of visual modulation sensitivity. IV Validity of the Ferry–Porter law,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 743–758 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Hamer, C. W. Tyler, “Analysis of visual modulation sensitivity. V. Faster visual response for G- than for R-cone pathway?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1889–1904 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Heterochromatic modulation photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1618–1623 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. Lindsey, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 921–927 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Swanson, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effects of temporal frequency on phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2266–2273 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Varner, D. M. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, “Temporal sensitivities related to color theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 474–481 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, Q. Jin, V. C. Smith, “Spectral-luminosity functions, scalar linearity, and chromatic adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1304–1313 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Physiol. (London) (2)

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 404, 323–347 (1988).

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,”J. Physiol. (London) 458, 191–221 (1992).

Philos. Mag. J. Sci. (1)

The early literature on HFP is reviewed, and large-parametric data sets are presented, in the following series of papers: H. E. Ives, “Studies in the photometry of lights of different colours. I–V,” Philos. Mag. J. Sci. 24, 149–188, 352–370, 744–751, 845–853, 853–863 (1912).
[Crossref]

Physica (1)

H. L. de Vries, “The luminosity curve of the eye as determined by measurements with the flicker photometer,” Physica 14, 319–348 (1948).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (10)

M. C. Bornstein, L. E. Marks, “Photopic luminosity measured by the method of critical frequency,” Vision Res. 12, 2023–2033 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Graham, D. C. Hood, “Modeling the dynamics of light adaptation: the merging of two traditions,” Vision Res. 32, 1373–1393 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Daly, R. A. Normann, “Temporal information processing in cones: effects of light adaptation on temporal summation and modulation,” Vision Res. 25, 1197–1206 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Seiple, K. Holopigian, V. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, “Temporal frequency dependent adaptation at the level of the outer retina in humans,” Vision Res. 32, 2043–2048 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal luminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982). The accuracy of the United Detector Technologies photometric filter at long wavelengths was checked with the spectroradiometer; the two instruments were within 0.05 log unit for wavelengths as long as 670 nm.
[Crossref]

C. R. Ingling, B. H. Tsou, T. J. Gast, S. A. Burns, J. O. Emrick, L. Riesenberg, “The achromatic channel. I. The non-additivity of minimum border and flicker matches,” Vision Res. 18, 379–390 (1978).
[Crossref]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Eisner, “Losses of foveal flicker sensitivity during dark adaptation following extended bleaches,” Vision Res. 29, 1401–1423 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. Coletta, A. J. Adams, “Rod–cone interaction in flicker detection,” Vision Res. 24, 1333–1340 (1984).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

There were three rates of frequency change available to the observer. The first rate was 1 step/click of the bidirectional switch (a spring returned the position to neutral when released, so single clicks were easy to make) or 1 step/quarter turn of the optical encoder. This permitted the observer to make extremely precise adjustments near CFF. The second rate was 4 steps/s as long as the requests for change were made continuously for more than 0.25 s. This permitted the observer to make slightly larger changes by holding the switch for slightly longer than a single click or by continuous turning of the optical encoder. The third rate was 2 steps/cycle of the square wave, obtained by making requests for change continuously for more than 1 s. This allowed the observer to bring the frequency near CFF rapidly, so that most of the time for the setting would involve single clicks that bracketed CFF.

The monochromatic flicker was produced by using the green LED, which has a bandwidth of 27 nm and is not truly monochromatic. However, it is metameric to 555 nm and, for the purposes of analyzing L- and M-cone responses, is equivalent to a monochromatic source.

W. H. Swanson, “Heterochromatic modulation photometry in heterozygous carriers of congenital color defects,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, A. Serra, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1991), pp. 457–471.
[Crossref]

J. Pokorny, J. D. Moreland, V. C. Smith, “Aberrant flicker sensitivity revealed by heterochromatic modulation photometry,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1933).

For observer KH, fits to the data gathered on the 510-nm adapting field reached a plateau and hence required a second-order polynomial. For observer PV, data gathered on the 670-nm 3.6-log-Td adapting field showed no change with log(R/G), so only the residual CFF parameter was required. Therefore the long-wavelength log(L/M) for PV in Table 2 is for the 670-nm field at 2.9 log Td rather than the 3.6-log Td field that was used for the other observers.

Refs. 5 and 6 refer to a suppression of L-cone input. For the argument in the current paper the change in spectral sensitivity need not be due to suppression. For example, if the weight of the M-cone input increased at the same time that the weight of the L-cone input decreased, spectral tuning would change but threshold might not, so high-frequency linearity might hold for a given wavelength despite the change in spectral tuning.

Reviewed by A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Sensory processes and Perception, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds., Vol. I of Handbook of Perception and Human Performance (Wiley, New York, 1986), Chap. 6.

Although changes in flicker spectral sensitivities with mean luminance have been noted by a number of authors (see, e.g., Refs. 1 and 2), these results at high temporal frequencies are not necessarily evidence of effects of chromatic adaptation. In fact, Hamer and Tyler18 have argued that high-frequency linearity suggests that such data cannot be due to effects of chromatic adaptation and instead reflect different temporal properties for the L and M cones.

T. D. Lamb, “Properties of cone photoreceptors in relation to color vision,” in Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Color Vision, D. Ottoson, S. Zeki, eds. (Macmillan, London, 1985), pp. 151–164.

W. H. Swanson, “Time, color and phase,” in Visual Science and Engineering: Models and Applications, D. H. Kelly, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1993).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Effective modulations produced by the stimuli for the L cone, M cone, and a mechanism with the spectral sensitivity of Vλ. The thick horizontal line indicates the modulation value for which the fundamental of the square wave is at 20% modulation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Method for fitting data, illustrated with data from series 1 for observer MB on the long-wavelength adapting field. (a) Effective-amplitude template for the luminance system when log(β) = 0.305, computed by using Eq. (1). (b) Relationship between log CFF and log amplitude, measured directly with monochromatic flicker data; the data were fitted with a second-order polynomial that was chosen for convenience and was of no theoretical import. For heterochromatic flicker data (c) the effective amplitude for a given log(R/G) value is obtained from the template shown in (a), and then the log CFF value for this effective amplitude is obtained from the polynomial shown in (b). This log CFF value is plotted against log (R/G) to yield the curve shown in (c). Near log(R/G) = log(β), when the log CFF values consistently fell below the data, a minimum value (the residual CFF) was used. The fitting procedure adjusted the template in (a) horizontally by adjusting β, it adjusted the smooth curve in (b) by adjusting the three parameters of the second-order polynomial, and it adjusted the minimum in (c) by adjusting the residual CFE Both monochromatic and heterochromatic data were gathered in the same session, and all the parameters were varied simultaneously to fit all 75 data points.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results for all three observers tested in series 1 with the middle-wavelength adapting field (open circles) and the long-wavelength adapting field (filled circles). For each stimulus condition, the median CFF value is shown. Smooth curves are best fits of the model. For all three observers, the long-wavelength adapting field shifted the HMP match to a higher log(R/G) value, reduced CFF at high L-cone contrasts, and increased residual CFF.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results for four of the eight observers tested in series 2, with adapting fields of 510 nm (open circles) and 670 nm (filled circles). The results are similar to those in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results for the remaining four observers tested in series 2, with adapting fields of 510 nm (open circles) and 670 nm (filled circles). The results are similar to those in Fig. 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results for observer MF on the 670-nm, 3.5-log-Td adapting field, with modulation depths reduced by using multipliers of 1.0, 0.33, and 0.10. As modulation depths were reduced, CFF shifted to lower temporal frequencies and the HMP match shifted to higher values of log(R/G). Results were similar for observer WS.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Results for observer KH as tested with reduced luminances of the long-wavelength adapting field. Even at reduced luminances of the long-wavelength adapting field, CFF at high L-cone contrasts is lower than on the middle-wavelength adapting field. Results were similar for observers GV and PV

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean Cone Quantal Catches for the LED’s and Adapting Fields

Tables Icon

Table 2 Log(L/M) Values Derived from HMP and HFP Data and the Change in Log(L/M) Values for the Two Adapting Fields

Tables Icon

Table 3 Log(L/M) Values Derived from HMP Data for Reduced Modulation Depths on the 670-nm Adapting Field

Equations (1)

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amplitude = k 1 - x / β ,

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