Abstract

Luminance was introduced by the CIE as a photometric analog of radiance. This implies that an additive spectral-luminosity function characterizes the human observer. In practice, many different spectral-sensitivity functions characterize human vision, although few produce the additive spectral-luminosity function V(λ), which is suitable for use in practical photometry. Methods that give rise to additive spectral-sensitivity functions that most resemble V(λ) tend to have in common the use of spatial or temporal frequencies that will discriminate against signals from the short-wavelength-sensitive cone pathways or against signals in chromatic pathways. Some of the difference among results obtained with different techniques seems to other the extent to which the methods can bring about changes in the state of chromatic adaptation, but it also reflect seems likely that not all tasks tap the same postreceptoral mechanisms. Psychophysical evidence is equivocal regarding the nature of the postreceptoral mechanisms: some evidence suggests just three mechanisms, one of which has a spectral sensitivity that is like V(λ);other evidence suggests the existence of multiple mechanisms with different spectral sensitivities. Physiological recordings from neurons in the macaque’s visual pathway suggest that the properties of the magnocellular system may be sufficient to account for spectral-sensitivity functions measured with the techniques of heterochromatic flicker photometry, minimally distinct border, and critical flicker fusion. These are the psychophysical methods that yield spectral sensitivities that are most like V(λ). Other methods of measuring spectral sensitivity seem more likely to depend on signals that travel through the parvocellular system.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  135. P. Lennie, M. D. D’Zmura, “Mechanisms of color vision,”CRC Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. 3, 333–400 (1988).
  136. B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Sensitivity of macaque ganglion cells to luminance and chromatic flicker,”J. Physiol. (London) 414, 223–243 (1989).
  137. A. M. Derrington, P. Lennie, “Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivities of neurones in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,”J. Physiol. (London) 357, 219–240 (1984).
  138. B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2223–2236 (1990).
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  139. D. J. Tolhurst, “Reaction times in the detection of gratings by human observers: a probabilistic mechanism,” Vision Res. 15, 1143–1149 (1975).
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  140. T. Ueno, W. H. Swanson, “Response pooling between chromatic and luminance systems,” Vision Res. 29, 325–333 (1989).
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  141. E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, “X and Y cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the macaque monkey,”J. Physiol. (London) 330, 125–144 (1982).
  142. T. P. Hicks, B. B. Lee, T. R. Vidyasagar, “The responses of cells in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to sinusoidal gratings,”J. Physiol. (London) 337, 183–200 (1983).
  143. L. C. L. Silveira, V. H. Perry, “The topography of magnocellular projecting ganglion cells (M-ganglion cells) in the primate retina,” Neuroscience 40, 217–237 (1990).
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  144. U. Grünert, U. Greferath, B. B. Boycott, H. Wässle, “Parasol (Pα) ganglion cells of the primate fovea: immunocytochemical staining with antibodies against GABAA-receptors,” Vision Res. 33, 1–14 (1993).
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  145. C. Blakemore, F. Vital-Durand, “Organization and postnatal development of the monkey’s lateral geniculate nucleus,”J. Physiol. (London) 380, 453–492 (1986).
  146. J. M. Crook, B. Lange-Malecki, B. B. Lee, A. Valberg, “Visual resolution of macaque retinal ganglion cells,”J. Physiol. (London) 396, 205–224 (1988).
  147. W. H. Merigan, T. A. Eskin, “Spatio-temporal vision of macaques with severe loss of Pβretinal ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 26, 1751–1761 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  148. W. H. Merigan, J. H. R. Maunsell, “Macaque vision after magnocellular lateral geniculate lesions,” Vis. Neurosci. 5, 347–352 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  149. P. H. Schiller, N. K. Logothetis, E. R. Charles, “Role of the color-opponent and broad-band channels in vision,” Vis. Neurosci. 5, 321–346 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  150. W. H. Merigan, L. M. Katz, J. H. R. Maunsell, “The effects of parvocellular lateral geniculate lesions on the acuity and contrast sensitivity of macaque monkeys,” J. Neurosci. 11, 994–1001 (1991).
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  151. M. A. Bouman, P. L. Walraven, “Some color naming experiments for red and green monochromatic lights,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 834–839 (1957).
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  152. J. Krauskopf, “Color appearance of small stimuli and the spatial distribution of color receptors,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1171 (1964).
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  153. D. C. Hood, M. A. Finkelstein, “A case for the revision of textbook models of color vision: the detection and appearance of small brief lights,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 385–398.
  154. J. M. Cook, B. B. Lee, D. A. Tigwell, A. Valberg, “Thresholds to chromatic spots of cells in the macaque geniculate nucleus as compared to detection sensitivity in man,”J. Physiol. (London) 392, 193–211 (1987).
  155. R. L. DeValois, D. M. Snodderly, E. W. Yund, N. K. Hepler, “Responses of macaque lateral geniculate cells to luminance and color figures,” Sensory Proc. 1, 244–259 (1977).
  156. C. R. J. Ingling, E. Martinez-Uriegas, “The spatio-chromatic signal of the R–G channel,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 433–444.
  157. D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex,”J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215–243 (1968).
  158. L. G. Thorell, R. L. DeValois, D. G. Albrecht, “Spatial tuning of monkey V1 cells with pure color and luminance stimuli,” Vision Res. 24, 751–769 (1984).
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  159. P. Lennie, J. Krauskopf, G. Sclar, “Chromatic mechanisms in striate cortex of macaque,” J. Neurosci. 10, 649–669 (1990).
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1993 (2)

U. Grünert, U. Greferath, B. B. Boycott, H. Wässle, “Parasol (Pα) ganglion cells of the primate fovea: immunocytochemical staining with antibodies against GABAA-receptors,” Vision Res. 33, 1–14 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, Q. Jin, V. C. Smith, “Spectral-luminosity functions, scalar linearity, and chromatic adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1304–1313 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

S. Shioiri, P. Cavanagh, “Achromatic form perception is based on luminance, not brightness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1672–1681 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Ingling, S. S. Grigsby, R. C. Long, “Comparison of spectral sensitivity using heterochromatic flicker photometry and an acuity criterion,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 187–196 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Response of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,”J. Physiol. (London) 458, 191–221 (1992).

1991 (4)

P. Cavanagh, “No slowing for active motion perception,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 32, 894 (1991).

M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation,” Nature (London) 349, 235–238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Stockman, D. I. A. MacLeod, D. D. DePriest, “The temporal properties of the human short-wave photoreceptors and their associated pathways,” Vision Res. 31, 189–208 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Merigan, L. M. Katz, J. H. R. Maunsell, “The effects of parvocellular lateral geniculate lesions on the acuity and contrast sensitivity of macaque monkeys,” J. Neurosci. 11, 994–1001 (1991).
[PubMed]

1990 (8)

W. H. Merigan, J. H. R. Maunsell, “Macaque vision after magnocellular lateral geniculate lesions,” Vis. Neurosci. 5, 347–352 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Schiller, N. K. Logothetis, E. R. Charles, “Role of the color-opponent and broad-band channels in vision,” Vis. Neurosci. 5, 321–346 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Kaiser, B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of the minimally distinct border demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 422, 153–183 (1990).

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2223–2236 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. L. Silveira, V. H. Perry, “The topography of magnocellular projecting ganglion cells (M-ganglion cells) in the primate retina,” Neuroscience 40, 217–237 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Lennie, J. Krauskopf, G. Sclar, “Chromatic mechanisms in striate cortex of macaque,” J. Neurosci. 10, 649–669 (1990).
[PubMed]

J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,”J. Physiol. (London) 427, 681–713 (1990).

M. Lutze, N. J. Cox, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Genetic studies of variation in Rayleigh and photometric matches in normal trichromats,” Vision Res. 30, 149–162 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (4)

P. K. Kaiser, R. L. P. Vimal, W. B. Cowan, H. Hibano, “Nulling of apparent motion as a method for assessing sensation luminance: an additivity test,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 187–191 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Lindsey, D. Y. Teller, “Influence of variations in edge blur on minimally distinct border judgments: a theoretical and empirical investigation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 446–458 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Sensitivity of macaque ganglion cells to luminance and chromatic flicker,”J. Physiol. (London) 414, 223–243 (1989).

T. Ueno, W. H. Swanson, “Response pooling between chromatic and luminance systems,” Vision Res. 29, 325–333 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (4)

J. M. Crook, B. Lange-Malecki, B. B. Lee, A. Valberg, “Visual resolution of macaque retinal ganglion cells,”J. Physiol. (London) 396, 205–224 (1988).

P. K. Kaiser, “Sensation luminance: a new name to distinguish CIE luminance from luminance dependent on an individual’s spectral sensitivity,” Vision Res. 28, 455–456 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Lennie, M. D. D’Zmura, “Mechanisms of color vision,”CRC Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. 3, 333–400 (1988).

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 404, 323–347 (1988).

1987 (7)

1986 (8)

D. T. Lindsey, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 921–927 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Kaiser, M. Ayama, “Small brief foveal stimuli: an additivity experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 930–934 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Krauskopf, Q. Zaidi, M. B. Mandler, “Mechanisms of simultaneous color induction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1752–1757 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Merigan, T. A. Eskin, “Spatio-temporal vision of macaques with severe loss of Pβretinal ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 26, 1751–1761 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Blakemore, F. Vital-Durand, “Organization and postnatal development of the monkey’s lateral geniculate nucleus,”J. Physiol. (London) 380, 453–492 (1986).

S. Luria, D. F. Neri, “Individual differences in luminous efficiency measured by flicker photometry,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 72–75 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, M. B. Mandler, A. M. Brown, “Higher order color mechanisms,” Vision Res. 26, 23–32 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Takahashi, Y. Ejima, “Increment spectral sensitivities for spatial periodic grating patterns: evidence for variable tuning of the chromatic system,” Vision Res. 26, 1851–1864 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

T. Ueno, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Reaction times to chromatic stimuli,” Vision Res. 25, 1623–1627 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,”J. Physiol. (London) 359, 381–400 (1985).

1984 (6)

L. G. Thorell, R. L. DeValois, D. G. Albrecht, “Spatial tuning of monkey V1 cells with pure color and luminance stimuli,” Vision Res. 24, 751–769 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Derrington, P. Lennie, “Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivities of neurones in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,”J. Physiol. (London) 357, 219–240 (1984).

W. B. Cowan, G. Wyszecki, H. Yaguchi, “Probability summation among color channels,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 97 (1984).

V. C. Smith, R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, “Threshold temporal integration of chromatic stimuli,” Vision Res. 24, 653–660 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,”J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

M. A. Finkelstein, D. C. Hood, “Detection and discrimination of small, brief lights: variable tuning of opponent channels,” Vision Res. 24, 175–181 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (5)

M. J. Valeton, D. V. Norren, “Light adaptation of primate cones: an analysis based on extracellular data,” Vision Res. 23, 1539–1547 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Thornton, E. N. J. Pugh, “Red/green color opponency at detection threshold,” Science 219, 191–193 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Hicks, B. B. Lee, T. R. Vidyasagar, “The responses of cells in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to sinusoidal gratings,”J. Physiol. (London) 337, 183–200 (1983).

D. H. Kelly, “Spatiotemporal variation of chromatic and achromatic contrast thresholds,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 742–750 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ikeda, “Linearity reexamined for flicker photometry by the summation-index method,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1055–1061 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (6)

1981 (1)

1980 (3)

1979 (5)

P. Gouras, E. Zrenner, “Enhancement of luminance flicker by color-opponent mechanisms,” Science 205, 587–589 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Nissen, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Chromatic information processing,”J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 5, 406–419 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kranda, P. E. King-Smith, “Detection of coloured stimuli by independent linear systems,” Vision Res. 19, 733–745 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Bowen, M. J. Nissen, “Luminance, not brightness, determines temporal brightness enhancement with chromatic stimuli,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 581–584 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, R. W. Bowen, D. T. Lindsey, V. C. Smith, “Duration thresholds for chromatic stimuli,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 103–106 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (2)

C. R. Ingling, B. H. Tsou, T. J. Gast, S. A. Burns, J. O. Emerick, L. Riesenberg, “The achromatic channel. I. The non-linearity of minimum border and flicker matches,” Vision Res. 18, 379–390 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kaiser, G. Wyszecki, “Additivity failures in heterochromatic brightness matching,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 177–182 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (5)

H. D. Bauer, R. Rohler, “Brightness generation in the human visual system. Colour-brightness: a contribution of cortical colour channels to brightness sensation,” Vision Res. 10, 1211–1216 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Gregory, “Vision with isoluminant colour contrast. 1. A projection technique and observations,” Perception 6, 113–119 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Nissen, J. Pokorny, “Wavelength effects on simple reaction time,” Percept. Psychophys. 22, 457–462 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Bowen, D. T. Lindsey, V. C. Smith, “Chromatic two-pulse resolution with and without luminance transients,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1501–1507 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. DeValois, D. M. Snodderly, E. W. Yund, N. K. Hepler, “Responses of macaque lateral geniculate cells to luminance and color figures,” Sensory Proc. 1, 244–259 (1977).

1976 (3)

1975 (3)

D. J. Tolhurst, “Reaction times in the detection of gratings by human observers: a probabilistic mechanism,” Vision Res. 15, 1143–1149 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Guth, B. V. Graham, “Heterochromatic additivity and the acuity response,” Vision Res. 15, 317–319 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

L. E. Marks, M. H. Bornstein, “Spectral sensitivity of the modulation sensitive mechanism of vision,” Vision Res. 14, 665–669 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (3)

1972 (3)

G. Wagner, R. M. Boynton, “Comparison of four methods of heterochromatic photometry,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1508–1515 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, “Laminar and columnar distribution of geniculo-cortical fibers in the macaque monkey,”J. Compar. Neurol. 146, 421–450 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Bornstein, L. E. Marks, “Photopic luminosity measured by the method of critical frequency,” Vision Res. 12, 2023–2034 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (4)

P. K. Kaiser, P. A. Herzberg, R. M. Boynton, “Chromatic border distinctness and its relation to saturation,” Vision Res. 11, 953–968 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lit, R. Young, M. Shaffer, “Simple time reaction as a function of luminance for various wavelengths,” Percept. Psychophys. 10, 397–399 (1971).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Sperling, R. S. Harwerth, “Red–green cone interaction in the increment-threshold spectral sensitivity of primates,” Science 172, 180–184 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wyszecki, G. H. Fielder, “New color-matching ellipses,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1135–1152 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (2)

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, R. T. Marrocco, “On luminance additivity and related topics,” Vision Res. 9, 537–575 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Adam, “Foveal red-green ratios of normals, colorblinds and heterozygotes,” Proc. Tel-Hashomer Hospital (Tel Aviv) 8, 2–6 (1969).

1968 (5)

S. L. Guth, J. V. Alexander, J. I. Chumbly, C. B. Gillman, M. M. Patterson, “Factors influencing luminance additivity at threshold among normal and color blind subjects and elaborations of a trichromatic–opponent colors theory,” Vision Res. 8, 913–928 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, P. K. Kaiser, “Vision: the additivity law made to work for heterochromatic photometry with bipartite fields,” Science 116, 366–368 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Pollack, “Reaction time to different wavelengths at various luminances,” Percept. Psychophys. 3, 17–24 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, C. H. Graham, R. N. Lanson, “Effect of wavelength on foveal grating acuity,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1410–1414 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex,”J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215–243 (1968).

1967 (2)

1966 (2)

R. L. DeValois, I. Abramov, G. H. Jacobs, “Analysis of response patterns of LGN cells,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966–977 (1966).
[CrossRef]

T. Wiesel, D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).
[PubMed]

1965 (1)

1964 (3)

1963 (1)

1960 (1)

1959 (2)

1958 (1)

1957 (2)

1956 (1)

F. von Schwarz, “Weitere Untersuchungen uber den Einfluss der Farbe auf Sehscharfe und Sehleistung,”V. Graefes Arch. Ophthalmol. 157, 534–539 (1956).

1955 (1)

1953 (1)

A. Dresler, “The non-additivity of heterochromatic brightness,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. London 18, 141–165 (1953).

1952 (1)

Y. Hsia, C. H. Graham, “Spectral sensitivity of the cones in the dark adapted human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 38, 80–85 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1951 (1)

M. Tessier, F. Blottaiu, “Variations des caractéristiques photométriques de l‘oeil aux luminances photopiques,” Rev. d’Optique 30, 309–322 (1951).

1949 (1)

D. L. MacAdam, “Colour discrimination and the influence of colour contrast on acuity,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 214–233 (1949).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1948 (1)

H. deVries, “The luminosity curve of the eye as determined by measurements with the flicker photometer,” Physica 14, 319–341 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

H. L. deVries, “The heredity of the relative numbers of red and green receptors in the human eye,” Genetica 24, 199–212 (1947).

1942 (2)

H. Piéron, “Recherches sur la validité de la loi d’Abney,” Ann. Psychol. 40, 52–83 (1942).
[CrossRef]

D. L. MacAdam, “Visual sensitivities to color differences in daylight,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 247–274 (1942).
[CrossRef]

1939 (2)

W. S. Stiles, “The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivities of the rods and cones,” Proc. R. Soc. London 127, 64–105 (1939).
[CrossRef]

H. König, “Bericht ilber den Stand der Frage der spektralen Hellempfindlichkeit des menschlichen Auges,” Bull. Schwiez. Elektrotech. Verein 30, 729–735 (1939).

1923 (1)

K. S. Gibson, E. P. T. Tyndall, “The visibility of radiant energy,”U.S. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sci. Papers 19, 131–191 (1923), paper 475.
[CrossRef]

1918 (2)

P. Reeves, “The visibility of radiation,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 13, 101–109 (1918). Revised energy calibration noted in Ref. 61 below.

E. P. Hyde, W. E. Forsythe, F. E. Cady, “The visibility of radiation,” Astrophys. J. 48, 65–88 (1918).
[CrossRef]

1917 (1)

W. W. Coblentz, W. B. Emerson, “Relative sensibility of the average eye to light of different colors and some practical applications,”U.S. Natl. Bur. Stand. Bull. 14, 167–236 (1917).
[CrossRef]

1914 (1)

P. G. Nutting, “The visibility of radiation,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 9, 633–642 (1914); revised energy calibration noted in Ref. 61 below.

1912 (4)

H. E. Ives, “Studies in the photometry of lights of different colours. I. Spectral luminosity curves obtained by the equality of brightness photometer and the flicker photometer under similar conditions,” Philos. Mag. 24, 149–188 (1912).

H. E. Ives, “Studies in the photometry of lights of different colours. III. Distortions in spectral luminosity curves produced by variations in the character of the comparison standard and of the surrounding photometric field,” Philos. Mag. 24, 744–751 (1912).

H. E. Ives, “Studies in the photometry of lights of different colours. II. Spectral luminosity curves by the method of critical frequency,” Philos. Mag. 24, 352–370 (1912).

H. E. Ives, “On heterochromatic photometry,” Philos. Mag. 24, 845–853 (1912).

1886 (1)

W. Abney, E. R. Festing, “Colour photometry,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 177, 423–456 (1886).
[CrossRef]

Abney, W.

W. Abney, E. R. Festing, “Colour photometry,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 177, 423–456 (1886).
[CrossRef]

W. Abney, Researches in Colour Vision (Longmans, Green, London, 1913).

Abramov, I.

Adam, A.

A. Adam, “Foveal red-green ratios of normals, colorblinds and heterozygotes,” Proc. Tel-Hashomer Hospital (Tel Aviv) 8, 2–6 (1969).

Albrecht, D. G.

L. G. Thorell, R. L. DeValois, D. G. Albrecht, “Spatial tuning of monkey V1 cells with pure color and luminance stimuli,” Vision Res. 24, 751–769 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, J. V.

S. L. Guth, J. V. Alexander, J. I. Chumbly, C. B. Gillman, M. M. Patterson, “Factors influencing luminance additivity at threshold among normal and color blind subjects and elaborations of a trichromatic–opponent colors theory,” Vision Res. 8, 913–928 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anstis, S.

S. Anstis, P. Cavanagh, “A minimum motion technique for judging equiluminance,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 155–166.

Anstis, S. M.

Ayama, M.

Bauer, H. D.

H. D. Bauer, R. Rohler, “Brightness generation in the human visual system. Colour-brightness: a contribution of cortical colour channels to brightness sensation,” Vision Res. 10, 1211–1216 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Baylor, D. A.

J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,”J. Physiol. (London) 427, 681–713 (1990).

Bedford, R. E.

Blakemore, C.

C. Blakemore, F. Vital-Durand, “Organization and postnatal development of the monkey’s lateral geniculate nucleus,”J. Physiol. (London) 380, 453–492 (1986).

Blottaiu, F.

M. Tessier, F. Blottaiu, “Variations des caractéristiques photométriques de l‘oeil aux luminances photopiques,” Rev. d’Optique 30, 309–322 (1951).

Bornstein, M. H.

L. E. Marks, M. H. Bornstein, “Spectral sensitivity of the modulation sensitive mechanism of vision,” Vision Res. 14, 665–669 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bornstein, M. N.

M. N. Bornstein, L. E. Marks, “Photopic luminosity measured by the method of critical frequency,” Vision Res. 12, 2023–2034 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouman, M. A.

Bowen, R. B.

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The spectral sensitivity of more-peripheral retina, which has no macular pigment, is not well characterized by V(λ) at short wavelengths, and the CIE has derived (from 10° color-matching functions) a different function to represent the luminous-efficiency function for a 10° field. This function has not been officially adopted as a large-field standard observer for photometry but has proved useful in color-modeling work. A completely different standard observer [V′(λ)] has been defined to characterize scotopic visual efficiency. CIE Proceedings 1951 (Bureau Central CIE, Paris, 1951) Vol. 3, p. 37.

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E. Kaplan, B. B. Lee, R. M. Shapley, “New views of primate retinal function,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. Osborne, J. Chader, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1990), pp. 273–336.
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P. Lennie, P. W. Haake, D. R. Williams, “The design of chromatically opponent receptive fields,” in Computational Models of Visual Processing, M. S. Landy, J. A. Movshon, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1991), pp. 71–82.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral luminous-efficiency function of the 1924 CIE Standard Observer V(λ)(dashed curve) and the Judd6 revision for the short-wavelength end of the spectrum (solid curve). The two curves coincide for wavelengths greater than 460 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the Judd6 V(λ) spectral luminous-efficiency function (solid curve) with the CIE7 brightness-matching function (dashed curve).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Some Methods of Measuring Spectral-Sensitivity Functions

Equations (1)

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L V = k m λ L e , λ V ( λ ) d λ ,

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