Abstract

Red–green color-discrimination thresholds were measured at eccentricities of 10 and 25 deg in the nasal retina. Thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus field size both during the cone plateau and after dark adaptation. During the cone plateau, threshold decreased with increasing field size, but the effect of field size was dependent on the color of the test stimulus. The decrease in threshold was greater for yellow and orange test stimuli than for red and green tests. Two factors, summation and opponent-mechanism adaptation, appear to affect the relation between threshold and field size. An equation suggested by Boynton and Kambe in 1980 [ Color Res. Appl. 5, 13 ( 1980)] provides a good description of the variation in thresholds with field size and eccentricity. After dark adaptation, thresholds increased for all test colors, suggesting that rod signals reduce discrimination. The dark-adapted thresholds could be described well by the addition of a rod term to the Boynton–Kambe equation.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina: II. Hue and saturation,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. Den Ouden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatio-temporal color constrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. A. Van Esch, E. E. Koldenhoff, A. J. Van Dorn, J. J. Koenderink, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the human peripheral visual field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 443–450 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. K. T. Mullen, “Color vision as a post-receptoral specialization of the central visual field,” Vision Res. 31, 119–130 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the peripheral retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 119, 170–190 (1953).
  7. B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. L. Nagy, S. Wolf, “Red–green color discrimination in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 33, 235–242 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromaticity difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. I. A. MacLeod, R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1183–1186 (1978).
  11. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. P. E. Hallet, “Spatial summation,” Vision Res. 3, 9–24 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. B. Barlow, “Temporal and spatial summation in human vision at different background intensities,”J. Physiol. (London) 141, 337–340 (1958).
  14. M. E. Wilson, “Invariant features of spatial summation with changing locus in the visual field,”J. Physiol. (London) 207, 611–622 (1970).
  15. B. A. Wandell, L. Welsh, L. Maloney, “Adaptation in the long wavelength pathways,” Vision Res. 22, 1071–1074 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Reeves, “Transient desensitization of a red–green opponent site,” Vision Res. 21, 1267–1277 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Second site adaptation in the red–green chromatic pathways,” Vision Res. 25, 219–238 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  18. B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1982).

1993 (1)

A. L. Nagy, S. Wolf, “Red–green color discrimination in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 33, 235–242 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, “Color vision as a post-receptoral specialization of the central visual field,” Vision Res. 31, 119–130 (1991).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Second site adaptation in the red–green chromatic pathways,” Vision Res. 25, 219–238 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (2)

1983 (1)

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. Den Ouden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatio-temporal color constrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

B. A. Wandell, L. Welsh, L. Maloney, “Adaptation in the long wavelength pathways,” Vision Res. 22, 1071–1074 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

A. Reeves, “Transient desensitization of a red–green opponent site,” Vision Res. 21, 1267–1277 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromaticity difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

D. I. A. MacLeod, R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1183–1186 (1978).

1977 (2)

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina: II. Hue and saturation,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

M. E. Wilson, “Invariant features of spatial summation with changing locus in the visual field,”J. Physiol. (London) 207, 611–622 (1970).

1963 (1)

P. E. Hallet, “Spatial summation,” Vision Res. 3, 9–24 (1963).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

H. B. Barlow, “Temporal and spatial summation in human vision at different background intensities,”J. Physiol. (London) 141, 337–340 (1958).

1953 (1)

R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the peripheral retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 119, 170–190 (1953).

Abramov, I.

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, “Temporal and spatial summation in human vision at different background intensities,”J. Physiol. (London) 141, 337–340 (1958).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromaticity difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[Crossref]

D. I. A. MacLeod, R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1183–1186 (1978).

Chan, H.

Cole, G. R.

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Second site adaptation in the red–green chromatic pathways,” Vision Res. 25, 219–238 (1985).
[Crossref]

Den Ouden, R. J.

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. Den Ouden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatio-temporal color constrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
[Crossref]

Edens, B. W.

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. Den Ouden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatio-temporal color constrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
[Crossref]

Gordon, J.

Hallet, P. E.

P. E. Hallet, “Spatial summation,” Vision Res. 3, 9–24 (1963).
[Crossref]

Kambe, N.

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromaticity difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[Crossref]

Koenderink, J. J.

J. A. Van Esch, E. E. Koldenhoff, A. J. Van Dorn, J. J. Koenderink, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the human peripheral visual field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 443–450 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. Den Ouden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatio-temporal color constrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
[Crossref]

Koldenhoff, E. E.

Kronauer, R. E.

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Second site adaptation in the red–green chromatic pathways,” Vision Res. 25, 219–238 (1985).
[Crossref]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. I. A. MacLeod, R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1183–1186 (1978).

Maloney, L.

B. A. Wandell, L. Welsh, L. Maloney, “Adaptation in the long wavelength pathways,” Vision Res. 22, 1071–1074 (1982).
[Crossref]

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen, “Color vision as a post-receptoral specialization of the central visual field,” Vision Res. 31, 119–130 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nagy, A. L.

A. L. Nagy, S. Wolf, “Red–green color discrimination in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 33, 235–242 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noorlander, C.

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. Den Ouden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatio-temporal color constrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
[Crossref]

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reeves, A.

A. Reeves, “Transient desensitization of a red–green opponent site,” Vision Res. 21, 1267–1277 (1981).
[Crossref]

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stabell, B.

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stabell, U.

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Stromeyer, C. F.

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Second site adaptation in the red–green chromatic pathways,” Vision Res. 25, 219–238 (1985).
[Crossref]

Van Dorn, A. J.

Van Esch, J. A.

Wandell, B. A.

B. A. Wandell, L. Welsh, L. Maloney, “Adaptation in the long wavelength pathways,” Vision Res. 22, 1071–1074 (1982).
[Crossref]

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the peripheral retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 119, 170–190 (1953).

Welsh, L.

B. A. Wandell, L. Welsh, L. Maloney, “Adaptation in the long wavelength pathways,” Vision Res. 22, 1071–1074 (1982).
[Crossref]

Wilson, M. E.

M. E. Wilson, “Invariant features of spatial summation with changing locus in the visual field,”J. Physiol. (London) 207, 611–622 (1970).

Wolf, S.

A. L. Nagy, S. Wolf, “Red–green color discrimination in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 33, 235–242 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Color Res. Appl. (1)

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromaticity difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

D. I. A. MacLeod, R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1183–1186 (1978).

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina: II. Hue and saturation,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Physiol. (London) (3)

H. B. Barlow, “Temporal and spatial summation in human vision at different background intensities,”J. Physiol. (London) 141, 337–340 (1958).

M. E. Wilson, “Invariant features of spatial summation with changing locus in the visual field,”J. Physiol. (London) 207, 611–622 (1970).

R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the peripheral retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 119, 170–190 (1953).

Vision Res. (10)

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Nagy, S. Wolf, “Red–green color discrimination in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 33, 235–242 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Wandell, L. Welsh, L. Maloney, “Adaptation in the long wavelength pathways,” Vision Res. 22, 1071–1074 (1982).
[Crossref]

A. Reeves, “Transient desensitization of a red–green opponent site,” Vision Res. 21, 1267–1277 (1981).
[Crossref]

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Second site adaptation in the red–green chromatic pathways,” Vision Res. 25, 219–238 (1985).
[Crossref]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, “Color vision as a post-receptoral specialization of the central visual field,” Vision Res. 31, 119–130 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. Den Ouden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatio-temporal color constrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
[Crossref]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Hallet, “Spatial summation,” Vision Res. 3, 9–24 (1963).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1982).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mean threshold plotted as a function of the diameter of the stimulus field for each of the four test wavelengths at eccentricities of 10 and 25 deg.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mean thresholds for observers JAD, JMG, and ALN plotted as a function of chromaticity for each field size. Data were obtained during the cone plateau at an eccentricity of 10 deg. Standard errors of the mean are ~10% of the threshold (see Table 1 below).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean thresholds for observers JAD, JMG, and ALN plotted as a function of chromaticity for each field size. Data were obtained during the cone plateau at an eccentricity of 25 deg. Standard errors of the mean are ~10% of the threshold (see Table 1 below).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration of the effect of varying the coefficients k and c on predicted thresholds.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation in the value of the Weber fraction, k, required for fitting the data for different field sizes at eccentricities of 10 and 25 deg.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation in the value of the opponent coefficient, c, required for fitting the data for different field sizes at eccentricities of 10 and 25 deg.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Thresholds measured in the fovea for observers JAD, JMG, and ALN.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Mean thresholds for observers JAD, JMG, and ALN plotted as a function of chromaticity in the dark-adapted state at an eccentricity of 25 deg. Standard errors of the mean are ~10% of the threshold (see Table 2).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Ratio of mean dark-adapted thresholds to bleached thresholds plotted as a function of chromaticity.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Weber fractions and rod coefficients required for fitting the dark-adapted data for different field sizes.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of Coefficients, rms Errors, and Standard Errors of the Mean for Bleached Conditionsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Values of Coefficients, rms Errors, and Standard Errors of the Mean For Dark-Adapted Conditions.a

Equations (2)

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Δ ˜ L = k [ L + M + c L - a M ] .
Δ L = k [ L + M + b ( R ) + c L - a M ] .

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