Abstract

Chromatic discrimination thresholds were measured with and without surrounds along two cardinal axes of chromaticity space. On one axis the level of short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS)-cone excitation was varied for constant long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS)-cone and medium-wavelength-sensitive (MWS)-cone excitations, and on the other axis there were equal and opposite changes in LWS-cone and MWS-cone excitations for constant levels of SWS-cone excitation. Results for two of three observers showed that with a dark surround, discrimination mediated by SWS cones was regulated by the level of SWS-cone excitation of the starting chromaticity, showing a function with the form of a threshold-versus-radiance function. For an equiluminant white or yellow surround, the discrimination for all three observers showed a minimum at the level of SWS-cone excitation of the surround, giving a V-shaped function for the white surround. An additional experiment with dimmer white surrounds indicated that while the minimum remained at the white point, the function gradually changed toward the shape with a dark surround. Discrimination thresholds mediated by LWS and MWS cones with a dark surround showed a minimum near the LWS-cone excitation of equal-energy white, giving a V-shaped function. The effect of yellow and white surrounds was to deepen the V The data can be described by a model of chromatic discrimination incorporating a threshold term, a cone gain control, and an opponent gain control into two equations, one for SWS-cone discrimination and one for LWS-cone and MWS-cone discrimination.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. D. Wright, “The sensitivity of the eye to small colour differences,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 53, 93–112 (1941).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. L. MacAdam, “Visual sensitivities to color differences in daylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 247–274 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Le Grand, “Les seuils différentiels de couleurs dans le théorie de Young,” Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 28, 261–278 (1949).
  4. R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. I. A. MacLeod, R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1183–1185 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Boynton and Kambe used the terms blue, green, and red trolands, reflecting their use of color names to refer to cone types. We prefer to use SWS, MWS, and LWS to refer to the cone types and adopt S, M, and L trolands accordingly.
  7. W. R. J. Brown, D. L. MacAdam, “Visual sensitivities to combined chromaticity and luminance differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 808–834 (1949).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. G. Wyszecki, G. H. Fielder, “New color-matching ellipses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1135–1152 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A. L. Nagy, R. T. Eskew, R. M. Boynton, “Analysis of color-matching ellipses in a cone-excitation space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 756–768 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. T. Yeh, “Colorimetric purity discrimination: theory and data,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., 1991).
  11. W. R. J. Brown, “The effect of field size and chromatic surroundings in color discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 837–844 (1952).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “Opponent chromatic induction and wavelength discrimination,” in The Visual System: Neurophysiology and Psychophysics, R. Jung, H. Kornhuber, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1961), pp. 144–152.
    [Crossref]
  13. M. R. Pointer, “Color discrimination as a function of observer adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 750–759 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. J. M. Loomis, T. Berger, “Effects of chromatic adaptation on color discrimination and color appearance,” Vision Res. 19, 891–901 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. Krauskopf, K. Gegenfurtner, “Adaptation and color discrimination,” in Pigments to Perception, A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, eds. (Plenum, London, 1991), pp. 379–389;also, J. Krauskopf, K. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. D. B. Judd, “Colorimetry and artificial daylight,” in Technical Committee No. 7 Report of Secretariat United States Commission (International Commission on Illumination, Twelfth Session, Stockholm, Sweden, 1951), pp. 1–60.
  17. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Le Grand, Light, Colour and Vision, 2nd ed. (Chapman and Hall, London, 1968), p. 106.
  20. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, T. Yeh, “Chromatic discrimination and pigment tests,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).
  21. T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vision Res. (to be published).
  22. D. B. Judd, “Basic correlates of the visual stimulus,” in Handbook of Experimental Psychology, S. S. Stevens, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1951), pp. 811–867.
  23. R. M. Boynton, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, “The gap effect: chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation,” Opt. Acta 24, 159–177 (1977).
    [Crossref]

1987 (1)

1980 (1)

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

D. I. A. MacLeod, R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1183–1185 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Loomis, T. Berger, “Effects of chromatic adaptation on color discrimination and color appearance,” Vision Res. 19, 891–901 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

R. M. Boynton, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, “The gap effect: chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation,” Opt. Acta 24, 159–177 (1977).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

1971 (1)

1952 (1)

1949 (2)

Y. Le Grand, “Les seuils différentiels de couleurs dans le théorie de Young,” Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 28, 261–278 (1949).

W. R. J. Brown, D. L. MacAdam, “Visual sensitivities to combined chromaticity and luminance differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 808–834 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1942 (1)

1941 (1)

W. D. Wright, “The sensitivity of the eye to small colour differences,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 53, 93–112 (1941).
[Crossref]

Berger, T.

J. M. Loomis, T. Berger, “Effects of chromatic adaptation on color discrimination and color appearance,” Vision Res. 19, 891–901 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boynton, R. M.

A. L. Nagy, R. T. Eskew, R. M. Boynton, “Analysis of color-matching ellipses in a cone-excitation space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 756–768 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[Crossref]

D. I. A. MacLeod, R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1183–1185 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, “The gap effect: chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation,” Opt. Acta 24, 159–177 (1977).
[Crossref]

Brown, W. R. J.

Eskew, R. T.

Fielder, G. H.

Gegenfurtner, K.

J. Krauskopf, K. Gegenfurtner, “Adaptation and color discrimination,” in Pigments to Perception, A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, eds. (Plenum, London, 1991), pp. 379–389;also, J. Krauskopf, K. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayhoe, M. M.

R. M. Boynton, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, “The gap effect: chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation,” Opt. Acta 24, 159–177 (1977).
[Crossref]

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “Opponent chromatic induction and wavelength discrimination,” in The Visual System: Neurophysiology and Psychophysics, R. Jung, H. Kornhuber, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1961), pp. 144–152.
[Crossref]

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “Opponent chromatic induction and wavelength discrimination,” in The Visual System: Neurophysiology and Psychophysics, R. Jung, H. Kornhuber, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1961), pp. 144–152.
[Crossref]

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, “Colorimetry and artificial daylight,” in Technical Committee No. 7 Report of Secretariat United States Commission (International Commission on Illumination, Twelfth Session, Stockholm, Sweden, 1951), pp. 1–60.

D. B. Judd, “Basic correlates of the visual stimulus,” in Handbook of Experimental Psychology, S. S. Stevens, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1951), pp. 811–867.

Kambe, N.

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[Crossref]

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf, K. Gegenfurtner, “Adaptation and color discrimination,” in Pigments to Perception, A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, eds. (Plenum, London, 1991), pp. 379–389;also, J. Krauskopf, K. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Grand, Y.

Y. Le Grand, “Les seuils différentiels de couleurs dans le théorie de Young,” Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 28, 261–278 (1949).

Y. Le Grand, Light, Colour and Vision, 2nd ed. (Chapman and Hall, London, 1968), p. 106.

Loomis, J. M.

J. M. Loomis, T. Berger, “Effects of chromatic adaptation on color discrimination and color appearance,” Vision Res. 19, 891–901 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacAdam, D. L.

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. I. A. MacLeod, R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1183–1185 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, “The gap effect: chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation,” Opt. Acta 24, 159–177 (1977).
[Crossref]

Nagy, A. L.

Pointer, M. R.

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, T. Yeh, “Chromatic discrimination and pigment tests,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vision Res. (to be published).

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, T. Yeh, “Chromatic discrimination and pigment tests,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vision Res. (to be published).

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
[Crossref]

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, “The sensitivity of the eye to small colour differences,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 53, 93–112 (1941).
[Crossref]

Wyszecki, G.

Yeh, T.

T. Yeh, “Colorimetric purity discrimination: theory and data,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., 1991).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, T. Yeh, “Chromatic discrimination and pigment tests,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vision Res. (to be published).

Color Res. Appl. (2)

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Acta (1)

R. M. Boynton, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, “The gap effect: chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation,” Opt. Acta 24, 159–177 (1977).
[Crossref]

Proc. Phys. Soc. London (1)

W. D. Wright, “The sensitivity of the eye to small colour differences,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 53, 93–112 (1941).
[Crossref]

Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. (1)

Y. Le Grand, “Les seuils différentiels de couleurs dans le théorie de Young,” Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 28, 261–278 (1949).

Vision Res. (2)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Loomis, T. Berger, “Effects of chromatic adaptation on color discrimination and color appearance,” Vision Res. 19, 891–901 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (9)

J. Krauskopf, K. Gegenfurtner, “Adaptation and color discrimination,” in Pigments to Perception, A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, eds. (Plenum, London, 1991), pp. 379–389;also, J. Krauskopf, K. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Judd, “Colorimetry and artificial daylight,” in Technical Committee No. 7 Report of Secretariat United States Commission (International Commission on Illumination, Twelfth Session, Stockholm, Sweden, 1951), pp. 1–60.

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “Opponent chromatic induction and wavelength discrimination,” in The Visual System: Neurophysiology and Psychophysics, R. Jung, H. Kornhuber, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1961), pp. 144–152.
[Crossref]

Boynton and Kambe used the terms blue, green, and red trolands, reflecting their use of color names to refer to cone types. We prefer to use SWS, MWS, and LWS to refer to the cone types and adopt S, M, and L trolands accordingly.

T. Yeh, “Colorimetric purity discrimination: theory and data,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., 1991).

Y. Le Grand, Light, Colour and Vision, 2nd ed. (Chapman and Hall, London, 1968), p. 106.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, T. Yeh, “Chromatic discrimination and pigment tests,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vision Res. (to be published).

D. B. Judd, “Basic correlates of the visual stimulus,” in Handbook of Experimental Psychology, S. S. Stevens, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1951), pp. 811–867.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Filled circles show target colors at which chromatic discrimination was measured in the Judd chromaticity diagram. Dotted lines show the gamut of colors on a color monitor at 12 cd/m2; dotted–dashed lines are T lines; dashed lines are R/G lines. Arrows represent four directions of changing color. S+ is the direction that increased SWS-cone excitation; S− is the direction that decreased SWS-cone excitation; L+ is the direction that increased LWS-cone excitation; L− is the direction that decreased LWS-cone excitation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mean thresholds for the 20 target colors with the white surround plotted in a cone-troland space. Arrows show L-cone and S-cone trolands of the white surround.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ΔS as a function of SWS-cone excitation by the target color. Filled triangles represent thresholds obtained with the dark surround, open squares with the yellow surround, and filled circles with the white surround. Error bars indicate ±2 SEM. Open arrows show the level of SWS-cone excitation by the yellow surround, solid arrows by the white surround. Dotted lines represent the solutions of Eq. (11) for thresholds with the dark surround, dotted–dashed lines with the yellow surround, and solid lines with the white surround.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ΔS as a function of SWS-cone excitation as a function of the luminance of the white surround. Open circles show thresholds with the white surround of 110 S Td, filled squares with the white surround of 62 S Td, open triangles with the white surround of 35 S Td, and filled circles with the dark surround. Open circles and filled circles were replotted from Fig. 2. Error bars indicate ±2 SEM. Arrows and symbols represent the level of SWS-cone excitation by the various surrounds. Solid lines represent the solutions of Eq. (11). The vertical positions of the graphs are displaced for clarity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

ΔL as a function of LWS-cone excitation by the target color. Filled triangles represent thresholds with the dark surround, open squares with the yellow surround, and filled circles with the white surround. Error bars indicate ±2 SEM. The horizontal position of the arrows shows the level of LWS-cone excitation by the yellow and the white surround. Dotted lines represent the solutions of Eq. (13) for thresholds with the dark surround and solid lines with the yellow and the white surround.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Chromaticity Coordinates of Phosphors

Tables Icon

Table 2 Values of Parameters for Fits of Eq. (11) to the SWS-Cone-Discrimination Thresholds

Tables Icon

Table 3 Values of Parameters for Fits of Eq. (13) to the LWS-Cone-Discrimination Thresholds

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

l / ( l + m ) = 0.15514 x / y + 0.54312 0.03286 z / y ,
m / ( l + m ) = 0.15514 x / y + 0.45684 + 0.03286 z / y ,
s / ( l + m ) = 0.01608 z / y ,
L Td = I [ l / ( l + m ) ] ,
M Td = I [ m / ( l + m ) ] ,
S Td = I [ s / ( l + m ) ] 62.19 ,
Δ S = | S target S response | ,
Δ L = | L target L response | ,
Δ S = C 0 ( S + k B 0 ) ,
Δ S = S thr [ 1 + S ( S R ) ] ,
Δ S = S thr [ 1 + k ( L + M ) ] × { 1 + S OPP ( | S S A | ) / [ 1 + k ( L + M ) ] } ,
Δ L = C 1 [ ( L + M ) + C 2 ( | L 2 M | ) + ( 0.05 S ) ] ,
Δ L = L thr [ 1 + L R ( L A ) ] × { 1 + L OPP ( | L L A | ) 3.008 / [ 1 + L R ( L A ) ] } .

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