Abstract

Equiluminous red–green sine-wave gratings were drifted at a uniform rate in the bottom half of a 10-deg field. In the top half of the display was a sinusoidal-luminance grating of the same spatial frequency and 95% contrast that drifted in the opposite direction. Observers, while fixating a point in the display center, adjusted the speed of this upper comparison grating so that it appeared to match the velocity of the chromatic grating below. At low spatial frequencies, equiluminous gratings were appreciably slowed and sometimes stopped even though the individual bars of the grating could be easily resolved. The amount of slowing was proportionally greatest for gratings with slow drift rates. Blue–yellow sine-wave gratings showed similar effects. When luminance contrast was held constant, increasing chrominance modulation caused further decreases in apparent velocity, ruling out the possibility that the slowing was simply due to decreased luminance contrast. Perceived velocity appears to be a weighted average of luminance and chrominance velocity information.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. M. Zeki, “Uniformity and diversity of structure and function in rhesus monkey prestriate visual cortex,” J. Physiol. 277, 273–290 (1978).
    [PubMed]
  2. V. S. Ramachandran, R. L. Gregory, “Does colour provide an input to human motion perception?” Nature 275, 55–57 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. D. Moreland, “Spectral sensitivity measured by motion photometry,” in Color Deficiencies V, G. Verriest, ed. (Hilger, Bristol, U.K.. 1980), Vol. 5, pp. 299–305.
  4. P. Cavanagh, J. Boeglin, O. E. Favreau, “Motion perception in equiluminous kinematograms,” Perception (to be published).
  5. P. Thompson, “Perceived rate of movement depends on contrast,” Vision Res. 22, 377–380 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. The term chrominance mechanisms is used to denote mechanisms coding for chromatic variation across chromaticity space. Chromatic is used as a synonym for colored, which properly describes stimuli rather than mechanisms.
  7. R. M. Boynton, P. K. Kaiser, “Temporal analog of the minimally distinct border,” Vision Res. 18, 111–113 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. The CIE coordinates were calculated from a spectroradiometric calibration of our monitor performed at G. Wyszecki’s laboratory at the National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada.
  9. S. M. Anstis, P. Cavanagh, “A minimum motion technique for judging equiluminance,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 155–166.
  10. D. H. Kelly, “Spatiotemporal variation of chromatic and achromatic contrast thresholds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 742–750 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Fourier analysis of this stepped stimulus shows that the transitions produce upper harmonics at multiples of 15, 17, 31, 33, etc. of the fundamental frequency, each nth harmonic having an amplitude of 1/n of the fundamental. The lowest frequency used here was 0.4 cpd at 70% chrominance modulation, so its lowest harmonic was 6 cpd at 4.6% modulation. According to Ref. 10, Fig. 2, the threshold for this component is about 10%. Even the sums of the fifteenth and seventeenth harmonics do not reach threshold in this worst-case stimulus.
  12. Similarly, the luminance component of the transition varied from 0 to 16% in amplitude. Its upper harmonics, therefore, will all be lower than 1% amplitude, whereas the luminance contrast threshold is greater than 1% at all these harmonics (Ref. 10, Fig. 8). At all higher test spatial frequencies, the upper harmonics resulting from the transitions are even further below their thresholds, both because the thresholds increase with spatial frequency and because the diffusion sheet begins to reduce their amplitude.
  13. The upper temporal harmonics of an interlaced 30-Hz presentation start at 22.5 Hz and 0.38 of the fundamental amplitude for the highest temporal rate used here (7.5 Hz). Lower temporal rates in the stimuli permit more samples per cycle, and the lowest upper harmonic is consequently at a higher temporal frequency (i.e., greater than 22.5) and lower amplitude. The fundamental amplitude of 70% chrominance and 16% luminance modulation produces upper harmonics of 26.6% chrominance and 6.1% luminance modulation, both of which are below their respective thresholds at 22.5 Hz.
  14. P. L. Walraven, H. J. Leebeck, “Phase shift of sinusoidally alternating colored stimuli,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 78–82 (1964).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. W. B. Cushman, J. Z. Levinson, “Phase shift in red and green counterphase flicker at high frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1557–1561 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. F. W. Campbell, L. Maffei, “The influence of spatial frequency and contrast on the perception of moving patterns,” Vision Res. 21, 713–721 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. M. Lichtenstein, “Spatiotemporal factors in cessation of smooth apparent motion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 304–306 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. M. MacKay, “Anomalous perception of extrafoveal motion,” Perception 11, 359–360 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. P. D. Tynan, R. Sekuler, “Motion processing in peripheral vision: reaction time and perceived velocity,” Vision Res. 22, 61–68 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. Green, “Contrast detection and direction discrimination of drifting gratings,” Vision Res. 23, 281–289 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. S. Salvatore, “Spatial summation in motion perception,” in Visual Psychophysics and Psychology, J. C. Armington, J. Krauskopf, B. R. Wooten, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 397–415.
    [Crossref]
  22. M. A. Georgeson, G. D. Sullivan, “Contrast constancy: de-blurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels,” J. Physiol. (London) 252, 627–655 (1975).

1983 (3)

1982 (3)

D. M. MacKay, “Anomalous perception of extrafoveal motion,” Perception 11, 359–360 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. D. Tynan, R. Sekuler, “Motion processing in peripheral vision: reaction time and perceived velocity,” Vision Res. 22, 61–68 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thompson, “Perceived rate of movement depends on contrast,” Vision Res. 22, 377–380 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

F. W. Campbell, L. Maffei, “The influence of spatial frequency and contrast on the perception of moving patterns,” Vision Res. 21, 713–721 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (3)

R. M. Boynton, P. K. Kaiser, “Temporal analog of the minimally distinct border,” Vision Res. 18, 111–113 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Zeki, “Uniformity and diversity of structure and function in rhesus monkey prestriate visual cortex,” J. Physiol. 277, 273–290 (1978).
[PubMed]

V. S. Ramachandran, R. L. Gregory, “Does colour provide an input to human motion perception?” Nature 275, 55–57 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

M. A. Georgeson, G. D. Sullivan, “Contrast constancy: de-blurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels,” J. Physiol. (London) 252, 627–655 (1975).

1964 (1)

1963 (1)

Anstis, S. M.

S. M. Anstis, P. Cavanagh, “A minimum motion technique for judging equiluminance,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 155–166.

Boeglin, J.

P. Cavanagh, J. Boeglin, O. E. Favreau, “Motion perception in equiluminous kinematograms,” Perception (to be published).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, P. K. Kaiser, “Temporal analog of the minimally distinct border,” Vision Res. 18, 111–113 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell, L. Maffei, “The influence of spatial frequency and contrast on the perception of moving patterns,” Vision Res. 21, 713–721 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cavanagh, P.

S. M. Anstis, P. Cavanagh, “A minimum motion technique for judging equiluminance,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 155–166.

P. Cavanagh, J. Boeglin, O. E. Favreau, “Motion perception in equiluminous kinematograms,” Perception (to be published).

Cushman, W. B.

Favreau, O. E.

P. Cavanagh, J. Boeglin, O. E. Favreau, “Motion perception in equiluminous kinematograms,” Perception (to be published).

Georgeson, M. A.

M. A. Georgeson, G. D. Sullivan, “Contrast constancy: de-blurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels,” J. Physiol. (London) 252, 627–655 (1975).

Green, M.

M. Green, “Contrast detection and direction discrimination of drifting gratings,” Vision Res. 23, 281–289 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, R. L.

V. S. Ramachandran, R. L. Gregory, “Does colour provide an input to human motion perception?” Nature 275, 55–57 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaiser, P. K.

R. M. Boynton, P. K. Kaiser, “Temporal analog of the minimally distinct border,” Vision Res. 18, 111–113 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, D. H.

Leebeck, H. J.

Levinson, J. Z.

Lichtenstein, M.

MacKay, D. M.

D. M. MacKay, “Anomalous perception of extrafoveal motion,” Perception 11, 359–360 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maffei, L.

F. W. Campbell, L. Maffei, “The influence of spatial frequency and contrast on the perception of moving patterns,” Vision Res. 21, 713–721 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland, “Spectral sensitivity measured by motion photometry,” in Color Deficiencies V, G. Verriest, ed. (Hilger, Bristol, U.K.. 1980), Vol. 5, pp. 299–305.

Ramachandran, V. S.

V. S. Ramachandran, R. L. Gregory, “Does colour provide an input to human motion perception?” Nature 275, 55–57 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salvatore, S.

S. Salvatore, “Spatial summation in motion perception,” in Visual Psychophysics and Psychology, J. C. Armington, J. Krauskopf, B. R. Wooten, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 397–415.
[Crossref]

Sekuler, R.

P. D. Tynan, R. Sekuler, “Motion processing in peripheral vision: reaction time and perceived velocity,” Vision Res. 22, 61–68 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sullivan, G. D.

M. A. Georgeson, G. D. Sullivan, “Contrast constancy: de-blurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels,” J. Physiol. (London) 252, 627–655 (1975).

Thompson, P.

P. Thompson, “Perceived rate of movement depends on contrast,” Vision Res. 22, 377–380 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tynan, P. D.

P. D. Tynan, R. Sekuler, “Motion processing in peripheral vision: reaction time and perceived velocity,” Vision Res. 22, 61–68 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walraven, P. L.

Zeki, S. M.

S. M. Zeki, “Uniformity and diversity of structure and function in rhesus monkey prestriate visual cortex,” J. Physiol. 277, 273–290 (1978).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Physiol. (1)

S. M. Zeki, “Uniformity and diversity of structure and function in rhesus monkey prestriate visual cortex,” J. Physiol. 277, 273–290 (1978).
[PubMed]

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

M. A. Georgeson, G. D. Sullivan, “Contrast constancy: de-blurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels,” J. Physiol. (London) 252, 627–655 (1975).

Nature (1)

V. S. Ramachandran, R. L. Gregory, “Does colour provide an input to human motion perception?” Nature 275, 55–57 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perception (1)

D. M. MacKay, “Anomalous perception of extrafoveal motion,” Perception 11, 359–360 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (5)

P. D. Tynan, R. Sekuler, “Motion processing in peripheral vision: reaction time and perceived velocity,” Vision Res. 22, 61–68 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Green, “Contrast detection and direction discrimination of drifting gratings,” Vision Res. 23, 281–289 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thompson, “Perceived rate of movement depends on contrast,” Vision Res. 22, 377–380 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, P. K. Kaiser, “Temporal analog of the minimally distinct border,” Vision Res. 18, 111–113 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. W. Campbell, L. Maffei, “The influence of spatial frequency and contrast on the perception of moving patterns,” Vision Res. 21, 713–721 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (9)

The CIE coordinates were calculated from a spectroradiometric calibration of our monitor performed at G. Wyszecki’s laboratory at the National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada.

S. M. Anstis, P. Cavanagh, “A minimum motion technique for judging equiluminance,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 155–166.

The term chrominance mechanisms is used to denote mechanisms coding for chromatic variation across chromaticity space. Chromatic is used as a synonym for colored, which properly describes stimuli rather than mechanisms.

J. D. Moreland, “Spectral sensitivity measured by motion photometry,” in Color Deficiencies V, G. Verriest, ed. (Hilger, Bristol, U.K.. 1980), Vol. 5, pp. 299–305.

P. Cavanagh, J. Boeglin, O. E. Favreau, “Motion perception in equiluminous kinematograms,” Perception (to be published).

S. Salvatore, “Spatial summation in motion perception,” in Visual Psychophysics and Psychology, J. C. Armington, J. Krauskopf, B. R. Wooten, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 397–415.
[Crossref]

Fourier analysis of this stepped stimulus shows that the transitions produce upper harmonics at multiples of 15, 17, 31, 33, etc. of the fundamental frequency, each nth harmonic having an amplitude of 1/n of the fundamental. The lowest frequency used here was 0.4 cpd at 70% chrominance modulation, so its lowest harmonic was 6 cpd at 4.6% modulation. According to Ref. 10, Fig. 2, the threshold for this component is about 10%. Even the sums of the fifteenth and seventeenth harmonics do not reach threshold in this worst-case stimulus.

Similarly, the luminance component of the transition varied from 0 to 16% in amplitude. Its upper harmonics, therefore, will all be lower than 1% amplitude, whereas the luminance contrast threshold is greater than 1% at all these harmonics (Ref. 10, Fig. 8). At all higher test spatial frequencies, the upper harmonics resulting from the transitions are even further below their thresholds, both because the thresholds increase with spatial frequency and because the diffusion sheet begins to reduce their amplitude.

The upper temporal harmonics of an interlaced 30-Hz presentation start at 22.5 Hz and 0.38 of the fundamental amplitude for the highest temporal rate used here (7.5 Hz). Lower temporal rates in the stimuli permit more samples per cycle, and the lowest upper harmonic is consequently at a higher temporal frequency (i.e., greater than 22.5) and lower amplitude. The fundamental amplitude of 70% chrominance and 16% luminance modulation produces upper harmonics of 26.6% chrominance and 6.1% luminance modulation, both of which are below their respective thresholds at 22.5 Hz.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The red–green chrominance modulation varied about the point Yel in the CIE diagram, reaching chromaticities G and R at maximum modulation (100%). The blue–yellow modulation varied in a similar fashion about a point midway between the blue phosphor and the Yel chromaticity shown here. (b) Red (R) and green (G) wave forms with red modulation less than green resulting in a luminance modulation (L) that is arbitrarily labeled negative [see Eq. (1)]. (c) As in (b), but green modulation less than red; luminance modulation labeled positive in this case.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative speed of a red–green test grating (the speed of a black–white comparison grating set to perceptual match with the test divided by the actual test speed) as a function of luminance modulation at three test speeds for observers PC, OEF, and CWT. Spatial frequency was 0.8 cpd.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative speed of a blue–yellow test grating as a function of luminance modulation for observers PC and CWT. Spatial frequency was 0.8 cpd, and test speed was 1.2 deg/sec.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative speed of a red–green test grating as a function of luminance modulation and spatial frequency for observers PC and PAC. Test speed was 1.2 deg/sec.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative speed of a yellow luminance grating (●) and a 7% red–green chromatic grating (○) as a function of luminance modulation and test speed for observers PC and OEF. Spatial frequency was 0.8 cpd.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative speed of a 4% luminance grating as a function of its red–green chrominance modulation for observers PC and PAC. Spatial frequency was 0.8 cpd, and test speed was 1.2 deg/sec. Negative chrominance modulation indicates that green modulation was greater than red.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative speed of a red–green test grating as a function of luminance modulation for three test speeds and two spatial frequencies. Observer PC.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Hypothetical relations between actual velocity and perceived velocity for chromatic and luminance gratings showing a higher motion threshold and an increase in perceived velocity for the color stimulus that parallels that for the luminance stimulus.

Equations (1)

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Luminance modulation = ( R mod - G mod ) / ( R ¯ + G ¯ ) .

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