Abstract

The interaction between summation and adaptation mechanisms near the absolute threshold of vision is studied. In this paper, results are presented of measurements of both light detection and flicker detection for circular flashes with a diameter of 5.7–480 min of arc, a flash duration of 5–1000 msec, a period of 0–8000 msec, and at eccentricities of 7 and 40 deg in the temporal retina. It is confirmed that the estimates of the summation times obtained from the light-detection-threshold energy as a function of the period and from the light-detection threshold as a function of the flash duration are similar; these estimates depend on the stimulus size and eccentricity. It is suggested that two summation mechanisms can be distinguished, one for the preprocessing and one for the detection mechanism. The summation time of the first mechanism is estimated to be about 100 msec; that of the latter, about 500 msec. At 40-deg eccentricity, decreasing the period of presentation leads initially to a rise in the light-detection threshold, pointing to adaptational phenomena. The flicker threshold is determined by the energy per flash (for brief flashes); when the flash duration exceeds 100 msec, the intensity of the flash is the important parameter. The flicker threshold depends strongly and in an irregular way on the stimulus size because of lateral inhibition effects.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Bouman, W. A. van de Grind, P. Zuidema, “Quantum fluctuations in vision,” in Progress in Optics 22, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland Physics, Amsterdam) (to be published, 1985).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
  6. M. A. Bouman, “Visual thresholds for line-shaped targets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 209–211 (1953).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  8. G. van de Brink, M. A. Bouman, “Variation of integrative action in the retinal system: an adaptational phenomenon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 616–620 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. D. Glezer, “The receptive fields of the retina,” Vision Res. 5, 497–525 (1965).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. Zuidema, H. Verschuure, M. A. Bouman, J. J. Koenderink, “Spatial and temporal summation in the human dark-adapted retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1472–1480 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Zuidema, J. J. Koenderink, M. A. Bouman, “A mechanistic approach to threshold vision,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-13, 923–934 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Martinez, J. F. Sturr, N. L. Schmalback, “The luminance difference threshold as a contrast threshold: evidence for inhibitory interactions in spatial summation,” Vision Res. 17, 687–689 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. D. Baker, F. G. Bargoot, “Effect of stimulus presentation rate upon visual threshold,” Vision Res. 17, 379–383 (1977).
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  16. F. S. Frome, D. I. A. McLeod, S. L. Buck, D. R. Williams, “Large loss of visual sensitivity to flashed peripheral targets,” Vision Res. 21, 1323–1328 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. Singer, J. Zihl, E. Pöppel, “Subcortical control of visual thresholds in humans: evidence for modality specific and retinotopically organized mechanisms of selective attention,” Exp. Brain Res. 29, 173–190 (1977).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. E. Hita, J. Romero, L. Jimenez del Barco, R. Martinez, “Temporal aspects of color discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 578–582 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. E. Davy, “The intensity–time relation for multiple flashes of light in the peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 937–941 (1952).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. D. Kahneman, J. Norman, “The time–intensity relation in visual perception as a function of observer’s task,” J. Exp. Psychol. 68, 215–220 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Blondel, J. Rey, “The perception of lights of short duration at their range limits,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 7, 658–662 (1912).
  29. J. Schmidt-Clausen, “The influence of the angular size, adaptation luminance, pulse shape and light colour on the Blondel–Rey constant a,” in The Perception and Application of Flashing Lights (Hilger, London, 1971), pp. 95–112.
  30. W. S. Verplanck, G. H. Collier, J. W. Cotton, “Nonindependence of successive responses in measurements of the visual threshold,” J. Exp. Psychol. 44, 273–282 (1952).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. L. Zacks, “Temporal summation phenomena at threshold: their relation to visual mechanisms,” Science 170, 197–199 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. H. F. Talbot, “Experiments on light,” Philos. Mag. 5, 321–334 (1843); J. Plateau, “Sur un principe de photométrie,” Bull. Acad. R. Sci. Bell-Let. (Bruxelles) 2, 52–59 (1835).
  33. H. de Lange Dzn, “Experiments on flicker and some calculations on an electrical analogue of the foveal systems,” Physica (The Hague) 18, 935–950 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. A. J. Roufs, “Dynamic properties of vision. II. Theoretical relationships between flicker and flash thresholds,” Vision Res. 12, 279–292 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. D. H. Kelly, R. E. Savoie, “Theory of flicker and transient responses. III. An essential nonlinearity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1481–1490 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. J. D. Conner, “The temporal properties of rod vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 332, 139–155 (1982).
  40. R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “LEDs: convenient, inexpensive sources for visual experimentation,” Vision Res. 22, 435–440 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal illuminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. The linear relations were calculated with a least-squares fit; extreme points on the straight-line ends, which show significant deviations with respect to the standard deviation, were omitted, after which a new fit was calculated.
  43. S. Hecht, C. D. Verrijp, “Intermittent stimulation by light. III. The relation between intensity and critical fusion frequency for different retinal locations,” J. Gen. Physiol. 17, 251–265 (1933).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. E. Hartmann, B. Lackenmayr, H. Brettel, “The peripheral critical flicker frequency,” Vision Res. 19, 1019–1023 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. M. L. Kietzman, “Two-pulse measures of temporal resolution as a function of stimulus energy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 809–813 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. A. M. M. Lelkens, P. Zuidema, “Increment thresholds with various low background intensities at different locations in the peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1372–1378 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in the human retina during scotopic vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 881–894 (1965).

1983

P. Zuidema, J. J. Koenderink, M. A. Bouman, “A mechanistic approach to threshold vision,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-13, 923–934 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Huijs, J. J. Koenderink, “Optimum flux-detection in the absence of a priori knowledge about the signal,” Biol. Cybern. 48, 61–68 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. M. M. Lelkens, P. Zuidema, “Increment thresholds with various low background intensities at different locations in the peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1372–1378 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

E. Hita, J. Romero, L. Jimenez del Barco, R. Martinez, “Temporal aspects of color discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 578–582 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Conner, “The temporal properties of rod vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 332, 139–155 (1982).

R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “LEDs: convenient, inexpensive sources for visual experimentation,” Vision Res. 22, 435–440 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal illuminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

F. S. Frome, D. I. A. McLeod, S. L. Buck, D. R. Williams, “Large loss of visual sensitivity to flashed peripheral targets,” Vision Res. 21, 1323–1328 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zuidema, H. Verschuure, M. A. Bouman, J. J. Koenderink, “Spatial and temporal summation in the human dark-adapted retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1472–1480 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

C. Enroth-Cugell, T. H. Harding, “Summation of rod signals within the receptive field centre of rat retinal ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. (London) 298, 235–250 (1980).

1979

E. Hartmann, B. Lackenmayr, H. Brettel, “The peripheral critical flicker frequency,” Vision Res. 19, 1019–1023 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

J. J. Koenderink, A. J. van Doorn, “Detectability of power fluctuations of temporal visual noise,” Vision Res. 18, 191–195 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Kelly, R. E. Savoie, “Theory of flicker and transient responses. III. An essential nonlinearity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1481–1490 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

M. H. Foerster, W. A. van de Grind, O.-J. Gruesser, “The response of cat horizontal cells to flicker stimuli of different area, intensity and frequency,” Exp. Brain Res. 29, 367–385 (1977).
[PubMed]

W. Singer, J. Zihl, E. Pöppel, “Subcortical control of visual thresholds in humans: evidence for modality specific and retinotopically organized mechanisms of selective attention,” Exp. Brain Res. 29, 173–190 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Martinez, J. F. Sturr, N. L. Schmalback, “The luminance difference threshold as a contrast threshold: evidence for inhibitory interactions in spatial summation,” Vision Res. 17, 687–689 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. D. Baker, F. G. Bargoot, “Effect of stimulus presentation rate upon visual threshold,” Vision Res. 17, 379–383 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. W. Scholtes, M. A. Bouman, “Psychophysical experiments on spatial summation at threshold level of the human peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 17, 867–873 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

1973

R. A. Smith, “Luminance-dependent changes in mesopic visual contrast sensitivity,” J. Physiol. (London) 230, 115–135 (1973).

1972

J. A. J. Roufs, “Dynamic properties of vision. II. Theoretical relationships between flicker and flash thresholds,” Vision Res. 12, 279–292 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. G. Owen, “Spatiotemporal integration in the human peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 12, 1011–1026 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970

W. R. Levick, J. L. Zacks, “Responses of cat retinal ganglion cells to brief flashes of light,” J. Physiol. (London) 206, 677–700 (1970).

J. L. Zacks, “Temporal summation phenomena at threshold: their relation to visual mechanisms,” Science 170, 197–199 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968

1967

1966

1965

G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in the human retina during scotopic vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 881–894 (1965).

V. D. Glezer, “The receptive fields of the retina,” Vision Res. 5, 497–525 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964

D. Kahneman, J. Norman, “The time–intensity relation in visual perception as a function of observer’s task,” J. Exp. Psychol. 68, 215–220 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963

P. E. Hallett, “Spatial summation,” Vision Res. 3, 9–24 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1958

H. B. Barlow, “Temporal and spatial summation in human vision at different background intensities,” J. Physiol. (London) 141, 337–350 (1958).

1954

1953

1952

E. Davy, “The intensity–time relation for multiple flashes of light in the peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 937–941 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Verplanck, G. H. Collier, J. W. Cotton, “Nonindependence of successive responses in measurements of the visual threshold,” J. Exp. Psychol. 44, 273–282 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. de Lange Dzn, “Experiments on flicker and some calculations on an electrical analogue of the foveal systems,” Physica (The Hague) 18, 935–950 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1947

1944

H. A. van der Velden, “Over het aantal lichtquanta dat nodig is voor een lichtprikkel bij het menselijk oog,” Physica (The Hague) XI, 179–189 (1944).
[CrossRef]

1933

S. Hecht, C. D. Verrijp, “Intermittent stimulation by light. III. The relation between intensity and critical fusion frequency for different retinal locations,” J. Gen. Physiol. 17, 251–265 (1933).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1912

A. Blondel, J. Rey, “The perception of lights of short duration at their range limits,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 7, 658–662 (1912).

1843

H. F. Talbot, “Experiments on light,” Philos. Mag. 5, 321–334 (1843); J. Plateau, “Sur un principe de photométrie,” Bull. Acad. R. Sci. Bell-Let. (Bruxelles) 2, 52–59 (1835).

Allen, T. M.

D. H. Williams, T. M. Allen, “Absolute thresholds as a function of pulse length and null period,” in The Perception and Application of Flashing Lights (Hilger, London, 1971), pp. 43–54.

Anderson, D. A.

Baker, H. D.

H. D. Baker, F. G. Bargoot, “Effect of stimulus presentation rate upon visual threshold,” Vision Res. 17, 379–383 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bargoot, F. G.

H. D. Baker, F. G. Bargoot, “Effect of stimulus presentation rate upon visual threshold,” Vision Res. 17, 379–383 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, “Temporal and spatial summation in human vision at different background intensities,” J. Physiol. (London) 141, 337–350 (1958).

Baumgardt, E.

E. Baumgardt, “Threshold quantal problems,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Vol. VII/4, pp. 29–55.
[CrossRef]

Blondel, A.

A. Blondel, J. Rey, “The perception of lights of short duration at their range limits,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 7, 658–662 (1912).

Bouman, M. A.

P. Zuidema, J. J. Koenderink, M. A. Bouman, “A mechanistic approach to threshold vision,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-13, 923–934 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Zuidema, H. Verschuure, M. A. Bouman, J. J. Koenderink, “Spatial and temporal summation in the human dark-adapted retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1472–1480 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. W. Scholtes, M. A. Bouman, “Psychophysical experiments on spatial summation at threshold level of the human peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 17, 867–873 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van de Brink, M. A. Bouman, “Variation of integrative action in the retinal system: an adaptational phenomenon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 616–620 (1954).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouman, “Visual thresholds for line-shaped targets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 209–211 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Bouman, H. A. van der Velden, “The two-quanta explanation of the dependence of the threshold values and visual acuity on the visual angle and the time of obervation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 908–919 (1947).
[PubMed]

M. A. Bouman, W. A. van de Grind, P. Zuidema, “Quantum fluctuations in vision,” in Progress in Optics 22, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland Physics, Amsterdam) (to be published, 1985).
[CrossRef]

Brettel, H.

E. Hartmann, B. Lackenmayr, H. Brettel, “The peripheral critical flicker frequency,” Vision Res. 19, 1019–1023 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buck, S. L.

F. S. Frome, D. I. A. McLeod, S. L. Buck, D. R. Williams, “Large loss of visual sensitivity to flashed peripheral targets,” Vision Res. 21, 1323–1328 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collier, G. H.

W. S. Verplanck, G. H. Collier, J. W. Cotton, “Nonindependence of successive responses in measurements of the visual threshold,” J. Exp. Psychol. 44, 273–282 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conner, J. D.

J. D. Conner, “The temporal properties of rod vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 332, 139–155 (1982).

Cotton, J. W.

W. S. Verplanck, G. H. Collier, J. W. Cotton, “Nonindependence of successive responses in measurements of the visual threshold,” J. Exp. Psychol. 44, 273–282 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davy, E.

de Lange Dzn, H.

H. de Lange Dzn, “Experiments on flicker and some calculations on an electrical analogue of the foveal systems,” Physica (The Hague) 18, 935–950 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Enroth-Cugell, C.

C. Enroth-Cugell, T. H. Harding, “Summation of rod signals within the receptive field centre of rat retinal ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. (London) 298, 235–250 (1980).

Foerster, M. H.

M. H. Foerster, W. A. van de Grind, O.-J. Gruesser, “The response of cat horizontal cells to flicker stimuli of different area, intensity and frequency,” Exp. Brain Res. 29, 367–385 (1977).
[PubMed]

Frome, F. S.

F. S. Frome, D. I. A. McLeod, S. L. Buck, D. R. Williams, “Large loss of visual sensitivity to flashed peripheral targets,” Vision Res. 21, 1323–1328 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frumkes, T. E.

R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “LEDs: convenient, inexpensive sources for visual experimentation,” Vision Res. 22, 435–440 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal illuminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glezer, V. D.

V. D. Glezer, “The receptive fields of the retina,” Vision Res. 5, 497–525 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruesser, O.-J.

M. H. Foerster, W. A. van de Grind, O.-J. Gruesser, “The response of cat horizontal cells to flicker stimuli of different area, intensity and frequency,” Exp. Brain Res. 29, 367–385 (1977).
[PubMed]

Hallett, P. E.

P. E. Hallett, “Spatial summation,” Vision Res. 3, 9–24 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Harding, T. H.

C. Enroth-Cugell, T. H. Harding, “Summation of rod signals within the receptive field centre of rat retinal ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. (London) 298, 235–250 (1980).

Hartmann, E.

E. Hartmann, B. Lackenmayr, H. Brettel, “The peripheral critical flicker frequency,” Vision Res. 19, 1019–1023 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, C. D. Verrijp, “Intermittent stimulation by light. III. The relation between intensity and critical fusion frequency for different retinal locations,” J. Gen. Physiol. 17, 251–265 (1933).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hita, E.

Huijs, C.

C. Huijs, J. J. Koenderink, “Optimum flux-detection in the absence of a priori knowledge about the signal,” Biol. Cybern. 48, 61–68 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Huntingon, J.

Jimenez del Barco, L.

Kahneman, D.

D. Kahneman, J. Norman, “The time–intensity relation in visual perception as a function of observer’s task,” J. Exp. Psychol. 68, 215–220 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, D. H.

Kietzman, M. L.

Koenderink, J. J.

P. Zuidema, J. J. Koenderink, M. A. Bouman, “A mechanistic approach to threshold vision,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-13, 923–934 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Huijs, J. J. Koenderink, “Optimum flux-detection in the absence of a priori knowledge about the signal,” Biol. Cybern. 48, 61–68 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Zuidema, H. Verschuure, M. A. Bouman, J. J. Koenderink, “Spatial and temporal summation in the human dark-adapted retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1472–1480 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Koenderink, A. J. van Doorn, “Detectability of power fluctuations of temporal visual noise,” Vision Res. 18, 191–195 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lackenmayr, B.

E. Hartmann, B. Lackenmayr, H. Brettel, “The peripheral critical flicker frequency,” Vision Res. 19, 1019–1023 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lelkens, A. M. M.

Levick, W. R.

W. R. Levick, J. L. Zacks, “Responses of cat retinal ganglion cells to brief flashes of light,” J. Physiol. (London) 206, 677–700 (1970).

Martinez, J. M.

J. M. Martinez, J. F. Sturr, N. L. Schmalback, “The luminance difference threshold as a contrast threshold: evidence for inhibitory interactions in spatial summation,” Vision Res. 17, 687–689 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez, R.

McLeod, D. I. A.

F. S. Frome, D. I. A. McLeod, S. L. Buck, D. R. Williams, “Large loss of visual sensitivity to flashed peripheral targets,” Vision Res. 21, 1323–1328 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molesini, G.

Norman, J.

D. Kahneman, J. Norman, “The time–intensity relation in visual perception as a function of observer’s task,” J. Exp. Psychol. 68, 215–220 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Nygaard, R. W.

R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal illuminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “LEDs: convenient, inexpensive sources for visual experimentation,” Vision Res. 22, 435–440 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owen, W. G.

W. G. Owen, “Spatiotemporal integration in the human peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 12, 1011–1026 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pöppel, E.

W. Singer, J. Zihl, E. Pöppel, “Subcortical control of visual thresholds in humans: evidence for modality specific and retinotopically organized mechanisms of selective attention,” Exp. Brain Res. 29, 173–190 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rey, J.

A. Blondel, J. Rey, “The perception of lights of short duration at their range limits,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 7, 658–662 (1912).

Romero, J.

Ronchi, L.

Roufs, J. A. J.

J. A. J. Roufs, “Dynamic properties of vision. II. Theoretical relationships between flicker and flash thresholds,” Vision Res. 12, 279–292 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savoie, R. E.

Schmalback, N. L.

J. M. Martinez, J. F. Sturr, N. L. Schmalback, “The luminance difference threshold as a contrast threshold: evidence for inhibitory interactions in spatial summation,” Vision Res. 17, 687–689 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Clausen, J.

J. Schmidt-Clausen, “The influence of the angular size, adaptation luminance, pulse shape and light colour on the Blondel–Rey constant a,” in The Perception and Application of Flashing Lights (Hilger, London, 1971), pp. 95–112.

Scholtes, A. M. W.

A. M. W. Scholtes, M. A. Bouman, “Psychophysical experiments on spatial summation at threshold level of the human peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 17, 867–873 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonson, E.

Singer, W.

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Sturr, J. F.

J. M. Martinez, J. F. Sturr, N. L. Schmalback, “The luminance difference threshold as a contrast threshold: evidence for inhibitory interactions in spatial summation,” Vision Res. 17, 687–689 (1977).
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van de Brink, G.

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M. A. Bouman, H. A. van der Velden, “The two-quanta explanation of the dependence of the threshold values and visual acuity on the visual angle and the time of obervation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 908–919 (1947).
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J. L. Zacks, “Temporal summation phenomena at threshold: their relation to visual mechanisms,” Science 170, 197–199 (1970).
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W. Singer, J. Zihl, E. Pöppel, “Subcortical control of visual thresholds in humans: evidence for modality specific and retinotopically organized mechanisms of selective attention,” Exp. Brain Res. 29, 173–190 (1977).
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P. Zuidema, H. Verschuure, M. A. Bouman, J. J. Koenderink, “Spatial and temporal summation in the human dark-adapted retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1472–1480 (1981).
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S. Hecht, C. D. Verrijp, “Intermittent stimulation by light. III. The relation between intensity and critical fusion frequency for different retinal locations,” J. Gen. Physiol. 17, 251–265 (1933).
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E. Davy, “The intensity–time relation for multiple flashes of light in the peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 937–941 (1952).
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E. Hita, J. Romero, L. Jimenez del Barco, R. Martinez, “Temporal aspects of color discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 578–582 (1982).
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A. M. M. Lelkens, P. Zuidema, “Increment thresholds with various low background intensities at different locations in the peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1372–1378 (1983).
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[PubMed]

J. Physiol. (London)

G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in the human retina during scotopic vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 881–894 (1965).

R. A. Smith, “Luminance-dependent changes in mesopic visual contrast sensitivity,” J. Physiol. (London) 230, 115–135 (1973).

J. D. Conner, “The temporal properties of rod vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 332, 139–155 (1982).

W. R. Levick, J. L. Zacks, “Responses of cat retinal ganglion cells to brief flashes of light,” J. Physiol. (London) 206, 677–700 (1970).

C. Enroth-Cugell, T. H. Harding, “Summation of rod signals within the receptive field centre of rat retinal ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. (London) 298, 235–250 (1980).

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Philos. Mag.

H. F. Talbot, “Experiments on light,” Philos. Mag. 5, 321–334 (1843); J. Plateau, “Sur un principe de photométrie,” Bull. Acad. R. Sci. Bell-Let. (Bruxelles) 2, 52–59 (1835).

Physica (The Hague)

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J. M. Martinez, J. F. Sturr, N. L. Schmalback, “The luminance difference threshold as a contrast threshold: evidence for inhibitory interactions in spatial summation,” Vision Res. 17, 687–689 (1977).
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H. D. Baker, F. G. Bargoot, “Effect of stimulus presentation rate upon visual threshold,” Vision Res. 17, 379–383 (1977).
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J. A. J. Roufs, “Dynamic properties of vision. II. Theoretical relationships between flicker and flash thresholds,” Vision Res. 12, 279–292 (1972).
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J. J. Koenderink, A. J. van Doorn, “Detectability of power fluctuations of temporal visual noise,” Vision Res. 18, 191–195 (1978).
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Other

The linear relations were calculated with a least-squares fit; extreme points on the straight-line ends, which show significant deviations with respect to the standard deviation, were omitted, after which a new fit was calculated.

E. Baumgardt, “Threshold quantal problems,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Vol. VII/4, pp. 29–55.
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouman, W. A. van de Grind, P. Zuidema, “Quantum fluctuations in vision,” in Progress in Optics 22, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland Physics, Amsterdam) (to be published, 1985).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Williams, T. M. Allen, “Absolute thresholds as a function of pulse length and null period,” in The Perception and Application of Flashing Lights (Hilger, London, 1971), pp. 43–54.

J. Schmidt-Clausen, “The influence of the angular size, adaptation luminance, pulse shape and light colour on the Blondel–Rey constant a,” in The Perception and Application of Flashing Lights (Hilger, London, 1971), pp. 95–112.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. LED 1, stimulus; LED 2, fixation; D, diaphragm; GW, neutral-density wedge; NF, neutral filter; L, L1, L2, lenses; SD, stimulus disk; R, ring of diaphragms. Registration stands for a recorder, which records the threshold settings of the subject. Inset: time course of the stimulus. I, intensity; t, time; P, period; TF, flash duration; TI, interflash interval.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Threshold energy of light detection in quanta as a function of the period (in milliseconds) with the diameter of the stimulus as a parameter for different values of the flash duration. Subjects: (a) PZ, eccentricity 7 deg; (b) WR, 7 deg; (c) PZ, 40 deg; (d) WR, 40 deg. The dashed lines indicate slopes of 0 and 1, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Estimated summation time (in milliseconds) as a function of the stimulus diameter (in minutes of arc). Summation time obtained from threshold energy versus period for ○, subject PZ, 7-deg eccentricity; □, for subject WR, 7-deg eccentricity; △, subject PZ, 40-deg eccentricity; ◇, subject WR, 40-deg eccentricity. Filled symbols correspond to the estimates for the same set of parameters obtained from the relation between threshold energy versus stimulus duration at 4-sec interval.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Threshold energy of light detection in quanta as a function of the flash duration (in milliseconds) for different values of the stimulus diameter and 4-sec interval. Eccentricity 7 deg. Subjects: left, PZ; right, WR. The dashed lines indicate slopes of 0 and 1, respectively. (b) Same as (a) but for 40-deg eccentricity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Threshold intensity for flicker detection (in quanta per square degree per second) as a function of interval (in milliseconds) for different values of the flash duration and the stimulus diameter. Subjects: (a) PZ, 7-deg eccentricity; (b) WR, 7-deg eccentricity; (c) PZ, 40-deg eccentricity; (d) WR, 40-deg eccentricity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Threshold energy for flicker detection in quanta as a function of the stimulus diameter (in minutes of arc) for values of the interval (in milliseconds) as indicated beside the curves and different values of the flash duration. Subjects: (a) PZ, 7-deg eccentricity; (b) WR, 7-deg eccentricity; (c) PZ, 40-deg eccentricity; (d) WR, 40-deg eccentricity.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Estimate of Sample Time (in msec) as a Function of Stimulus Diameter (in min of arc) Obtained from the Threshold Energy (E) versus Period (P) or from the Threshold Energy versus Flash Duration (TF) for Different Subjects and Eccentricities

Metrics