Abstract

We provide evidence that the fading of stabilized images and the formation of negative afterimages result from the same local adaptive process. We measure thresholds for stabilized, static, sine-wave gratings and for stabilized flickering sine-wave gratings. We then measure the contrasts of the negative afterimages formed by the threshold-contrast stabilized, static stimuli. (The threshold-contrast flickering gratings produce no visible afterimages.) We find that the difference between the thresholds for stabilized, static gratings and the thresholds for slowly flickering gratings is equal to the contrasts of the afterimages produced by the stabilized, static gratings. We conclude that the fading of these stabilized gratings can be accounted for completely by local adaptation (the process underlying the formation of negative afterimages).

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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1982 (3)

1980 (2)

1978 (3)

1977 (2)

V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, “Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation,” Vision Res. 17, 853–860, (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kelly, “Visual contrast sensitivity,” Opt. Acta 24, 107–129 (1977).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

1969 (1)

C. Blakemore, F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. 203, 237–260 (1969).
[PubMed]

1968 (1)

A. Pantle, R. Sekuler, “Size-detecting mechanisms in human vision,” Science 162, 1146–1148 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1964 (2)

H. B. Barlow, “Slippage of contact lenses and other artifacts in relation to fading and regeneration of supposedly stable retinal images,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 15, 36–51 (1964).

W. D. Wright, “A new look at 37 years of research,” Vision Res. 4, 63–74 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

T. N. Cornsweet, “The staircase method in psychophysics,” Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485–491 (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

R. M. Pritchard, “Stabilized images on the retina,” Sci. Am. 72,(1961).

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, “Slippage of contact lenses and other artifacts in relation to fading and regeneration of supposedly stable retinal images,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 15, 36–51 (1964).

Blakemore, C.

C. Blakemore, F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. 203, 237–260 (1969).
[PubMed]

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway (Arnold, London, 1960), p. 160.

Burbeck, C. A.

Campbell, F. W.

C. Blakemore, F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. 203, 237–260 (1969).
[PubMed]

Clark, M. R.

Cornsweet, T. N.

T. N. Cornsweet, “The staircase method in psychophysics,” Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485–491 (1962).
[Crossref]

Crane, H. D.

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn, Eye-Movements and Visual Perception (Clarendon, Oxford, 1973).

Jones, R. M.

Kelly, D. H.

Koenderink, J. J.

Laurinen, P.

V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, “Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation,” Vision Res. 17, 853–860, (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pantle, A.

A. Pantle, R. Sekuler, “Size-detecting mechanisms in human vision,” Science 162, 1146–1148 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pritchard, R. M.

R. M. Pritchard, “Stabilized images on the retina,” Sci. Am. 72,(1961).

Sekuler, R.

A. Pantle, R. Sekuler, “Size-detecting mechanisms in human vision,” Science 162, 1146–1148 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steele, C. M.

Tulunay-Keesey, U.

Virsu, V.

V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, “Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation,” Vision Res. 17, 853–860, (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wade, N. J.

N. J. Wade, “Why do patterned afterimages fluctuate in visibility?” Psychol. Bull. 85, 338–352 (1978).
[Crossref]

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, “A new look at 37 years of research,” Vision Res. 4, 63–74 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yarbus, A. L.

A. L. Yarbus, Eye Movements and Vision (Plenum, New York, 1967).

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

T. N. Cornsweet, “The staircase method in psychophysics,” Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485–491 (1962).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Physiol. (1)

C. Blakemore, F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. 203, 237–260 (1969).
[PubMed]

Opt. Acta (1)

D. H. Kelly, “Visual contrast sensitivity,” Opt. Acta 24, 107–129 (1977).
[Crossref]

Psychol. Bull. (1)

N. J. Wade, “Why do patterned afterimages fluctuate in visibility?” Psychol. Bull. 85, 338–352 (1978).
[Crossref]

Q. J. Exp. Psychol. (1)

H. B. Barlow, “Slippage of contact lenses and other artifacts in relation to fading and regeneration of supposedly stable retinal images,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 15, 36–51 (1964).

Sci. Am. (1)

R. M. Pritchard, “Stabilized images on the retina,” Sci. Am. 72,(1961).

Science (1)

A. Pantle, R. Sekuler, “Size-detecting mechanisms in human vision,” Science 162, 1146–1148 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (2)

W. D. Wright, “A new look at 37 years of research,” Vision Res. 4, 63–74 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, “Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation,” Vision Res. 17, 853–860, (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway (Arnold, London, 1960), p. 160.

A. L. Yarbus, Eye Movements and Vision (Plenum, New York, 1967).

R. W. Ditchburn, Eye-Movements and Visual Perception (Clarendon, Oxford, 1973).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Adapting grating, (b) matching grating, (c) representation of subject’s percept during matching phase. The matching grating appeared in the left hemifield, and the negative afterimage of the adapting grating appeared in the right hemifield.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Contrast thresholds for stabilized, static gratings (●) and for stabilized gratings flickering at 0.5 Hz (○). (a) Observer DHK, (b) observer CAB.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contrasts of afterimages formed by threshold-contrast, stabilized gratings, measured by matching procedure. (a) Observer DHK, (b) observer CAB.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of afterimage contrasts from Fig. 3 (○) with the difference between thresholds for stabilized, static and stabilized, flickering (0.5 Hz) gratings (△). (a) Observer DHK, (b) observer CAB.

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