Abstract

We present a spectral vision system that can be used to measure a color spectrum and two-dimensional spectral images. First, a low-dimensional color filter set was designed by an unsupervised neural network. Then a compact optical setup for the spectral synthesizer was constructed to synthesize the light that corresponds to the spectral characteristics of the color filter. In the optical setup a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator was used to implement color filters. A sample was illuminated by the synthesized lights, and the intensity images that correspond to the inner products between the color filter and the sample were detected by a CCD camera. From the detected inner products the sample’s color spectra were reconstructed by use of a pseudoinverse matrix. Experimental results of measuring a single color spectrum and spectral images are presented.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1998

1996

1995

N. Hayasaka, S. Toyooka, T. Jaaskelainen, “Iterative feedback method to make a spatial filter on a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for 2D spectroscopic pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 119, 643–651 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

S. M. Ramasamy, V. Venkatasubrmanian, S. Anbazhagan, “Reflectance spectra of minerals and their discrimination using Thematic Mapper, IRS and SPOT multispectral data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 14, 2935–2970 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. S. Drew, B. V. Funt, “Natural metamers,” CVGIP: Image Understand. 56, 139–151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Jaaskelainen, S. Toyooka, S. Izawa, H. Kadono, “Color classification by vector subspace method and its optical implementation using liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 89, 23–29 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Usui, S. Nakauchi, M. Nakano, “Reconstruction of Munsell color space by a five-layer neural network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 516–520 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

1989

1988

G. J. Klinker, S. A. Shafer, T. Kanade, “The measurement of highlights in color images,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 2, 7–25 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

Anbazhagan, S.

S. M. Ramasamy, V. Venkatasubrmanian, S. Anbazhagan, “Reflectance spectra of minerals and their discrimination using Thematic Mapper, IRS and SPOT multispectral data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 14, 2935–2970 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baronti, S.

Boynton, R. M.

P. K. Kaiser, R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).

Brainard, D. H.

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Linear models for digital cameras,” in Proceedings of IS&T’s 50th Annual Conference (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 369–372.

Casini, A.

Dall’Ava, A.

T. Hyvarinen, E. Herrala, A. Dall’Ava, “Direct sight imaging spectrograph: a unique add-on component brings spectral imaging to industrial applications,” in Proceedings of IS&T/SPIE Symposium on Electronic Imaging (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1998), Vol. 3302-21, pp. 165–175.

Drew, M. S.

M. S. Drew, B. V. Funt, “Natural metamers,” CVGIP: Image Understand. 56, 139–151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, J. E.

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Linear models for digital cameras,” in Proceedings of IS&T’s 50th Annual Conference (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 369–372.

Funt, B. V.

M. S. Drew, B. V. Funt, “Natural metamers,” CVGIP: Image Understand. 56, 139–151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Grossberg, S.

S. Grossberg, Studies of the Mind and Brain (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1982).

Hallikainen, J.

J. P. S. Parkkinen, J. Hallikainen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Characteristic spectra of Munsell colors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 318–322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Hallikainen, J. P. S. Parkkinen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Color image processing with AOTF,” in Proceedings of the 6th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis, M. Pietikäinen, J. Röning, eds. (Pattern Recognition Society of Finland, Oulu, Finland, 1989), pp. 294–300.

Haneishi, H.

H. Haneishi, T. Hasegawa, N. Tsumura, Y. Miyake, “Design of color filters for recording artworks,” in Proceedings of IS&T’s 50th Annual Conference (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 369–372.

Hasegawa, T.

H. Haneishi, T. Hasegawa, N. Tsumura, Y. Miyake, “Design of color filters for recording artworks,” in Proceedings of IS&T’s 50th Annual Conference (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 369–372.

Hauta-Kasari, M.

M. Hauta-Kasari, W. Wang, S. Toyooka, J. Parkkinen, R. Lenz, “Unsupervised filtering of Munsell spectra,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Conference on Computer Vision, ACCV’98, Hong Kong, January 8–10, Vol. 1351 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, R. Chin, T.-C. Pong eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998), pp. 248–255.

Hayasaka, N.

N. Hayasaka, S. Toyooka, T. Jaaskelainen, “Iterative feedback method to make a spatial filter on a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for 2D spectroscopic pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 119, 643–651 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haykin, S.

S. Haykin, Neural Networks (Macmillan, New York, 1994).

Herrala, E.

T. Hyvarinen, E. Herrala, A. Dall’Ava, “Direct sight imaging spectrograph: a unique add-on component brings spectral imaging to industrial applications,” in Proceedings of IS&T/SPIE Symposium on Electronic Imaging (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1998), Vol. 3302-21, pp. 165–175.

Hiltunen, J.

Hyvarinen, T.

T. Hyvarinen, E. Herrala, A. Dall’Ava, “Direct sight imaging spectrograph: a unique add-on component brings spectral imaging to industrial applications,” in Proceedings of IS&T/SPIE Symposium on Electronic Imaging (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1998), Vol. 3302-21, pp. 165–175.

Itoh, K.

K. Itoh, “Interferometric multispectral imaging,” in Progress in Optics XXXV, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 145–196.

Izawa, S.

T. Jaaskelainen, S. Toyooka, S. Izawa, H. Kadono, “Color classification by vector subspace method and its optical implementation using liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 89, 23–29 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jaaskelainen, T.

R. Lenz, M. Österberg, J. Hiltunen, T. Jaaskelainen, J. Parkkinen, “Unsupervised filtering of color spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1315–1324 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Hayasaka, S. Toyooka, T. Jaaskelainen, “Iterative feedback method to make a spatial filter on a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for 2D spectroscopic pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 119, 643–651 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Jaaskelainen, S. Toyooka, S. Izawa, H. Kadono, “Color classification by vector subspace method and its optical implementation using liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 89, 23–29 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Jaaskelainen, J. Parkkinen, S. Toyooka, “Vector-subspace model for color representation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 725–730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. P. S. Parkkinen, J. Hallikainen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Characteristic spectra of Munsell colors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 318–322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Hallikainen, J. P. S. Parkkinen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Color image processing with AOTF,” in Proceedings of the 6th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis, M. Pietikäinen, J. Röning, eds. (Pattern Recognition Society of Finland, Oulu, Finland, 1989), pp. 294–300.

Kadono, H.

T. Jaaskelainen, S. Toyooka, S. Izawa, H. Kadono, “Color classification by vector subspace method and its optical implementation using liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 89, 23–29 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, P. K.

P. K. Kaiser, R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).

Kanade, T.

G. J. Klinker, S. A. Shafer, T. Kanade, “The measurement of highlights in color images,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 2, 7–25 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Klinker, G. J.

G. J. Klinker, S. A. Shafer, T. Kanade, “The measurement of highlights in color images,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 2, 7–25 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kohonen, T.

T. Kohonen, The Self-Organizing Maps (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).

Lenz, R.

R. Lenz, M. Österberg, J. Hiltunen, T. Jaaskelainen, J. Parkkinen, “Unsupervised filtering of color spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1315–1324 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Hauta-Kasari, W. Wang, S. Toyooka, J. Parkkinen, R. Lenz, “Unsupervised filtering of Munsell spectra,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Conference on Computer Vision, ACCV’98, Hong Kong, January 8–10, Vol. 1351 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, R. Chin, T.-C. Pong eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998), pp. 248–255.

Lotti, F.

Minami, S.

Miyake, Y.

H. Haneishi, T. Hasegawa, N. Tsumura, Y. Miyake, “Design of color filters for recording artworks,” in Proceedings of IS&T’s 50th Annual Conference (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 369–372.

Nakano, M.

Nakauchi, S.

Oja, E.

E. Oja, Subspace Methods of Pattern Recognition (Research Studies Press, Letchworth, UK, 1983).

Österberg, M.

Parkkinen, J.

R. Lenz, M. Österberg, J. Hiltunen, T. Jaaskelainen, J. Parkkinen, “Unsupervised filtering of color spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1315–1324 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Jaaskelainen, J. Parkkinen, S. Toyooka, “Vector-subspace model for color representation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 725–730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Hauta-Kasari, W. Wang, S. Toyooka, J. Parkkinen, R. Lenz, “Unsupervised filtering of Munsell spectra,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Conference on Computer Vision, ACCV’98, Hong Kong, January 8–10, Vol. 1351 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, R. Chin, T.-C. Pong eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998), pp. 248–255.

Parkkinen, J. P. S.

J. P. S. Parkkinen, J. Hallikainen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Characteristic spectra of Munsell colors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 318–322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Hallikainen, J. P. S. Parkkinen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Color image processing with AOTF,” in Proceedings of the 6th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis, M. Pietikäinen, J. Röning, eds. (Pattern Recognition Society of Finland, Oulu, Finland, 1989), pp. 294–300.

Porcinai, S.

Ramasamy, S. M.

S. M. Ramasamy, V. Venkatasubrmanian, S. Anbazhagan, “Reflectance spectra of minerals and their discrimination using Thematic Mapper, IRS and SPOT multispectral data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 14, 2935–2970 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

Shafer, S. A.

G. J. Klinker, S. A. Shafer, T. Kanade, “The measurement of highlights in color images,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 2, 7–25 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Tietz, J. D.

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Linear models for digital cameras,” in Proceedings of IS&T’s 50th Annual Conference (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 369–372.

Tominaga, S.

Toyooka, S.

N. Hayasaka, S. Toyooka, T. Jaaskelainen, “Iterative feedback method to make a spatial filter on a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for 2D spectroscopic pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 119, 643–651 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Jaaskelainen, S. Toyooka, S. Izawa, H. Kadono, “Color classification by vector subspace method and its optical implementation using liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 89, 23–29 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Jaaskelainen, J. Parkkinen, S. Toyooka, “Vector-subspace model for color representation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 725–730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Hauta-Kasari, W. Wang, S. Toyooka, J. Parkkinen, R. Lenz, “Unsupervised filtering of Munsell spectra,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Conference on Computer Vision, ACCV’98, Hong Kong, January 8–10, Vol. 1351 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, R. Chin, T.-C. Pong eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998), pp. 248–255.

Tsumura, N.

H. Haneishi, T. Hasegawa, N. Tsumura, Y. Miyake, “Design of color filters for recording artworks,” in Proceedings of IS&T’s 50th Annual Conference (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 369–372.

Usui, S.

Venkatasubrmanian, V.

S. M. Ramasamy, V. Venkatasubrmanian, S. Anbazhagan, “Reflectance spectra of minerals and their discrimination using Thematic Mapper, IRS and SPOT multispectral data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 14, 2935–2970 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vora, P. L.

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Linear models for digital cameras,” in Proceedings of IS&T’s 50th Annual Conference (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 369–372.

Wang, W.

M. Hauta-Kasari, W. Wang, S. Toyooka, J. Parkkinen, R. Lenz, “Unsupervised filtering of Munsell spectra,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Conference on Computer Vision, ACCV’98, Hong Kong, January 8–10, Vol. 1351 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, R. Chin, T.-C. Pong eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998), pp. 248–255.

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Appl. Opt.

CVGIP: Image Understand.

M. S. Drew, B. V. Funt, “Natural metamers,” CVGIP: Image Understand. 56, 139–151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Comput. Vision

G. J. Klinker, S. A. Shafer, T. Kanade, “The measurement of highlights in color images,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 2, 7–25 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens.

S. M. Ramasamy, V. Venkatasubrmanian, S. Anbazhagan, “Reflectance spectra of minerals and their discrimination using Thematic Mapper, IRS and SPOT multispectral data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 14, 2935–2970 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

T. Jaaskelainen, S. Toyooka, S. Izawa, H. Kadono, “Color classification by vector subspace method and its optical implementation using liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 89, 23–29 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Hayasaka, S. Toyooka, T. Jaaskelainen, “Iterative feedback method to make a spatial filter on a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for 2D spectroscopic pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 119, 643–651 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Hauta-Kasari, W. Wang, S. Toyooka, J. Parkkinen, R. Lenz, “Unsupervised filtering of Munsell spectra,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Conference on Computer Vision, ACCV’98, Hong Kong, January 8–10, Vol. 1351 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, R. Chin, T.-C. Pong eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998), pp. 248–255.

E. Oja, Subspace Methods of Pattern Recognition (Research Studies Press, Letchworth, UK, 1983).

S. Grossberg, Studies of the Mind and Brain (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1982).

T. Kohonen, The Self-Organizing Maps (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).

S. Haykin, Neural Networks (Macmillan, New York, 1994).

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Linear models for digital cameras,” in Proceedings of IS&T’s 50th Annual Conference (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 369–372.

T. Hyvarinen, E. Herrala, A. Dall’Ava, “Direct sight imaging spectrograph: a unique add-on component brings spectral imaging to industrial applications,” in Proceedings of IS&T/SPIE Symposium on Electronic Imaging (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1998), Vol. 3302-21, pp. 165–175.

P. K. Kaiser, R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

H. Haneishi, T. Hasegawa, N. Tsumura, Y. Miyake, “Design of color filters for recording artworks,” in Proceedings of IS&T’s 50th Annual Conference (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 369–372.

Munsell Book of Color-Matte Finish Collection (Munsell Color, Baltimore, Md., 1976).

J. Hallikainen, J. P. S. Parkkinen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Color image processing with AOTF,” in Proceedings of the 6th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis, M. Pietikäinen, J. Röning, eds. (Pattern Recognition Society of Finland, Oulu, Finland, 1989), pp. 294–300.

K. Itoh, “Interferometric multispectral imaging,” in Progress in Optics XXXV, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 145–196.

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